Austronesian personal pronouns

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This article describes the personal pronoun systems of various Austronesian languages.

Proto-languages[edit]

The Proto-Austronesian and Proto-Malayo-Polynesian personal pronouns below were reconstructed by Robert Blust.[1]

Proto-Austronesian and Proto-Malayo-Polynesian Pronouns
Type of Pronoun English Proto-Austronesian Proto-Malayo-Polynesian
1s. "I" *i-aku *i-aku
2s. "you" *i-(ka)Su *i-kahu
3s. "he/she/it" *si-ia *si-ia
1p. (inclusive) "we (and you)" *i-(k)ita *i-(k)ita
1p. (exclusive) "we (but not you)" *i-(k)ami *i-(k)ami
2p. "you all" *i-kamu *i-kamu, ihu
3p. "they" *si-ida *si-ida

In 2006, Malcolm Ross also proposed seven different pronominal categories for persons. The categories are listed below, with the Proto-Austronesian first person singular ("I") given as examples.[2]

  1. Neutral (e.g., PAN *i-aku)
  2. Nominative 1 (e.g., PAN *aku)
  3. Nominative 2 (e.g., PAN *=ku, *[S]aku)
  4. Accusative (e.g., PAN *i-ak-ən)
  5. Genitive 1 (e.g., PAN *=[a]ku)
  6. Genitive 2 (e.g., PAN *(=)m-aku)
  7. Genitive 3 (e.g., PAN *n-aku)

The following is from Ross' 2002 proposal of the Proto-Austronesian pronominal system, which contains five categories, including the free (i.e., independent or unattached), free polite, and three genitive categories.

Proto-Austronesian Personal Pronouns
Free Free polite Genitive 1 Genitive 2 Genitive 3
1s. *[i-]aku - *=ku *maku *n-aku
2s. *[i-]Su *[i-]ka-Su *=Su *miSu *ni-Su
3s. *s(i)-ia - (*=ia) - *n(i)-ia
1p. (excl.) *i-ami *[i-]k-ami *=mi *mami *n(i)-ami
1p. (incl.) *([i])ita *[i-]k-ita *=ta *mita *n-ita
2p. *i-amu *[i-]k-amu *=mu *mamu *n(i)-amu
3p. *si-da - (*=da) - *ni-da

Formosan languages[edit]

Rukai[edit]

Below are Rukai pronouns from Zeitoun (1997).[3] Paul Jen-kuei Li's classification of Rukai dialects is given for reference.

  • Rukai
    • Mantauran (萬山 Wanshan) – 250-300 speakers
    • (Main branch)
      • Maga-Tona
        • Maga (馬加 Majia)
        • Tona (多納 Duona)
      • Budai-Tanan (Rukai Proper)
        • Budai (霧台 Wutai)
        • Tanan (大南 Danan)
Mantauran Rukai Personal Pronouns
Type of
Pronoun
Topic Nominative Oblique Genitive
1s. iɭaə -ɭao, nao- -i-a-ə -li
2s. imiaʔə -moʔo i-miaʔ-ə -ʔo
3s. (vis.) ana - -i-n-ə -(n)i
3s. (not vis.) ðona - -i-ð-ə -ða
1p. (incl.) imitə, ita -mita, -ta -i-mit-ə -ta
1p. (excl.) inamə -nai -i-nam-ə -nai
2p. inomə -nomi -i-nom-ə -nomi
3p. (vis.) ana-lo - -i-l-i-n-ə -l-i-ni
3p. (not vis.) ðona-lo - -i-l-i-ð-ə -l-i-ða
Budai Rukai Personal Pronouns
Type of
Pronoun
Topic Nominative Oblique Genitive
1s. kunaku -(n)aku, naw- nakuanə -li
2s. kusu -su musuanə -su
3s. (vis.) kuini - inianə -ini
3s. (not vis.) kuiɖa - - -
1p. (incl.) kuta -ta mitaanə -ta
1p. (excl.) kunai -nai naianə -nai
2p. kunumi -numi, -nu numianə -numi
3p. (vis.) kuini - inianə -ini
3p. (not vis.) kuiɖa - - -
Maga Rukai Personal Pronouns
Type of
Pronoun
Topic Nominative Oblique Genitive
1s. i kɨkɨ ku-, kɨkɨ ŋkua -li
2s. i musu su-, musu sua -su
3s. (vis.) i kini kini nia -ini
3s. (not vis.) i kiɖi kiɖi ɖia -ɖa
1p. (incl.) i miti ta-, miti mitia -ta
1p. (excl.) i knamɨ namɨ-, knamɨ nmaa -namɨ
2p. i mumu mu-, mumu mua -mu
3p. (vis.) i kini kini nia -ini
3p. (not vis.) i kiɖi kiɖi ɖia -ɖa

