Autism and LGBT identities

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Current research indicates that autistic people have higher rates of LGBT identities and feelings than the general population.[1][2][3] A variety of explanations for this have been proposed; The Lancet's "Commission on the future of care and clinical research in autism" commented that it "might be part of a different concept of self, less reliance on or reference to social norms, or part of a neurodiverse lived experience of (and outlook on) the world."[2] While autistic people are more likely to be non-heterosexual than the general population, the majority of autistic people are heterosexual.[4]

Early studies and limitations[edit]

Early claims that autistic people lack a sex drive or desire for sexuality have been regarded as an inaccurate and negative stereotype.[5][6][7] These claims were a result of methodological problems. More recent evidence indicates that most autistic people express an interest in both romance and sexuality.[7]

Autism and sexual orientation[edit]

Most autistic people are heterosexual.[4] However, it has been noted that autistic people are less likely to identify as heterosexual than their non-autistic counterparts.[2][8][3] Some attempt to explain this as part of an association between autism, prenatal hormones and sexual orientation.[9][10][7] That is not the only proposed explanation, however.[2] Studies on sexual orientation and autism suggest that more autistic people have homosexual and bisexual feelings compared to the general population.[5][11] Studies have indicated higher incidence of asexuality among autistic people, though a 2019 review article stated that this "should be interpreted with caution, bearing in mind the difficulty of establishing social relations in persons with ASD."[12] Similarly, a survey of asexual individuals found that about 7% to 8% of respondents had acquired an autism diagnosis, approximately 4 times larger than the American population estimate.[13][14][15][16]

A 2020 review that included the topic of autism and sexual orientation in academic literature said it was a "common theme" for autistic individuals to question their sexuality.[7] While it is suspected that non-heterosexual orientation is more common in autistic people, the exact percentages have frequently varied from study to study.[17] The increased incidence of non-heterosexuality in the autistic population is present when measuring for self-reported sexual orientation, sexual behavior, and sexual interests alike.[18]

Some studies have indicated that autistic women have higher rates of non-heterosexual orientation than autistic men do.[19][18] This was also corroborated by an online survey conducted by the University of Cambridge and published in Autism Research. That survey suggested that autistic women had a wider range of sexual identification than both their non-autistic counterparts and autistic men. Younger respondents had a higher likelihood for reporting themselves as homosexual than did older respondents.[20][21] According to a 2021 review, some studies indicated that autistic females were about three to four times as likely to identify as bisexual, when compared to non-autistic females.[18]

Some autistic people who participated in sex education programs have reported that more information about non-heterosexuality in these programs would have better assisted their needs.[22] However, while a report in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders characterized this as an issue that affected autistic individuals, it stated that information about sexual orientation (and gender identity) was "severely lacking" within sex education programs for the general population as well, in the United States.[23] Autistic people may also be more tolerant towards homosexuality, according to some initial research.[24][18] A 2018 study suggested that individuals with a higher Broad Autism Phenotype (BAP) had a higher likelihood of same-sex attraction.[25]

Autism and gender identity[edit]

Gender dysphoria is a diagnosis given to transgender people who experience discomfort related to their gender identity.[26] Some studies have shown that autistic children may be more likely to experience gender dysphoria.[27][28] There are also other studies that describe other possible causes or explanations for these diagnosis.[29]

While scientific literature is filled with case studies of autistic children with gender dysphoria,[30][31] including boys[32][33][34] and girls,[35][36][37] the first study to assess the convergence of gender dysphoria and autism was not published until 2010.[38][39] Researchers in the Netherlands examined 129 children and adolescents who were diagnosed with gender identity disorder (GID under DSM-4 diagnosis) in 2010, finding that 4.7%, that being 6 individuals, were also diagnosed as autistic.[28] In another study, from December 2011 to June 2013, over half of the 166 young adults referred to the NHS Gender Identity Development Service were assessed as autistic.[40][41] In March 2014, researchers from the Children's National Medical Center, Arcadia University, and National Institute of Mental Health, assessed gender diversity in autistic children, and found that those who were autistic were 7.59 times more likely to be gender diverse than those who were not autistic.[42][39] One of the study's authors, psychologist John Strang, argued that children were more likely to be gender non-conforming because they were not as "worried about what people thought" as those who were older and were not noticing "the social expectations or the social biases" toward transgender people.[43][44] Finn V. Gratton, a specialist in both autism and transgender topics, similarly suggested in 2019 that, "Research finds that autistic resistance to social conditioning appears to play an important role in the incidence of transgender identity. If this is true, then autistic rates of transgender incidence may represent true rates in the human population—rates which are suppressed in the neurotypical population due to their higher susceptibility to social conditioning."[45]

