Test automation

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See also: Manual testing

In software testing, test automation is the use of special software (separate from the software being tested) to control the execution of tests and the comparison of actual outcomes with predicted outcomes.[1] Test automation can automate some repetitive but necessary tasks in a formalized testing process already in place, or add additional testing that would be difficult to perform manually. Test automation is critical for continuous testing.


Some software testing tasks, such as extensive low-level interface regression testing, can be laborious and time consuming to do manually. In addition, a manual approach might not always be effective in finding certain classes of defects. Test automation offers a possibility to perform these types of testing effectively. Once automated tests have been developed, they can be run quickly and repeatedly. Many times, this can be a cost-effective method for regression testing of software products that have a long maintenance life. Even minor patches over the lifetime of the application can cause existing features to break which were working at an earlier point in time.

There are many approaches to test automation, however below are the general approaches used widely:

  • Graphical user interface testing. A testing framework generates user interface events such as keystrokes and mouse clicks, and observes the changes that result in the user interface, to validate that the observable behavior of the program is correct.
  • API driven testing. A testing framework that uses a programming interface to the application to validate the behaviour under test. Typically API driven testing bypasses application user interface altogether. It can also be testing public (usually) interfaces to classes, modules or libraries are tested with a variety of input arguments to validate that the results that are returned are correct.

Test automation tools can be expensive, and are usually employed in combination with manual testing. Test automation can be made cost-effective in the long term, especially when used repeatedly in regression testing.[citation needed]

In automated testing the Test Engineer or Software quality assurance person must have software coding ability, since the test cases are written in the form of source code which, when run, produce output according to the assertions that are a part of it.

One way to generate test cases automatically is model-based testing through use of a model of the system for test case generation, but research continues into a variety of alternative methodologies for doing so.[citation needed] In some cases, the model-based approach enables non-technical users to create automated business test cases in plain English so that no programming of any kind is needed in order to configure them for multiple operating systems, browsers, and smart devices.[2]

What to automate, when to automate, or even whether one really needs automation are crucial decisions which the testing (or development) team must make. Selecting the correct features of the product for automation largely determines the success of the automation. Automating unstable features or features that are undergoing changes should be avoided.[3]

Unit testing[edit]

A growing trend in software development is the use of testing frameworks such as the xUnit frameworks (for example, JUnit and NUnit) that allow the execution of unit tests to determine whether various sections of the code are acting as expected under various circumstances. Test cases describe tests that need to be run on the program to verify that the program runs as expected.

Test automation mostly using unit testing is a key feature of agile software development, where it is known as test-driven development (TDD). Unit tests are written to define the functionality before the code is written. However, these unit tests evolve and are extended as coding progresses, issues are discovered and the code is subjected to refactoring .[4] Only when all the tests for all the demanded features pass is the code considered complete. Proponents argue that it produces software that is both more reliable and less costly than code that is tested by manual exploration.[citation needed] It is considered more reliable because the code coverage is better, and because it is run constantly during development rather than once at the end of a waterfall development cycle. The developer discovers defects immediately upon making a change, when it is least expensive to fix. Finally, code refactoring is safer; transforming the code into a simpler form with less code duplication, but equivalent behavior, is much less likely to introduce new defects.

Graphical User Interface (GUI) testing[edit]

Many test automation tools provide record and playback features that allow users to interactively record user actions and replay them back any number of times, comparing actual results to those expected. The advantage of this approach is that it requires little or no software development. This approach can be applied to any application that has a graphical user interface. However, reliance on these features poses major reliability and maintainability problems. Relabelling a button or moving it to another part of the window may require the test to be re-recorded. Record and playback also often adds irrelevant activities or incorrectly records some activities.[citation needed]

A variation on this type of tool is for testing of web sites. Here, the "interface" is the web page. This type of tool also requires little or no software development.[citation needed] However, such a framework utilizes entirely different techniques because it is reading HTML instead of observing window events.[citation needed]

Another variation of this type of test automation tool is for testing mobile applications. This is very useful given the number of different sizes, resolutions, and operating systems used on mobile phones. For this variation, a framework (eg. Calabash) is used in order to instantiate actions on the mobile device and to gather results of the actions.[5][better source needed]

Another variation is script-less test automation that does not use record and playback, but instead builds a model of the Application Under Test (AUT) and then enables the tester to create test cases by simply editing in test parameters and conditions. This requires no scripting skills, but has all the power and flexibility of a scripted approach.[citation needed] Test-case maintenance seems to be easy, as there is no code to maintain and as the AUT changes the software objects can simply be re-learned or added. It can be applied to any GUI-based software application.[citation needed] The problem is the model of the AUT is actually implemented using test scripts, which have to be constantly maintained whenever there's change to the AUT.[citation needed]

API driven testing[edit]

API testing is also being widely used by software testers due to the difficulty of creating and maintaining GUI-based automation testing. It involves directly testing APIs as part of integration testing, to determine if they meet expectations for functionality, reliability, performance, and security.[6] Since APIs lack a GUI, API testing is performed at the message layer.[7] API testing is considered critical when an API serves as the primary interface to application logic since GUI tests can be difficult to maintain with the short release cycles and frequent changes commonly used with agile software development and DevOps.[8][9]

Continuous testing[edit]

Continuous testing is the process of executing automated tests as part of the software delivery pipeline to obtain immediate feedback on the business risks associated with a software release candidate.[10][11] For Continuous Testing, the scope of testing extends from validating bottom-up requirements or user stories to assessing the system requirements associated with overarching business goals.[12]

What to test[edit]

Testing tools can help automate tasks such as product installation, test data creation, GUI interaction, problem detection (consider parsing or polling agents equipped with oracles[further explanation needed]), defect logging, etc., without necessarily automating tests in an end-to-end fashion.