Tsouic[edit]

The personal pronouns below are from the Tfuya dialect of Tsou, and are sourced from Zeitoun (2005:277).[4] Note that third-person pronouns are distinguished between those that are visible (abbreviated vis. below) or non-visible.

Tfuya Tsou Personal Pronouns
Type of
Pronoun
Free
(neutral)
Bound
(nominative)
Bound
(genitive)
1s. a'o -'o/-'u -'o/-'u
2s. suu -su/-ko -su/-ko
3s. (vis.) taini -ta -taini
3s. (not vis.) ic'o - -si
1p. (incl.) a'ati -to -to
1p. (excl.) a'ami -mza -mza
2p. muu -mu -mu
3p. (vis.) hin'i -hin'i -hin'i
3p. (not vis.) hee - -he

Northwestern Formosan[edit]

Pazeh[edit]

The Pazeh personal pronouns below are from Li (2000).[5] (Note: vis. = visible, prox. = proximal)

Pazeh Personal Pronouns
Type of
Pronoun
Neutral Nominative Genitive Locative
1s. yaku aku naki yakuan, yakunan
2s. isiw siw nisiw isiwan
2s. (prox.) imini mini nimini iminiyan
3s. (vis.) imisiw misiw nimisiw misiwan
3s. (not vis.) isia sia nisia isiaan
1p. (incl.) ita ta nita (ta-) itaan
1p. (excl.) yami ami nyam(i) yamian, yaminan
2p. imu mu nimu imuan
2p. (prox.) yamini amini naamini yaminiyan
3p. (vis.) yamisiw amisiw naamisiw yamisiwan
3p. (not vis.) yasia Asia naasia yasiaan

Saisiyat[edit]

Saisiyat has an elaborate pronominal system (Hsieh & Huang 2006:93).[6]

Saisiyat Pronouns
Type of
Pronoun
Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Possessive Locative
1s. yako, yao yakin, iyakin ma'’an '’iniman 'amana'’a kanman
2s. So’'o ’'iso’'on niSo '’iniSo ’'anso’'o’'a kanSo
3s. sia hisia nisia ’inisia 'ansiaa kansia
1p. (incl.) '’ita '’inimita mita’' '’inimita’' 'anmita’'a kan’'ita
1p. (excl.) yami '’iniya’'om niya’'om ’'iniya’'om '’anya'’oma kanyami
2p. moyo '’inimon nimon '’inimon 'anmoyoa kanmoyo
3p. lasia hilasia nasia '’inilasia '’anlasiaa kanlasia

Thao[edit]

The Thao personal pronouns below are from Blust (2003:207).[7] Note that there is only 1 form each for "we (exclusive)," "you (plural)" and "they."

Thao Personal Pronouns
Type of
Pronoun
Nominative Accusative Genitive
1s. yaku yakin nak[8]
2s. ihu ihu-n m-ihu[9]
3s. cicu cicu-n cicu[10]
1p. (incl.) ita ita-n m-ita
1p. (excl.) yamin yamin yamin
2p. maniun maniun maniun
3p. caycuy caycuy caycuy

Favorlang[edit]

The following Favorlang personal pronouns are from Li (2003:8). All of them are free forms. All genitive pronouns end with -a.

Favorlang Personal Pronouns
Type of
Pronoun
Neutral Genitive Nominative/Accusative
1s. ka-ina na-a ina
2s. ijonoë joa, oa ijo
3s. icho choa icho
1p. (incl.) torro torroa -
1p. (excl.) namono namoa namo
2p. imonoë imoa imo
3p. aicho-es dechonoë choa decho

Atayalic[edit]

The Wulai and Mayrinax Atayal personal pronouns below are sourced from Huang (1995).[11] In both varieties, the nominative and genitive forms are bound while the neutral and locative ones are free (unbound).