Some sources have alternative explanations for either the Gender Dysphoria or Gender Identity Disorder diagnosis, or the Autism Spectrum Disorder diagnosis, generally explaining some traits found in either diagnosis to be a symptom of the other, or found to be a symptom of the other when combined with another diagnosis.[29] One source describes two individuals with suspected Asperger's who had feelings of being different, and assumed it to be Gender Dysphoria, and requested a sex change. These individuals several years later came to reject their "Trans phase", and the conclusion for the article suggests screening for Asperger's for those asking for sex reassignment surgery.[46] Another study suggested that those with ASD can have social issues, and others missing social cues about a child's gender presentation may cause them to develop gender dysphoria.[47] Another study suggested the opposite, and that those with gender dysphoria may exhibit ASD symptoms due to their gender dysphoria diagnosis, however the article also states this is unclear whether it should be a separate diagnosis.[48] Many articles also suggested a connection between those with ASD and Gender Dysphoria having unusual interests, pre-occupations, or obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), which may be an alternative explanation for one or both diagnoses.[29] Those with 'unusual interests' and 'pre-occupations' to feminine dresses, activities and objects, to instead have these interests or pre-occupations due to "the need for sensory input belonging to the ASD diagnosis".[49][50][51] Some sources describe the connection between OCD, ASD, and gender dysphoria, to be more of an obsession about gender-related material due to the OCD caused by ASD, and not a true diagnosis of gender dysphoria.[52][53][54] With one study warning against treatment of gender dysphoria in cases where ASD and OCD are present in the patient.[46] One study also found that those assigned male at birth with gender dysphoria were more likely to have obsessions and compulsions, with many of those being gender related, which may support this hypothesis. However this study also found no symptoms of this in those assigned female at birth, so there may be a different underlying factor.[55]

In December 2014, four researchers concluded that being on the autism spectrum does not "preclude gender transition" and suggested methods for assisting such individuals in "exploring their gender identities".[56] One of the study's authors, Katherine Rachlin, said that, sometimes, being transgender can "look like the spectrum experience" to clinicians.[40] A study by Yale School of Medicine scientists in March 2015 concurred, stating that those on the autism spectrum should be treated equally to other individuals for gender dysphoria, and suggested that clinicians "broaden the social frame" and facilitate an "exploration of gender roles".[57] Another study by Boston Children's Hospital researchers in October 2016 reported that about 23 percent of young people with gender dysphoria at the on-site gender clinic had Asperger's syndrome, and recommended "routine autism screening at gender clinics".[40][58] A Finnish study in April 2015 recommended that the autism spectrum be recognized seriously in developing guidelines for treating "child and adolescent gender dysphoria".[59]

Some studies have noted an overlap between those with autism and those who are transgender.[60][61] British researchers in 2011 concluded that trans men had more autistic traits than trans women.[62] However, a study by British researchers in 2013 concluded that there was "no significant difference" between trans men and trans women in autistic traits observed.[63] Steven Stagg and Jaime Vincent of Anglia Ruskin University concluded in September 2019 that some of those seeking advice and help for their gender identity may be autistic, whether diagnosed or not, with these abilities impeding possible support, and urged clinicians treating individuals who are transgender or non-binary, especially those assigned female at birth, to consider whether they have undiagnosed ASD.[60] Four researchers in January 2020 suggested "overlap between autism and transgender identity", possibly more in trans men than trans women, and stated that anxiety and depression were the highest in autistic individuals who were transgender.[61] Scientists with the Autism Research Centre at University of Cambridge, using data from 600,000 adults in the UK, concluded in August 2020 that adults who were transgender or gender diverse were three to six times more likely to have an autistic diagnosis than those who were cisgender, and suggested that between 3.5 and 6.5% of transgender and gender diverse adults in the UK are autistic.[64][65]

Other researchers have noted the prevalence of autistic traits among those who identify as non-binary or genderqueer.[60][66] Two Warwick University researchers, utilizing data from 446 UK adult respondents, concluded in January 2016 that, based on their sample, genderqueer individuals were more likely to be autistic than any other group with gender dysphoria.[40][67] New York University researchers, using a sample of 492 children, stated in February 2016 that autistic children were seven times more likely to experience gender variance as compared to those not on the spectrum.[43][66]

In popular culture[edit]

Autistic characters that are part of the LGBTQ community are occasionally depicted in popular culture, whether in literature, animated or live-action series. Some have called for better representation. For instance, in June 2015, author Heidi Cullinan wrote in Spectrum that there is not nearly enough works of fiction with autistic people and even fewer who are part of the LGBTQ community, inspiring her to write a story with a gay autistic protagonist.[68] She also said that autistic people deserve to see themselves in stories, like anyone else. In March 2021, queer autistic novelist Naoise Dolan echoed this in an interview with PinkNews, calling for more visibility, saying that popular culture and art would be improved if "there were more queer autistics out there," along with other groups that are marginalized.[69] She also criticized bad portrayals of autistic characters and expressed her desire to "deliberately write the most counter-stereotypical autistic character possible" in her novel, Exciting Times.