One must keep satisfying popular requirements when thinking of test automation:

  • Platform and OS independence
  • Data driven capability (Input Data, Output Data, Metadata)
  • Customizable Reporting (DB Data Base Access, Crystal Reports)
  • Easy debugging and logging
  • Version control friendly – minimal binary files
  • Extensible & Customizable (Open APIs to be able to integrate with other tools)
  • Common Driver (For example, in the Java development ecosystem, that means Ant or Maven and the popular IDEs). This enables tests to integrate with the developers' workflows.
  • Support unattended test runs for integration with build processes and batch runs. Continuous integration servers require this.
  • Email Notifications like bounce messages
  • Support distributed execution environment (distributed test bed)
  • Distributed application support (distributed SUT)

Framework approach in automation[edit]

A test automation framework is an integrated system that sets the rules of automation of a specific product. This system integrates the function libraries, test data sources, object details and various reusable modules. These components act as small building blocks which need to be assembled to represent a business process. The framework provides the basis of test automation and simplifies the automation effort.

The main advantage of a framework of assumptions, concepts and tools that provide support for automated software testing is the low cost for maintenance. If there is change to any test case then only the test case file needs to be updated and the driver Script and startup script will remain the same. Ideally, there is no need to update the scripts in case of changes to the application.

Choosing the right framework/scripting technique helps in maintaining lower costs. The costs associated with test scripting are due to development and maintenance efforts. The approach of scripting used during test automation has effect on costs.

Various framework/scripting techniques are generally used:

  1. Linear (procedural code, possibly generated by tools like those that use record and playback)
  2. Structured (uses control structures - typically ‘if-else’, ‘switch’, ‘for’, ‘while’ conditions/ statements)
  3. Data-driven (data is persisted outside of tests in a database, spreadsheet, or other mechanism)
  4. Keyword-driven
  5. Hybrid (two or more of the patterns above are used)
  6. Agile automation framework

The Testing framework is responsible for:[13]

  1. defining the format in which to express expectations
  2. creating a mechanism to hook into or drive the application under test
  3. executing the tests
  4. reporting results

Test automation interface[edit]

Test automation interface are platforms that provide a single workspace for incorporating multiple testing tools and frameworks for System/Integration testing of application under test. The goal of Test Automation Interface is to simplify the process of mapping tests to business criteria without coding coming in the way of the process. Test automation interface are expected to improve the efficiency and flexibility of maintaining test scripts.[14]

Test Automation Interface Model

Test Automation Interface consists of the following core modules:

  • Interface Engine
  • Interface Environment
  • Object Repository

Interface engine[edit]

Interface engines are built on top of Interface Environment. Interface engine consists of a parser and a test runner. The parser is present to parse the object files coming from the object repository into the test specific scripting language. The test runner executes the test scripts using a test harness.[14]

Object repository[edit]

Object repositories are a collection of UI/Application object data recorded by the testing tool while exploring the application under test.[14]

Defining boundaries between automation framework and a testing tool[edit]

Tools are specifically designed to target some particular test environment, such as Windows and web automation tools, etc. Tools serve as a driving agent for an automation process. However, an automation framework is not a tool to perform a specific task, but rather an infrastructure that provides the solution where different tools can do their job in a unified manner. This provides a common platform for the automation engineer.

There are various types of frameworks. They are categorized on the basis of the automation component they leverage. These are:

  1. Data-driven testing
  2. Modularity-driven testing
  3. Keyword-driven testing
  4. Hybrid testing
  5. Model-based testing
  6. Code driven testing
  7. Behavior driven development

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Kolawa, Adam; Huizinga, Dorota (2007). Automated Defect Prevention: Best Practices in Software Management. Wiley-IEEE Computer Society Press. p. 74. ISBN 0-470-04212-5. 
  2. ^ "Proceedings from the 5th International Conference on Software Testing and Validation (ICST). Software Competence Center Hagenberg. "Test Design: Lessons Learned and Practical Implications.". 
  3. ^ Brian Marick. "When Should a Test Be Automated?". StickyMinds.com. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  4. ^ Learning Test-Driven Development by Counting Lines; Bas Vodde & Lasse Koskela; IEEE Software Vol. 24, Issue 3, 2007
  5. ^ Testmunk. "A Beginner’s Guide to Automated Mobile App Testing | Testmunk Blog". blog.testmunk.com. Retrieved 2015-09-17. 
  6. ^ Testing APIs protects applications and reputations, by Amy Reichert, SearchSoftwareQuality March 2015
  7. ^ All About API Testing: An Interview with Jonathan Cooper, by Cameron Philipp-Edmonds, Stickyminds August 19, 2014
  8. ^ The Forrester Wave™ Evaluation Of Functional Test Automation (FTA) Is Out And It's All About Going Beyond GUI Testing, by Diego Lo Giudice, Forrester April 23, 2015
  9. ^ Produce Better Software by Using a Layered Testing Strategy, by Sean Kenefick, Gartner January 7, 2014
  10. ^ Part of the Pipeline: Why Continuous Testing Is Essential, by Adam Auerbach, TechWell Insights August 2015
  11. ^ The Relationship between Risk and Continuous Testing: An Interview with Wayne Ariola, by Cameron Philipp-Edmonds, Stickyminds December 2015
  12. ^ DevOps: Are You Pushing Bugs to Clients Faster, by Wayne Ariola and Cynthia Dunlop, PNSQC October 2015
  13. ^ "Selenium Meet-Up 4/20/2010 Elisabeth Hendrickson on Robot Framework 1of2". Retrieved 2010-09-26. 
  14. ^ a b c "Conquest: Interface for Test Automation Design" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-12-11. 

External links[edit]