Wulai Atayal[edit]

Wulai Atayal Personal Pronouns
Type of
Pronoun
Nominative Genitive Locative Neutral
1s. sakuʔ, kuʔ makuʔ, mu, kuʔ knan kuzing, kun
2s. suʔ suʔ sunan isuʔ
3s. - nyaʔ hiyan hiyaʔ
1p. (incl.) taʔ taʔ itan itaʔ
1p. (excl.) sami myan sminan sami
2p. simu mamu smunan simu
3p. - nhaʔ hgan hgaʔ

Mayrinax Atayal[edit]

Mayrinax Atayal Personal Pronouns
Type of
Pronoun
Nominative Genitive Neutral
1s. cu, ciʔ mu, miʔ kuing
2s. suʔ, siʔ suʔ isuʔ
3s. - niaʔ hiyaʔ
1p. (incl.) taʔ, tiʔ taʔ, tiʔ itaʔ
1p. (excl.) cami niam cami
2p. cimu mamu cimu
3p. - nhaʔ nhaʔ

Teruku Seediq[edit]

Teruku Seediq Personal Pronouns[12]
Type of
Pronoun
Direct Oblique Independent
possessive
Subject Genitive
1s. yaku kenan (ne-)naku =ku =mu
2s. isu sunan (ne-)nisu =su =su
3s. hiya hiyaan ne-hiya - =na
1p. (incl.) 'ita tenan (ne-)nita =ta =ta
1p. (excl.) yami menani (ne-)nami =nami =nami
2p. yamu munan (ne-)namu =namu =namu
3p. dehiya dehiyaan ne-dehiya - =deha

East Formosan[edit]

Siraya[edit]

The Siraya personal pronouns below are from Adelaar (1997).[13]

Siraya Personal Pronouns
Type of
Pronoun
Free Actor or
Possessive
Topic Oblique
1s. ĭau -(m)au -koh ĭau-an
2s. ĭmhu -(m)uhu, -(m)oho -kow ĭmhu-an
3s. teni tĭn teni tĭni-än (tĭni-an)
1p. (incl.) ĭmĭtta -(m)ĭtta, -(m)eta -kĭtta ĭmittä-n
1p. (excl.) ĭmi-an -(m)ian, -(m)iän -kame mian-än (mian-an)
2p. ĭmumi -(m)umi (-)kamu ĭmumi-än (ĭmumi-an)
3p. ta neini nein neini neini-än (neini-an)

Kavalan[edit]

The Kavalan personal pronouns below are from Li (2006:30).[14]

Kavalan Personal Pronouns
Type of
Pronoun
Nominative Genitive Oblique Locative
1s. aiku, =iku zaku, -ku timaiku tamaikuan
2s. aisu, =isu zasu, -su timaisu tamaisuan
3s. aizipna tiyau zana, -na timaizipna tiyau tamaizipan tiyauan
1p. (incl.) aita, =ita zata, -ta, -kita timaita tamaitan
1p. (excl.) aimi, =imi zanyaq, -nyaq timaimi tamaimian
2p. aimu, =imu zanumi, -numi timaimu tamaimuan
3p. qaniyau zana, -na qaniyau taqaniyauan

Basay[edit]

The Basay personal pronouns below are from Li (1999:639).[15]

Basay Personal Pronouns
Type of
Pronoun
Neutral Nominative Genitive Oblique
1s. yaku kaku, -ku maku-, -aku; naku, -ak yakuan, kuan, kuanan
2s. isu kisu, -su misu, -isu; nisu, -su ~ -is isuan, suan, isuanan, suanan
3s. - -ia - -
1p. (incl.) mita kita, -ita mita, -ita; nita, -ta ...., ...., tianan
1p. (excl.) yami -mi yami, -ami; nami, -am yamian, mian, mianan
2p. imu kimu, -mu -imu; nimu, -im imuan, ...., imuanan
3p. - -ia - -

Bunun[edit]

Takivatan Bunun personal pronoun roots are (De Busser 2009:453):[16]

  • 1s: -ak-
  • 2s: -su-
  • 3s: -is-
  • 1p (incl.): -at-
  • 1p (excl.): -ðam-
  • 2p: -(a)mu-
  • 3p: -in-

The tables of Takivatan Bunun personal pronouns below are sourced from De Busser (2009:441).