Occasionally, LGBTQ autistic characters appear in literature. For example, a 2015 novel, Carry the Ocean, by Heidi Cullinan also had a gay protagonist. In the novel, the protagonist, Jeremey Samon, meets an autistic boy named Emmet Washington, who wants to date him, and through the course of the book, their romantic relationship develops.[70] Other characters in literature are lesbians. For example, Ada Hoffman's debut novel, in June 2019, The Outside, has a lesbian and autistic protagonist, Yasira Shien, who once had a lover named Tiv.[71] The book's sequel, "The Fallen," came out in July 2021,[72] with a reappearance of Yasira, and the book was praised for its "excellent neurodiverse representation."[73] Xan West's 2019 novella, "Their Troublesome Crush," has a character, Ernest, who is openly autistic and demiromantic. West said they wrote the character from their own experience as an autistic demiromantic person.[74][75] Ernest has been described as "a show tunes–loving submissive," and has a metamour, the partner of his partner, named Nora.[76] Furthermore, Judith, the protagonist of Xan West's 2020 novel, Tenderness, is an "autistic Jewish bisexual midsize fat femme" who has chronic pain.[77] Zack Smedley's 2019 novel, Tonight We Rule the World tells the story of Owen, a "bisexual high schooler...on the autism spectrum."[78]

LGBTQ autistic characters have also appeared in animated series. Luz Noceda from The Owl House was confirmed to be bisexual by Dana Terrace,[79] coded as autistic, and confirmed as neurodivergent.[80]

Some creators of animated series are autistic and part of the LGBTQ community. The creator of Dead End: Paranormal Park, Hamish Steele, a gay man who is autistic,[81][82] has said that he incorporated his experiences into characters such as Norma Khan in the show of the same name,[81] who is LGBTQ, but it has not been confirmed she is autistic, only as "neurodiverse".[83][84][85][86]

Live-action television series have LGBTQ autistic characters as well. For instance, in March 2020, it was announced that the series Everything's Gonna Be Okay was introducing a "queer storyline" for autistic protagonist Matilda, who explores her sexual identity as a pansexual woman, and her friend, Drea, becomes her girlfriend. The show's creator, Josh Thomas, told The Advocate that he likes "having queer people in my show," noted that autistic people have "an extreme emotional vulnerability" and said that is "exciting that people on the spectrum are boldly leading and as far as identity goes."[87]


