Automated clearing house
|Part of a series on financial services|
An automated clearing house (ACH), or automated clearinghouse, is an electronic network for financial transactions, generally domestic low value payments. An ACH is a computer-based clearing house and settlement facility established to process the exchange of electronic transactions between participating financial institutions. It is a form of clearing house that is specifically for payments and may support both credit transfers and direct debits.
ACHs are designed for high-volume, low-value payments, and charge fees low enough to encourage the transfer of low-value payments. The system is designed to accept payment batches, so that large numbers of payments can be made at once.
The automated clearing house was envisaged in the US in the late 1960s by a group of banks in California as a replacement for check payments. This led to the first automated clearing house in 1972, operated by the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. The first ACH systems operated on a gross settlement basis, requiring banks to hold deposits to cover each ACH transaction. Netting ACH transactions reduces the amount of deposits a bank must hold.
ACHs process large volumes of credit and debit transactions in batches. ACH credit transfers are initiated by the payer and include payments such as: direct deposits, payrolls, retail payments and vendor payments. ACH direct debit collections are initiated by the payee with pre-authorization from the payer; ACH direct debits include consumer payments such as utility bills, insurance premiums, mortgage loans, and other types of bills. Transactions received by the bank during the day are stored and transmitted in batches to the ACH. ACHs are net settlement systems, so settlement may be delayed for day(s), and there is some settlement risk. ACHs may allow for the transfer of a limited amount of additional information along with payment instructions.
ACH payments contrast with real-time gross settlement (RTGS) payments which are processed immediately by the central RTGS system and not subject to any waiting period on a one-to-one basis. ACH systems are typically used for low-value, non-urgent transactions while RTGS systems are typically used for high-value, urgent transactions.
This section describes in a generic way the typical operation of an ACH system. Each ACH system has its own specifics; see, for example, quick facts for the NACHA ACH Network in the United States and its terminology.
- The ordering customer makes a transaction initiation, which can be either manually or by sending a file of initiation requests to a bank.
- The bank gathers all transaction initiations for an ACH that arrive from different customers (combining manual and file-based).
- On a periodic basis, the bank creates a file that it dispatches to the ACH either at the end of day or in cycles throughout the day.
- The ACH operator combines the information submitted by the banks within each cycle (generally ACHs have several cycles throughout the day).
- The ACH operator informs each bank of the net settlement amount for which they are responsible for the cycle.
- The ACH operator ensures that the settlement amounts are received from all participants for the cycle, so that the cycle can be executed.
- The ACH operator informs the destinator's bank of the transaction details.
- When transaction arrives in the destination bank, the bank executes the transaction: such as crediting the payment to the beneficiary, while the ordering customer's bank debits the ordering customer's account.
There are various ACH systems around the world. The World Bank identified 87 systems in their 2010 Survey and 98 systems in their 2012 survey , while other sources have made qualitative analysis of a smaller number of ACH systems.
|Argentina||COELSA (Compensadora Electrónica)|
|Australia||Bulk Electronic Clearing System (BECS)|
|Austria||GSA and Oesterreichische Nationalbank|
|Bahamas||Bahamas Automated Clearing House (BACH)|
|Bangladesh||Bangladesh Automated Clearing House (BACH)|
|Belgium||CEC Centre for Exchange and Clearing|
|Canada||Retail System, known formally as the Automated Clearing Settlement System (ACSS), run by Payments Canada|
|Chile||Centro de Compensación Automatizado (CCA)|
|China||China National Advanced Payment System (CNAPS) Bulk Electronic Payment System (BEPS)|
|Colombia||ACH-Colombia and CENIT|
|Denmark||Eurogiro and Nets Group|
|Europe||a Pan-European automated clearing house for the Single Euro Payments Area, STEP2|
|Hong Kong||Interbank Clearing Limited|
|India||National Automated Clearing House and National Electronic Funds Transfer|
|Italy||Banca d'Italia, Nexi and SIA|
|Mexico||SICAM (Sistema de Camaras)|
|Moldova||National Bank of Moldova|
|Nigeria||Nigeria Interbank Settlement System (NIBSS)|
|Philippines||PesoNet and InstaPay|
|Republic of Macedonia||KIBS|
|Romania||TransFonD SENT ACH|
|Saudi Arabia||SARIE: with both RTGS and ACH|
|Singapore||eGIRO which is part of Singapore Automated Clearing House|
|Sweden||Bankgirocentralen BGC AB|
|Switzerland||Swiss Interbank Clearing|
|United Kingdom||Bacs Payment Schemes Limited and VocaLink|
|United States||Federal Reserve Bank's FedACH and The Clearing House's Electronic Payments Network, underpinned by NACHA's ACH Network|
|Venezuela||CCE (Electronic Clearing System)|
In addition, there are various ACH associations such as the European Automated Clearing House Association.
Uses of the ACH payment system
There are various usages of ACH systems; the terminology related to different types of transactions varying in different countries. Most ACH payment systems support the following types:
- Credit Transfer: non-immediate transfer of funds between accounts at different financial institutions for payments by retail customers and non-urgent business-to-business payments.
- Direct debit payment of consumer bills such as mortgages, loans, utilities, insurance premiums, rents, and any other regular payment
- Clearing (finance)
- Clearing house (finance)
- Electronic funds transfer
- Pan-European automated clearing house
- Payment system
- Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication
- Wire transfer
- Dr. B.S. Sawant. "Technological Developments in Indian Banking Sector" (PDF). www.researchgate.net. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
- European Central Bank. "Payments and markets glossary". www.bankingsupervision.europa.eu. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
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- "AECH - Albanian Electronic Clearing House". www.bankofalbania.org.
- "Cash and Treasury Management Country Report: Argentina" (PDF). www.afponline.org. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
- "GeldService Austria" (PDF). www.geldservice.at.
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- "Centre for Exchange and Clearing". www.cecbelgium.be.
- "Cash and Treasury Management Country Report: Brazil" (PDF). www.afponline.org. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
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- "HKICL Electronic Clearing". www.hkicl.com.hk. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
- "The Banks' Clearing House". www.boi.org.il.
- "Israel's Payment and Settlement Systems" (PDF). www.boi.org.il.
- "Cash and Treasury Management Country Report: Mexico" (PDF). www.afponline.org. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
- "About Automated Clearing". www.nift.pk. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
- "Automated Clearing House - SENT". www.transfond.ro. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
- The Saudi Arabian Riyal Interbank Express (SARIE)
- "Singapore Consumer Banking". abs.org.sg. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
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- "Electronic Payment". KFTC (Korea Financial Telecommunications & Clearings Institute). Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- "Cash and Treasury Management Country Report: Venezuela" (PDF). www.afponline.org. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
- "European Automated Clearing House Association". www.eacha.org.