Takivatan Bunun Personal Pronouns
Type of
Pronoun
Root Foc. Agent
(bound)
Non-Foc. Agent
(bound)
Neutral Foc. Agent Locative Possessive
1s. -ak- -(ʔ)ak -(ʔ)uk ðaku, nak sak, saikin ðakuʔan inak, ainak, nak
2s. -su- -(ʔ)as - suʔu, su - suʔuʔan isu, su
1p. (incl.) -at- - - mita ʔata, inʔata mitaʔan imita
1p. (excl.) -ðam- -(ʔ)am - ðami, nam ðamu, sam ðamiʔan inam, nam
2p. -(a)mu- -(ʔ)am - muʔu, mu amu muʔuʔan imu, mu
Takivatan Bunun
Third-Person Personal Pronouns
Singular Plural
[Root] -is- -in-
Proximal isti inti
Medial istun intun
Distal ista inta

Iskubun Bunun personal pronouns are somewhat different (De Busser 2009:454).

Iskubun Bunun Personal Pronouns
Type of
Pronoun
Agent Undergoer Possessive
1s. saikin, -ik ðaku, -ku inak, nak
2s. kasu, -as su isu, su
3s. saia saiʤa isaiʤa, saiʤa
1p. (incl.) kata, -ta mita imita
1p. (excl.) kaimin, -im ðami inam
2p. kamu, -am mu imu
3p. naia inaiʤa naiʤa

Paiwan[edit]

The Kuɬaɬau Paiwan personal pronouns below are from Ferrell (1982:14).

Paiwan Personal Pronouns
Type of
Pronoun
Equational Genitive Non-Eq., Non-Gen.
1s. -aken, ti-aken ku-, ni-aken tjanu-aken
2s. -sun, ti-sun su-, ni-sun tjanu-sun
3s. ti-madju ni-madju tjai-madju
1p. (incl.) -itjen, ti-tjen tja-, ni-tjen tjanu-itjen
1p. (excl.) -amen, ti-amen nia-, ni-amen tjanu-amen
2p. -mun, t-mun nu-, ni-mun tjanu-mun
3p. ti-a-madju ni-a-madju tjai-a-madju

Puyuma[edit]

The Nanwang Puyuma personal pronouns below are from Teng (2008:61-64).

Puyuma Personal Pronouns (Free)
Type of
Pronoun
Nominative[17] Oblique:
Direct
Oblique:
Indirect
Oblique:
Non-Subject
Neutral
1s. nanku kanku, kananku draku, drananku kanku kuiku
2s. nanu kanu, kananu dranu, drananu kanu yuyu
3s. nantu kantu, kanantu dratu, dranantu kantaw taytaw
1p. (incl.) nanta kanta, kananta drata, drananta kanta taita
1p. (excl.) naniam kaniam, kananiam draniam, drananiam kaniam mimi
2p. nanemu kanemu, kananemu dranemu, drananemu kanemu muimu
3p. nantu kantu, kanantu dratu, dranantu kantaw -
Puyuma Personal Pronouns (Bound)
Type of
Pronoun
Nominative
(Subject)
Nominative
(Possessor of subject)
Genitive
1s. =ku ku= ku=
2s. =yu nu= nu=
3s. - tu= tu=
1p. (incl.) =ta ta= ta=
1p. (excl.) =mi niam= mi=
2p. =mu mu= mu=
3p. - tu= tu=

Philippine languages[edit]

Ilokano[edit]

Ilokano personal pronouns distinguish three cases: absolutive, ergative, and oblique. They also distinguish three numbers: singular, dual and plural.

Accent marks in the following table are not written, but given here for pronunciation purposes.