  1. ^ Bertelli, Marco O.; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Underwood, Lisa; Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Persico, Antonio M.; Ricciardello, Arianna; Sappok, Tanja; Bergmann, Thomas; Keller, Roberto (2022), Bertelli, Marco O.; Deb, Shoumitro (Shoumi); Munir, Kerim; Hassiotis, Angela (eds.), "Autism Spectrum Disorder", Textbook of Psychiatry for Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorder, Cham: Springer International Publishing, p. 391, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-95720-3_16, ISBN 978-3-319-95720-3, retrieved 2022-06-08, Persons with [autism spectrum disorder] and/or other neurodevelopmental problems are more likely than the general population to have transgender identity, non-heterosexual sexual orientation, and other gender non-conformities.
  2. ^ a b c d Lord, Catherine; Charman, Tony; Havdahl, Alexandra; Carbone, Paul; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Boyd, Brian; Carr, Themba; de Vries, Petrus J; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Divan, Gauri; et al. (January 2022). "The Lancet Commission on the future of care and clinical research in autism" (PDF). The Lancet. 399 (10321): 299. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(21)01541-5. hdl:11250/2975811. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 34883054. S2CID 244917920 – via Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Gender non-conformity, or gender variance, including transgender identity and non-heterosexual sexual orientation, is more common in autistic individuals (and those with other neurodevelopmental conditions) than in the general population. This difference might be part of a different concept of self, less reliance on or reference to social norms, or part of a neurodiverse lived experience of (and outlook on) the world.
  3. ^ a b Graham Holmes, Laura; Ames, Jennifer L.; Massolo, Maria L.; Nunez, Denise M.; Croen, Lisa A. (2022-04-01). "Improving the Sexual and Reproductive Health and Health Care of Autistic People". Pediatrics. American Academy of Pediatrics. 149 (Supplement 4): e2020049437J. doi:10.1542/peds.2020-049437J. ISSN 0031-4005. PMID 35363286. A substantial proportion of autistic adolescents and adults are LGBTQIA+. Autistic people are more likely to be transgender or gender nonconforming compared with non-autistic people, and findings from a recent autism registry study suggest that among autistic people able to self-report on a survey, up to 18% of men and 43% of women may be sexual minorities.
  4. ^ a b Gilmour, Laura; Smith, Veronica; Schalomon, Melike (2014), Patel, Vinood B.; Preedy, Victor R.; Martin, Colin R. (eds.), "Sexuality and ASD: Current State of Research", Comprehensive Guide to Autism, New York, NY: Springer, pp. 569–584, doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-4788-7_27, ISBN 978-1-4614-4788-7, retrieved 2022-06-09
  5. ^ a b Sullivan, Amanda; Caterino, Linda C. (2008). "Addressing the Sexuality and Sex Education of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders". Education and Treatment of Children. 31 (3): 381–394. doi:10.1353/etc.0.0001. ISSN 0748-8491. JSTOR 42899984. S2CID 143957507.
  6. ^ Schöttle, Daniel; Briken, Peer; Tüscher, Oliver; Turner, Daniel (December 2017). "Sexuality in autism: hypersexual and paraphilic behavior in women and men with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder". Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. 19 (4): 381–393. doi:10.31887/DCNS.2017.19.4/dschoettle. PMC 5789215. PMID 29398933.
  7. ^ a b c d Sala, Giorgia; Pecora, Laura; Hooley, Merrilyn; Stokes, Mark A. (2020-06-01). "As Diverse as the Spectrum Itself: Trends in Sexuality, Gender and Autism". Current Developmental Disorders Reports. 7 (2): 59–68. doi:10.1007/s40474-020-00190-1. ISSN 2196-2987. S2CID 214606609.
  8. ^ Sala, Giorgia; Hooley, Merrilyn; Attwood, Tony; Mesibov, Gary B.; Stokes, Mark A. (2019-09-01). "Autism and Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review of Sexuality and Relationship Education". Sexuality and Disability. 37 (3): 353–382. doi:10.1007/s11195-019-09577-4. ISSN 1573-6717. S2CID 189875576.
  9. ^ Pecora, Laura A.; Hancock, Grace I.; Hooley, Merrilyn; Demmer, David H.; Attwood, Tony; Mesibov, Gary B.; Stokes, Mark A. (2020-07-11). "Gender identity, sexual orientation and adverse sexual experiences in autistic females". Molecular Autism. 11 (1): 57. doi:10.1186/s13229-020-00363-0. ISSN 2040-2392. PMC 7353794. PMID 32653016.
  10. ^ Attanasio, Margherita; Masedu, Francesco; Quattrini, Fabrizio; Pino, Maria Chiara; Vagnetti, Roberto; Valenti, Marco; Mazza, Monica (2021-11-15). "Are Autism Spectrum Disorder and Asexuality Connected?" (PDF). Archives of Sexual Behavior. 51 (4): 2091–2115. doi:10.1007/s10508-021-02177-4. ISSN 1573-2800. PMID 34779982. S2CID 244115396.
