Austrochilidae

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Austrochilidae
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Infraorder: Araneomorphae
Family: Austrochilidae
Zapfe, 1955[1]
Genera

See text.

Diversity
3 genera, 9 species
Distribution.austrochilidae.1.png

Austrochilidae is a small spider family with nine species in three genera.[2]

Two genera (Austrochilus, Thaida) are endemic to the Andean forests of central and southern Chile and adjacent Argentina, the third is endemic to Tasmania.[3] The monophyly of the family and the relationships among the genera are uncertain as of May 2017.

Taxonomy[edit]

As of May 2017, three genera are placed in the family Austrochilidae: Austrochilus and Thaida, found in Chile and Argentina, and Hickmania, found in Tasmania, Australia.[1] The taxonomic placement of these genera has varied. In 1968, Lehtinen synonymized Austrochilus and Thaida under the latter name, placing the genus in a family he called "Thaididae", Hickmania being placed in the separate family Hickmaniidae.[4] However, the family name "Thaididae" is preoccupied, being first used for a family of gastropods in 1887.[1] A single family was accepted by Forster et al. in 1987, under the name "Austrochilidae".[3] A large scale phylogenetic study in 2016 suggested that Hickmania is more closely related to the family Gradungulidae and the genus Archoleptoneta than to Austrochilus and Thaidu. Molecular phylogenetic studies agree in placing the three genera as basal members of the Araneomorphae, although the precise details and the family placement are not yet agreed.[5]

Phylogeny[edit]

One hypothesis for the phylogeny of the genera placed in the family is shown below (Austrochilidae genera in bold). The family shows a mixture of "primitive" and "advanced" features. The retention of four book lungs places the family at the base of the Araneomorphae, whereas some features of their silk production are regarded as derived.[5]

Araneomorphae

Hypochilidae + Filistatidae + Synspermiata






Hickmannia



Archoleptoneta




Gradungulidae






Leptoneta



Austrochilus + Thaidu




remaining Araneomorphae





Species[edit]

As of May 2017, the World Spider Catalog accepted the following genera and species.[1] The subfamily placement follows Forster et al.[3]

Austrochilinae Zapfe, 1955
Hickmaniinae Lehtinen, 1967 (as family Hickmaniidae)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Family Austrochilidae Zapfe,1955", World Spider Catalog, Natural History Museum Bern, retrieved 2017-05-11 
  2. ^ "Currently valid spider genera and species", World Spider Catalog, Natural History Museum Bern, retrieved 2017-05-11 
  3. ^ a b c Forster, R.R.; Platnick, N.I.; Gray, M.R. (1987). "A review of the spider superfamilies Hypochiloidea and Austrochiloidea (Araneae, Araneomorphae)" (PDF). American Museum of Natural History. 185 (1): 1–116. Retrieved 2017-05-11. 
  4. ^ Lehtinen, P.T. (1967). "Classification of the cribellate spiders and some allied families, with notes on the evolution of the suborder Araneomorpha". Annales Zoologici Fennici. 4: 199–468. 
  5. ^ a b Wheeler, Ward C.; Coddington, Jonathan A.; Crowley, Louise M.; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Goloboff, Pablo A.; Griswold, Charles E.; Hormiga, Gustavo; Prendini, Lorenzo; Ramírez, Martín J.; Sierwald, Petra; Almeida-Silva, Lina; Alvarez-Padilla, Fernando; Arnedo, Miquel A.; Benavides Silva, Ligia R.; Benjamin, Suresh P.; Bond, Jason E.; Grismado, Cristian J.; Hasan, Emile; Hedin, Marshal; Izquierdo, Matías A.; Labarque, Facundo M.; Ledford, Joel; Lopardo, Lara; Maddison, Wayne P.; Miller, Jeremy A.; Piacentini, Luis N.; Platnick, Norman I.; Polotow, Daniele; Silva-Dávila, Diana; Scharff, Nikolaj; Szűts, Tamás; Ubick, Darrell; Vink, Cor J.; Wood, Hannah M. & Zhang, Junxia (2016). "The spider tree of life: phylogeny of Araneae based on target-gene analyses from an extensive taxon sampling". Cladistics. doi:10.1111/cla.12182. 
  • Grismado, C. J., L. Lopardo & N. I. Platnick (2003). A new species of Austrochilus from Chile (Araneae, Austrochilidae, Austrochilinae). J. Arachnol. 31: 148-150. PDF (A. forsteri)