Ilokano Personal Pronouns
Absolutive Ergative Oblique
Disjunctive Enclitic (-ak)[18] Enclitic (-ko)[19] Disjunctive
1st person singular siák [20] -ak [21] -k(o) [22][23] kaniák
1st person dual datá, sitá [20] -ta -ta kadatá
2nd person singular siká [20] -ka -m(o) [22] kenká
3rd person singular isú(na) [24] -na kenkuána
1st person plural inclusive datayó, sitayó [20] -tayó -tayó kadatayó
1st person plural exclusive dakamí, sikamí [20] -kamí -mi kadakamí
2nd person plural dakayó, sikayó [20] -kayó -yo kadakayó
3rd person plural isúda -da -da kadakuáda

Tagalog[edit]

Like nouns, Tagalog personal pronouns are categorized by case. As above, the indirect forms also function as the genitive.

Tagalog Personal Pronouns
  Direct (ang) Indirect (ng) Oblique (sa)
1st person singular akó ko akin
1st person dual kitá/kata[25] nitá/nata[25] kanitá/kanata (ata)[25]
1st person plural inclusive tayo natin atin
1st person plural exclusive kamí namin amin
2nd person singular ikáw (ka) mo iyó
2nd person plural kayó ninyó inyó
3rd person singular siyá niyá kaniyá
3rd person plural silá nilá kanilá

Cebuano[edit]

Like nouns, Cebuano personal pronouns are categorized by case.

Cebuano Personal Pronouns
  Kinsa Tag-iya (primary) Tag-iya (modifier) Oblique
1st person singular ako akoa nako kanako
2nd person singular ikaw imoha nimo kanimo
3rd person singular siya / sya iyaha /iya niya kaniya
1st person plural inclusive kita atoa / ato nato kanato
1st person plural exclusive kami amoa / amo namo kanamo
2nd person plural kamo inyoha ninyo kaninyo
3rd person plural sila ilaha nila kanila

*The two sets of tag-iya case function similarly except that the primary tag-iya would need the unifying linker nga and the modifier tag-iya cannot be used as complementary adjective.
**The final syllable of a primary tag-iya pronoun is mostly dropped.

When the pronoun is not the first word of the sentence, the short form is more commonly used than the full form.

Cebuano Enclitic Personal Pronouns
  Kinsa Tag-iya (primary) Tag-iya (modifier) Oblique
1st person singular ko ako ko nako
2nd person singular ka imo mo nimo
3rd person singular siya iya niya niya
1st person plural inclusive ta ato nato nato
1st person plural exclusive mi amo namo namo
2nd person plural kamo inyo ninyo ninyo
3rd person plural sila ila nila nila

*When the object is a second person pronoun, use ta instead of ko.

Malayo-Sumbawan languages[edit]

Malay[edit]

The informal pronouns aku, kamu, engkau, ia, kami, and kita are indigenous to Malay.

Malay Personal Pronouns
Person Malay English
First person saya (standard, polite),
aku (informal, familiar)
I, me
kami we, us: they and me, s/he and me
kita we, us: you and me, you and us
Second person anda (polite, formal),
kamu (familiar, informal)
you, thou, thee
anda sekalian (formal),
kalian (informal)
you, y'all
Third person ia ~ dia,
dia orang
he, she, him, her
ia ~ dia,
mereka, dia orang
they, them
Possessive pronouns

Aku, kamu, engkau, and ia have short possessive enclitic forms. All others retain their full forms like other nouns, as does emphatic dia: meja saya, meja kita, meja anda, meja dia "my table, our table, your table, his/her table".

Possessed forms of meja "table"
Pronoun Enclitic Possessed form
aku -ku mejaku (my table)
kamu -mu mejamu (your table)
engkau -kau mejakau (your table)
ia -nya mejanya (his, her, their table)

Javanese[edit]

The informal pronouns aku and kowe, are inherited from Austronesian.