  11. ^ Byers, E.S.; Nichols, S.; Voyer, S.D. (2013). "Challenging stereotypes: Sexual functioning of single adults with high functioning autism spectrum disorder". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 43 (11): 2617–2627. doi:10.1007/s10803-013-1813-z. PMID 23526036. S2CID 41857222.
  12. ^ Parchomiuk, Monika (2019-06-01). "Sexuality of Persons with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD)". Sexuality and Disability. 37 (2): 259–274. doi:10.1007/s11195-018-9534-z. ISSN 1573-6717. S2CID 150360611.
  13. ^ Alison, Rowan; Verardi, James H. (2021). "Including Asexual People in Services" (PDF). Equality Network: 17.
  14. ^ CDC (2022-03-02). "Data and Statistics on Autism Spectrum Disorder | CDC". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2022-10-08.
  15. ^ CDC (2020-04-27). "CDC Releases First Estimates of the Number of Adults Living with ASD". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2022-10-08.
  16. ^ Bureau, US Census. "National Population by Characteristics: 2020-2021". Retrieved 2022-10-08.
  17. ^ Sarris, Marina (June 22, 2020). "Autistic People More Likely to Identify as LGBTQ". Simons Foundation Powering Autism Research for Knowledge (SPARK). Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative (SFARI). Retrieved December 13, 2021.
  18. ^ a b c d Pecora, Laura A.; Hooley, Merrilyn; Sperry, Laurie; Mesibov, Gary B.; Stokes, Mark A. (2021-03-01). "Sexuality and Gender Issues in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder". Psychiatric Clinics of North America. Autism Spectrum Disorder Across the Lifespan Part II. 44 (1): 111–124. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2020.11.009. ISSN 0193-953X. PMID 33526233. S2CID 231760483.
  19. ^ Dewinter, J.; De Graaf, H.; Begeer, S. (2017). "Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Romantic Relationships in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 47 (9): 2927–2934. doi:10.1007/s10803-017-3199-9. ISSN 0162-3257. PMC 5570786. PMID 28597143.
  20. ^ Weir, Elizabeth; Allison, Carrie; Baron-Cohen, Simon (2021). "The sexual health, orientation, and activity of autistic adolescents and adults". Autism Research. 14 (11): 2342–2354. doi:10.1002/aur.2604. ISSN 1939-3806. PMID 34536071. S2CID 237557123.
  21. ^ "Autistic individuals are more likely to be LGBTQ+". EurekAlert!. Retrieved 2021-12-13.
  22. ^ Barnett, Jessica Penwell; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor (December 2015). "Qualitative Exploration of Sexual Experiences Among Adults on the Autism Spectrum: Implications for Sex Education". Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health. 47 (4): 171–179. doi:10.1363/47e5715. ISSN 1931-2393. PMID 26418175.
  23. ^ Crehan, Eileen T.; Rocha, Jessica; Dufresne, Simone (2022-02-01). "Brief Report: Sources of Sexuality and Relationship Education for Autistic and Neurotypical Adults in the U.S. and a Call to Action". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 52 (2): 908–913. doi:10.1007/s10803-021-04992-z. ISSN 1573-3432. PMID 33792803. S2CID 232481385.
  24. ^ Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs (March 2015). "Sexuality in adolescent boys with autism spectrum disorder: self-reported behaviours and attitudes". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 45 (3): 731–741. doi:10.1007/s10803-014-2226-3. hdl:1874/326581. ISSN 1573-3432. PMID 25212415. S2CID 21177432.
  25. ^ Qualls, Lydia R.; Hartmann, Kathrin; Paulson, James F. (2018-12-01). "Broad Autism Phenotypic Traits and the Relationship to Sexual Orientation and Sexual Behavior". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 48 (12): 3974–3983. doi:10.1007/s10803-018-3556-3. ISSN 1573-3432. PMID 29616484. S2CID 4596123.
  26. ^ "Gender Dysphoria" (PDF). American Psychiatric Publishing. Retrieved April 13, 2016.
  27. ^ Glidden, Derek; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Jones, Bethany A.; Arcelus, Jon (2016). "Gender Dysphoria and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systemic Review of the Literature" (PDF). Sexual Medicine Reviews. 4 (1): 3–14. doi:10.1016/j.sxmr.2015.10.003. PMID 27872002. S2CID 3454600.
  28. ^ a b Vries, A.L.C.; Noens, I.L.J.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Berckelaer-Onnes, I.A.V.; Doreleijers, T.A. (22 January 2010). "Autism Spectrum Disorders in Gender Dysphoric Children and Adolescents". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 40 (8): 930–936. doi:10.1007/s10803-010-0935-9. PMC 2904453. PMID 20094764.
  29. ^ a b c Miesen, Anna I. R. Van Der; Hurley, Hannah; Vries, Annelou L. C. De (January 2, 2016). "Gender dysphoria and autism spectrum disorder: A narrative review". International Review of Psychiatry. 28 (1): 70–80. doi:10.3109/09540261.2015.1111199. ISSN 0954-0261. PMID 26753812. S2CID 20918937.
