Automatic train operation
Automatic train operation (ATO) is an operational safety enhancement device used to help automate operations of trains. Mainly, it is used on automated guideway transits and subways which are easier to ensure safety of humans. Most systems elect to maintain a driver (train operator) to mitigate risks associated with failures or emergencies.
Many modern systems are linked with Automatic Train Control (ATC) and in many cases Automatic Train Protection (ATP) where normal signaller operations such as route setting and train regulation are carried out by the system. The ATO and ATC/ATP systems will work together to maintain a train within a defined tolerance of its timetable. The combined system will marginally adjust operating parameters such as the ratio of power to coast when moving and station dwell time, in order to bring a train back to the timetable slot defined for it.
Types of train automation
- GoA 0 is on-sight train operation, similar to a tram running in street traffic.
- GoA 1 is manual train operation where a train driver controls starting and stopping, operation of doors and handling of emergencies or sudden diversions.
- GoA 2 is semi-automatic train operation (STO) where stopping is automated but a driver in the cab starts the train, operates the doors, drives the train if needed and handles emergencies. Many ATO systems are GoA 2.
- GoA 3 is driverless train operation (DTO) where starting and stopping are automated but a train attendant operates the doors and drives the train in case of emergencies.
- GoA 4 is unattended train operation (UTO) where starting and stopping, operation of doors and handling of emergencies are fully automated without any on-train staff.
- On the New York City Subway, the BMT Canarsie Line (L trains) began full ATO in June 2012. IRT Flushing Line (7 <7> trains) are undergoing track and signal modernization, with completion in 2016.
- On the Nuremberg U-Bahn, existing U2 and new U3 lines converted to ATO, with one-year mix service.
- The Tren Urbano, which serves the San Juan metropolitan area, has an Siemens ATC system that allows for fully automatic operation.
- The Vancouver SkyTrain in Vancouver, British Columbia, is an automated and driverless system commissioned in 1985.
Many railways are planning on using ATO. It has been partially implemented on the Delhi Metro with plans of full operation by 2013.[needs update] ATO was introduced on the London Underground's Northern line in 2013 and will be introduced on the Circle, District, Hammersmith & City, and Metropolitan lines by 2022. Although ATO will be used on Crossrail and Thameslink, it has not yet been implemented on UK mainline railways. The Toronto Subway and RT is undergoing signal upgrades in order to switch to have the system running on ATO over the next decade. The U-Bahn in Vienna gets an ATO in 2023 on the new U5 line.
- List of automated urban metro subway systems
- Autonomous car
- Communications-based train control – A moving block signalling system that can be used to automate operation of trains
- Guided bus
- List of driverless trains
- One-man operation – A method of train operation on train systems of grade GoA 2
- International Association of Public Transport. "A global bid for automation: UITP Observatory of Automated Metros confirms sustained growth rates for the coming years" (PDF). Belgium.
- Elisabeth Fischer (23 August 2011). "Justifying automation". Railway-Technology.com.
- New York City Transit - History and Chronology.
- "MTA L Train Response to Squadron" (PDF) (Press release). Metropolitan Transportation Authority (New York). 2011-09-06. Retrieved 2011-10-29.
- "New York Flushing Line CBTC contract awarded". Railway Gazette. 2010-06-28. Retrieved 2011-10-29.
- "Driverless operations start in Nürnberg". Railway Gazette International.
- Railway Gazette International July 2008 p203
- www.railway-technology.com Tren Urbano Rapid Transit System, Puerto Rico - Accessed 2011-07-12