Javanese Personal Pronouns
Person Javanese English
First person aku (standard, informal),
kula (formal),
dalem/ kawula (more formal/ humble)
I, me
dhewe/ awake dhewe (informal),
kita (formal)
we, us: they and me, s/he and me and also you and me, you and us
Second person kowe (informal),
sampeyan (formal),
panjenengan (more formal)
you, thou, thee
kowe kabeh (informal),
sampeyan sedaya (formal),
panjenengan sedanten (more formal)
you, you all
Third person dheweke/ wonge (informal), piyantune, panjenengane (formal),
panjenengipun (more formal)
he, she, him, her
dheweke kabeh (informal, but rarely), wong-wong iku (informal)
panjenenganipun sedanten, tiyang-tiyang/ piyantun-piyantun puniku (more formal)
they, them

Javanese lacks of personal pronouns. For first person plural, Javanese use awake dhewe that means "the body itself" (cf. Malay : badannya sendiri) or just dhewe, that originally means "itself" or "alone". For third person singular, Javanese use dheweke that means "itself" (cf. Malay : dirinya), from dhewe (self, alone) + -k-(as euphony) + -(n)e (3rd person possessive enclitic), or wonge (cf. Malay : orangnya) that means "the person", from wong (person)+ -(n)e (3rd person possessive enclitic, that is also used for demonstrative). The rest of plural pronouns uses words kabeh/ sedaya/ sedanten that all means "all" after the singular form.

Possessive pronouns

Aku, kowe, and dheweke have short possessive enclitic forms. All others retain their full forms like other nouns : griyane kula, omahe awake dhewe, dalemipun panjenengan "my house (formal), our house (informal), your house (more formal)".

Possessed forms of omah/ griya/ dalem "house"
Pronoun Enclitic Possessed form
aku -ku / -(n)e kula / -ipun dalem omahku/ griyane kula/ dalemipun dalem (my house)
kowe -mu/ -(n)e sampeyan/ -ipun panjenengan omahmu/ griyane sampeyan/ dalemipun panjenengan (your house)
dheweke -(n)e/ -ipun omahe/ griyane/ dalemipun (his, her, their house)

Polynesian languages[edit]

Tongan[edit]

The Tongan cardinal pronouns are the main personal pronouns which in Tongan can either be preposed (before the verb) or postposed (after the verb). The first are the normal pronouns, the latter the stressed pronouns, which are also used as reflexive pronouns.

Tongan Personal Pronouns
Position Singular Dual Plural
1st person exclusive
(I, we, us)
preposed u, ou, ku ma mau
postposed au kimaua kimautolu
inclusive
(one, we, us)
preposed te ta tau
postposed kita kitaua kitautolu
2nd person preposed ke mo mou
postposed koe kimoua kimoutolu
3rd person preposed ne na nau
postposed ia kinaua kinautolu

Samoan[edit]

Like many Austronesian languages, Samoan has separate words for inclusive and exclusive we, and distinguishes singular, dual, and plural. The root for the inclusive pronoun may occur in the singular, in which case it indicates emotional involvement on the part of the speaker.

Samoan Personal Pronouns
singular dual plural
First person exclusive a‘u, ‘ou mā‘ua, mā mātou
First person inclusive tā‘ua, tā tātou
Second person ‘oe, ‘e ‘oulua ‘outou, tou
Third person ia / na lā‘ua lātou

In formal speech, fuller forms of the roots mā-, tā-, and lā- are ‘imā-, ‘itā-, and ‘ilā-.

Hawaiian[edit]

Hawaiian Personal Pronouns
Singular (1) Dual (2) Plural (3+)
1st 2nd 3rd 1st incl. 1st excl. 2nd 3rd 1st incl. 1st excl. 2nd 3rd
Case Nominative au ʻoe ia kāua māua ʻolua lāua kākou mākou ʻoukou lākou
Genitive a-class kaʻu kāu kāna kā kāua kā māua ʻolua kā lāua kā kākou kā mākou ʻoukou kā lākou
o-class koʻu kou kōna kō kāua kō māua ʻolua kō lāua kō kākou kō mākou ʻoukou kō lākou
affectionate kuʻu Only used in 1st and 2nd person singular.
Accusative,
Dative
iaʻu ʻoe iā ia iā kāua iā māua ʻolua iā lāua iā kākou iā mākou ʻoukou iā lākou