  30. ^ Ableson, A.G. (November 1981). "The development of gender identity in the autistic child". Child: Care, Health & Development. 7 (6): 347–356. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2214.1981.tb00851.x. PMID 7326841.
  31. ^ VanderLaan, D.P.; Leef, J.H.; Wood, H.; Hughes, S.K.; Zucker, K.J. (11 December 2014). "Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk Factors and Autistic Traits in Gender Dysphoric Children". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 45 (6): 1742–1750. doi:10.1007/s10803-014-2331-3. PMID 25503304. S2CID 13286958.
  32. ^ Tateno, M.; Tateno, Y.; Saito, T. (14 April 2008). "Comorbid childhood gender identity disorder in a boy with Asperger syndrome". Child: Care, Health & Development. 62 (2): 238. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1819.2008.01761.x. PMID 18412849.
  33. ^ Mukaddes, N.M. (25 July 2003). "Gender identity problems in autistic children". Child: Care, Health & Development. 23 (6): 35–40. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2214.2002.00301.x. PMID 12568483.
  34. ^ Gallucci, G.; Hackerman, F.; Schmidt Jr, C.W. (March 2005). "Gender Identity Disorder in an Adult Male with Asperger's Syndrome". Sexuality and Disability. 23: 35–40. doi:10.1007/s11195-004-2078-4. S2CID 144188459.
  35. ^ Landén, M.; Rasmussen, P. (September 1997). "Gender identity disorder in a girl with autism —a case report". European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 6 (3): 170–173. doi:10.1007/BF00538990. ISSN 1573-3432. PMID 9383652. S2CID 38311440.
  36. ^ Kraemer, B.; Delsignore, A.; Gundelfinger, R.; Schnyder, U.; Hepp, U. (August 2005). "Comorbidity of Asperger syndrome and gender identity disorder". European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 14 (5): 292–6. doi:10.1007/s00787-005-0469-4. PMID 15981142. S2CID 40685041.
  37. ^ Lemaire, M.; Thomazeau, B.; Bonnet-Brilhault, F. (February 2014). "Gender Identity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder in a 23-Year-Old Female". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 43 (5): 395–8. doi:10.1007/s00787-005-0469-4. PMID 15981142. S2CID 40685041.
  38. ^ Urquart, Evan (March 21, 2018). "A Disproportionate Number of Autistic Youth Are Transgender. Why?". Slate. Archived from the original on August 6, 2021. Retrieved September 11, 2021.
  39. ^ a b White, Bryony (November 15, 2016). "The Link Between Autism and Trans Identity". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on February 16, 2021. Retrieved September 11, 2021.
  40. ^ a b c d Rudacille, Deborah (April 13, 2016). "Living between genders". Spectrum. Archived from the original on March 8, 2021. Retrieved September 11, 2021.
  41. ^ Skagerberg, E.; Di Ceglie, D.; Carmichael, P. (15 March 2015). "Brief Report: Autistic Features in Children and Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 45 (8): 2628–2632. doi:10.1007/s10803-015-2413-x. PMID 25772537. S2CID 27249843.
  42. ^ Strang, J.; Kenworthy, L.; Dominska, A.; Sokoloff, J.; Kenealy, L.E.; Bearl, M.; Walsh, K.; Menvielle, E.; Slesaransky-Poe, G.; Kim, K.E.; Luong-Tran, C.; Meagher, H.; Wallace, G.L. (12 March 2014). "Increased Gender Variance in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 43 (8): 1525–1533. doi:10.1007/s10803-010-0935-9. PMC 2904453. PMID 20094764.
  43. ^ a b Laurye, Sharon (March 6, 2016). "Study: Autistic kids more likely to be gender non-conforming". Philly Voice. Archived from the original on April 18, 2021. Retrieved September 11, 2021.
  44. ^ Rohr, Bob (February 4, 2016). "Transgender Youth More Likely to Have Autism". PrideSource. Archived from the original on April 8, 2019. Retrieved September 11, 2021.
  45. ^ Gratton, Finn V. (12 October 2019). "Working with Families". Supporting Transgender Autistic Youth and Adults: A Guide for Professionals and Families. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. p. 110. ISBN 978-1-78450-830-2.
  46. ^ a b Parkinson, John (February 2014). "Gender dysphoria in Asperger's syndrome: a caution". Australasian Psychiatry. 22 (1): 84–85. doi:10.1177/1039856213497814. ISSN 1039-8562. PMID 23897727. S2CID 6642650.
  47. ^ Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Dominska, Aleksandra; Sokoloff, Jennifer; Kenealy, Laura E.; Berl, Madison; Walsh, Karin; Menvielle, Edgardo; Slesaransky-Poe, Graciela; Kim, Kyung-Eun; Luong-Tran, Caroline (November 2014). "Increased Gender Variance in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 43 (8): 1525–1533. doi:10.1007/s10508-014-0285-3. ISSN 0004-0002. PMID 24619651. S2CID 23091696.
  48. ^ Holt, Vicky; Skagerberg, Elin; Dunsford, Michael (January 2016). "Young people with features of gender dysphoria: Demographics and associated difficulties". Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 21 (1): 108–118. doi:10.1177/1359104514558431. ISSN 1359-1045. PMID 25431051. S2CID 29613646.
  49. ^ Williams, Patricia Gail; Allard, Anna Mary; Sears, Lonnie (December 1996). "Case study: Cross-gender preoccupations in two male children with autism". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 26 (6): 635–642. doi:10.1007/BF02172352. ISSN 0162-3257. PMID 8986849. S2CID 25674178.
  50. ^ Tateno, Masaru; Tateno, Yukie; Saito, Toshikazu (April 2008). "Comorbid childhood gender identity disorder in a boy with Asperger syndrome". Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 62 (2): 238. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1819.2008.01761.x. ISSN 1323-1316. PMID 18412849. S2CID 6167494.
  51. ^ Mukaddes, N. M. (November 2002). "Gender identity problems in autistic children: Gender identity problems in autistic children". Child: Care, Health and Development. 28 (6): 529–532. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2214.2002.00301.x. PMID 12568483.
  52. ^ Landén, M.; Rasmussen, P. (September 1997). "Gender identity disorder in a girl with autism ?a case report". European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 6 (3): 170–173. doi:10.1007/BF00538990. ISSN 1018-8827. PMID 9383652. S2CID 38311440.
  53. ^ Perera, H; Gadambanathan, T; Weerasiri, S (2011-08-23). "Gender identity disorder presenting in a girl with Asperger's disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder". Ceylon Medical Journal. 48 (2): 57–58. doi:10.4038/cmj.v48i2.3374. ISSN 2386-1274. PMID 12971211.
  54. ^ Gallucci, Gerard; Hackerman, Florence; Schmidt, Chester W. (March 2005). "Gender Identity Disorder in an Adult Male with Asperger's Syndrome". Sexuality and Disability. 23 (1): 35–40. doi:10.1007/s11195-004-2078-4. ISSN 0146-1044. S2CID 144188459.
  55. ^ VanderLaan, Doug P.; Postema, Lori; Wood, Hayley; Singh, Devita; Fantus, Sophia; Hyun, Jessica; Leef, Jonathan; Bradley, Susan J.; Zucker, Kenneth J. (2015-02-12). "Do Children With Gender Dysphoria Have Intense/Obsessional Interests?". The Journal of Sex Research. 52 (2): 213–219. doi:10.1080/00224499.2013.860073. ISSN 0022-4499. PMID 24558954. S2CID 205443406.
  56. ^ Jacobs, L.; Rachlin, Katherine; Erickson-Schroth, L.; Janssen, A. (11 December 2014). "Gender Dysphoria and Co-Occurring Autism Spectrum Disorders: Review, Case Examples, and Treatment Considerations". LGBT Health. 1 (4): 277–82. doi:10.1089/lgbt.2013.0045. PMID 26789856.
  57. ^ van Schalkwyk, G.I.; Klingensmith, K.; Volkmar, F.R. (4 March 2015). "Gender identity and autism spectrum disorders". Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. 88 (1): 81–3. PMC 4345542. PMID 25744543.
  58. ^ Shumer, D.E.; Reisner, S.L.; Edwards-Leeper, L.; Tishelman, A. (1 October 2016). "Evaluation of Asperger Syndrome in Youth Presenting to a Gender Dysphoria Clinic". LGBT Health. 88 (5): 81–3. doi:10.1089/lgbt.2015.0070. PMC 5073215. PMID 26651183.
  59. ^ Kaltiala-Heino, R.; Sumia, M.; Työläjärvi, M.; Lindberg, N. (9 April 2015). "Two years of gender identity service for minors: overrepresentation of natal girls with severe problems in adolescent development". Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health. 9 (9): 9. doi:10.1186/s13034-015-0042-y. PMC 4396787. PMID 25873995.
  60. ^ a b c Stagg, S.; Vincent, J. (September 2019). "Autistic traits in individuals self-defining as transgender or nonbinary". European Psychiatry. 61: 17–22. doi:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2019.06.003. PMID 31260907. S2CID 195770805.
  61. ^ a b Murphy, J.; Prentice, F.; Walsh, R.; Catmur, C.; Bird, G. (January 2020). "Autism and transgender identity: Implications for depression and anxiety". Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 69 (101466): 101466. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2019.101466. S2CID 210571788.
  62. ^ Jones, R.M.; Wheelwright, S.; Farrell, K.; Martin, E.; Green, R.; Di Ceglie, D.; Baron-Cohen, S. (30 March 2011). "Brief report: female-to-male transsexual people and autistic traits". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 42 (2): 301–6. doi:10.1007/s10803-011-1227-8. PMID 21448752. S2CID 17812230.
  63. ^ Pasterski, V.; Gilligan, L.; Curtis, R. (18 July 2013). "Traits of autism spectrum disorders in adults with gender dysphoria". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 43 (2): 301–6. doi:10.1007/s10508-013-0154-5. PMID 23864402. S2CID 20078504.
  64. ^ "Transgender and gender-diverse individuals are more likely to be autistic and report higher autistic traits" (Press release). Cambridge, UK: University of Cambridge. 7 August 2020. Archived from the original on 22 April 2021. Retrieved 2021-09-11.
  65. ^ Warrier, V.; Greenberg, D.M.; Weir, E.; Buckingham, C.; Smith, Paula; Lai, M.C.; Allison, C.; Baron-Cohen, S. (7 August 2020). "Elevated rates of autism, other neurodevelopmental and psychiatric diagnoses, and autistic traits in transgender and gender-diverse individuals". Nature Communications. 11 (3959): 3959. Bibcode:2020NatCo..11.3959W. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-17794-1. PMC 7415151. PMID 32770077.
  66. ^ a b Janssen, A.; Huang, H.; Duncan, C. (18 February 2019). "Gender Variance Among Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Retrospective Chart Review". Transgender Health. 1 (1): 63–68. doi:10.1089/trgh.2015.0007. PMC 5367474. PMID 28861527.
  67. ^ Kristensen, Z.E.; Broome, M.R. (16 January 2016). "Autistic Traits in an Internet Sample of Gender Variant UK Adults". International Journal of Transgenderism. 16 (4): 234–45. doi:10.1080/15532739.2015.1094436. S2CID 146875880.
  68. ^ Cullinan, Heidi (June 2015). "Representing autism and romantic orientation in fiction". Spectrums Magazine. Portland, Oregon: Spectrums Magazine LLC. pp. 10–11. Retrieved September 11, 2021.
  69. ^ Dolan, Naoise (March 4, 2021). "'Embracing queerness delayed my coming to terms with autism. We need more visibility,' says acclaimed author Naoise Dolan". PinkNews (Interview). Interviewed by Patrick Kelleher. Archived from the original on March 5, 2021. Retrieved September 11, 2021.
  70. ^ "Doctor's Orders". Official website of Heidi Cullinan. Archived from the original on September 12, 2021. Retrieved September 12, 2021.
  71. ^ Hoffmann, Ada (2019-06-11). The Outside. Watkins Media Limited. ISBN 978-0-85766-814-1.
  72. ^ "Revealing The Fallen, Sequel to Ada Hoffman's The Outside". September 9, 2020. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020.
  73. ^ Walsh, Dominic (July 14, 2021). "In Review: The Fallen by Ada Hoffmann". SciFi Pulse. Archived from the original on July 14, 2021. Retrieved September 12, 2021.
  74. ^ West, Xan (May 20, 2019). "Guest Post: Their Troublesome Crush by Xan West". Queer Books Unbound. Archived from the original on March 4, 2021. Retrieved September 12, 2021.
  75. ^ West, Xan. "Author Interview: Xan West". Let's Fox About It (Interview). Interviewed by Ceillie Simkiss. WordPress. Archived from the original on September 27, 2020. Retrieved September 12, 2021.
  76. ^ Pryde, Jessica (16 December 2020). "Read Harder: A Fat-Positive Romance". Book Riot. Archived from the original on February 17, 2021.
  77. ^ "Cover Reveal: Tenderness by Xan West". Let's Fox About It. WordPress. 9 March 2020. Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved September 12, 2021.
  78. ^ "Tonight We Rule the World [Review]". Kirkus Reviews. July 13, 2021. Archived from the original on September 12, 2021. Retrieved September 12, 2021.
  79. ^ Desborough, Jenny (August 17, 2021). "Pansexual Meaning As Mae Whitman Opens Up on Sexuality". Newsweek. Archived from the original on August 17, 2021. Retrieved November 26, 2021. Original Reddit thread here
  80. ^ Interview With Dana Terrace and Matt Braly, retrieved 2022-05-29 Timestamp: 1:07:26
  81. ^ a b Steele, Hamish (June 16, 2022). "'Dead End: Paranormal Park' Creator Hamish Steele on Crafting the Animated YA LGBTQ-Inclusive Horror Series". The Hollywood Reporter (Interview). Interviewed by Abbey White. Archived from the original on June 17, 2022. Retrieved June 19, 2022. Long story short, I was diagnosed with autism during the show’s production, basically, thanks to Norma, because I was just writing my experiences...I think for a possible season two, the focus would shift a degree towards Norma and balance that out.
  82. ^ Wratten, Marcus (July 14, 2022). "Dead End: Paranormal Park creator on upsetting Republicans and the power of trans characters". PinkNews. Archived from the original on July 26, 2022. Retrieved August 2, 2022. As a gay person working in the industry, it’s hard to hear that and not think that you are inappropriate.
  83. ^ Rude, Mey (May 19, 2022). "Watch the Trailer For New Trans Cartoon Series Dead End: Paranormal Park". Out Magazine. Archived from the original on May 19, 2022. Retrieved May 19, 2022.
  84. ^ King, Jade (June 17, 2022). "Dead End: Paranormal Park Is A Spooky, Fun, And Super Queer Adventure". The Gamer. Archived from the original on June 17, 2022. Retrieved June 17, 2022.
  85. ^ polypearls [@polypearls] (June 18, 2022). "ohhh my god netflix u need to renew dead end immediately" (Tweet). Archived from the original on June 19, 2022 – via Twitter. This tweet shares a direct message by Hamish Steele about Norma.
  86. ^ "Quirky, Spooky and Hilarious World Of 'DeadEndia' Comes To Netflix In A New Animated Series". Netflix Media Center. 2 July 2020. Archived from the original on August 13, 2020. The graphic novels have been lauded for capturing the growing pains of early adulthood of characters...including...neurodiverse Norma
  87. ^ Gilchrest, Tracy E. (March 21, 2020). "Everything's Gonna Be Okay Shows 'Dual Spectrum' of Autism and LGBTQ Identities". The Advocate. Archived from the original on March 12, 2021. Retrieved September 11, 2021.

Further reading[edit]