The a-class possessive pronouns refer to alienable possession, as with boats, children, clothing, and spouses. The o-class possessive pronouns refer to inalienable (incapable of being begun or ended) possession, as with parents and body parts.[26]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Blust, Robert A. 2009. The Austronesian Languages. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. ISBN 0-85883-602-5, ISBN 978-0-85883-602-0.
  2. ^ Ross, Malcolm (2006). Reconstructing the case-marking and personal pronoun systems of Proto Austronesian. In Henry Y. Chang and Lillian M. Huang and Dah-an Ho, eds, Streams Converging into an Ocean: Festschrift in Honor of Professor Paul Jen-kuei Li on His 70th Birthday, 521-564. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica.
  3. ^ Zeitoun, Elizabeth. 1997. The Pronominal System of Mantauran (Rukai). Oceanic Linguistics, Vol. 36, No. 2 (Dec., 1997), pp. 312-346.
  4. ^ Zeitoun, Elizabeth. 2005. "Tsou." In Adelaar, K. Alexander and Nikolaus Himmelmann, eds. 2005. The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar. Psychology Press.
  5. ^ Li, Paul Jen-kuei. 2000. Some Aspects of Pazeh Syntax. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications, No. 29, Grammatical Analysis: Morphology, Syntax, and Semantics (2000).
  6. ^ Hsieh Fuhui and Huang Xuanfan. 2006. "The Pragmatics of Case Marking in Saisiyat." Oceanic Linguistics, Volume 45, Number 1, June 2006, pp. 91-109.
  7. ^ Blust, Robert (2003). Thao dictionary. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics (Preparatory Office), Academia Sinica. ISBN 9789570147858. 
  8. ^ PAN *ni-ku
  9. ^ PAN *ni-Su
  10. ^ PAN *ni-a
  11. ^ Huang, Lillian M. (1995). The syntactic structure of Wulai and Mayrinax Atayal: a comparison. Bull. National Taiwan Normal University, Vol. 40, pp. 261-294.
  12. ^ Tsukida, Naomi. 2005. "Seediq." In Adelaar, K. Alexander and Nikolaus Himmelmann, eds. 2005. The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar. Psychology Press.
  13. ^ Adelaar, K. Alexander. 1997. Grammar Notes on Siraya, an Extinct Formosan Language. Oceanic Linguistics, Vol. 36, No. 2 (Dec., 1997), pp. 362-397.
  14. ^ Paul Jen-kuei Li (李壬癸) and Shigeru Tsuchida (土田滋) (2006) Kavalan Dictionary Archived November 21, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.. Language and Linguistics Monograph Series A-19. ISBN 978-986-00-6993-8.
  15. ^ Li, Paul Jen-kuei (1999). Subgrouping, circularity and extinction: Some issues in Austronesian comparative linguistics. In Zeitoun, E., & Li, P. J-K., Selected Papers From the 8th International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics. Taipei, Taiwan: Academica Sinica.
  16. ^ De Busser, Rik. 2009. Towards a Grammar of Takivatan: Selected Topics. PhD dissertation at the Research Centre for Linguistic Typology, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
  17. ^ Possessor of subject
  18. ^ The series of absolutive enclitics is sometimes referred to as the -ak series, a name derived from the form of the first person singular.
  19. ^ The series of ergative enclitics series is sometimes referred to as the -ko series, a name derived from the form of the first person singular.
  20. ^ a b c d e f These forms are a combination of the obsolete variant of the personal article si and the absolutive enclitic form.
  21. ^ When the enclitic particle -(e)n is attached, the form becomes -akon indicating that it once was -ako in the history of the language. (cf. Tagalog)
  22. ^ a b The final o is lost when the preceding word ends in a simple vowel and when there are no following enclitics. Compare the following:
    • Asom Your dog
    • Asomonto It will be your dog.
  23. ^ When attaching to either of the suffixes, -en or -an, the -n of the suffix is lost.
  24. ^ The 3rd person singular has no ending or form; it is inferred by context.
  25. ^ a b c Kata, nitá and kanita is not widely used. Kitá was the alternative pronoun for first person dual.
  26. ^ Schütz, Albert J. 1995. All About Hawaiian, U. of Hawaii Press.

Further reading[edit]

  • Li, Paul Jen-kuei. 1997. "A Syntactic Typology of Formosan Languages – Case Markers on Nouns and Pronouns." In Li, Paul Jen-kuei. 2004. Selected Papers on Formosan Languages. Taipei, Taiwan: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica.