Automotive industry in Russia
Automotive production is a significant industry in Russia, directly employing around 600,000 people or 1% of the country's total workforce. Russia produced 1,767,674 vehicles in 2018, ranking 13th among car-producing nations in 2018, and accounting for 1.8% of the worldwide production. The main local brands are light vehicle producers AvtoVAZ and GAZ, while KamAZ is the leading heavy vehicle producer. Eleven foreign carmakers have production operations or are constructing their plants in Russia.
The Russian Empire had a long history of progress in the development of machinery. As early as in the eighteenth century Ivan I. Polzunov constructed the first two-cylinder steam engine in the world, while Ivan P. Kulibin created a human-powered vehicle that had a flywheel, a brake, a gearbox, and roller bearings. One of the world's first tracked vehicles was invented by Fyodor A. Blinov in 1877. In 1896, the Yakovlev engine factory and the Freze carriage-manufacturing workshop manufactured the first Russian petrol-engine automobile, the Yakovlev & Freze.
The turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was marked by the invention of the earliest Russian electrocar, nicknamed the “Cuckoo”, which was created by the engineer Hippolyte V. Romanov in 1899. Romanov also constructed a battery-electric omnibus. In the years preceding the 1917 October Revolution, Russia produced a growing number of Russo-Balt, Puzyryov, Lessner, and other vehicles, held its first motor show in 1907 and had car enthusiasts who successfully participated in international motor racing. A Russo-Balt car placed 9th in the Monte Carlo Rally of 1912, despite the extreme winter conditions that threatened the lives of the driver and riding mechanic on their way from Saint Petersburg, 2nd in the San Sebastián Rally and covered more than 15,000 km in Western Europe and Northern Africa in 1913. The driver of the car, Andrei P. Nagel, was personally awarded by Emperor Nicholas II for increasing the prestige of the domestic car brand.
In February 1916 the Tsarist government allocated funds for the construction of six automotive plants: AMO in Moscow, Russo-Balt in the village of Fili, the State Plant of Military Self-Propelled Vehicles (KZVS) in Mytishchi, Russian Renault in Rybinsk, Aksai in Nakhichevan-on-Don, and Lebedev in Yaroslavl. None of the plants were completed before the October Revolution.
After the 1917 October Revolution, Russo-Balt was nationalised on 15 August 1918, and renamed to Prombron by the new leadership. It continued the production of Russo-Balt cars and launched a new model on 8 October 1922, while AMO built FIAT 15 Ter trucks under licence and released a more modern FIAT-derived truck developed by a team of AMO designers, the AMO-F-15. About 6,000–6,500 F-15s were built in the years 1924–1931.
In 1927, engineers from the Scientific Automobile & Motor Institute (NAMI) created the first original Soviet car NAMI-I, which was produced in small numbers by the Spartak State Automobile Factory in Moscow, between 1927 and 1931. In 1929, due to a rapidly growing demand for automobiles and in cooperation with its trade partner, the Ford Motor Company, the Supreme Soviet of the National Economy established GAZ. A year later, a second automobile plant was founded in Moscow, which would become a major Soviet car maker after World War II and earn nationwide fame under the name Moskvitch.
The beginning of the 1960s saw the release of the Moskvitch 408, intended to be an economy car that would spread the use of cars among the population. Other manufacturers such as MZMA, GAZ and ZAZ were offering a variety of cars intended for the mass market. The Soviet government opted to build an even larger car manufacturing plant that would produce a people's car and help to meet the demand for personal transport. For reasons of cost-efficiency, it was decided to produce the car on the basis of an existing, modern foreign model. After considering several options, the Fiat 124 was chosen because of its simple and sturdy design, being easy to manufacture and repair.
The plant was built in just 4 years (1966–1970) in the small town of Stavropol Volzhsky, which later grew to a population of more than half a million and was renamed Togliatti to commemorate Palmiro Togliatti. At the same time, the Izhmash car plant was established in the city of Izhevsk as part of the Izhevsk Mechanical Plant, with the initiative coming from the Minister of Defence and in order to increase the overall production of cars in the Soviet Union. It produced Moskvitchs and Moskvitch-based kombi hatchbacks. KaMAZ, Europe's largest heavy truck plant, was built in Naberezhnye Chelny, while GAZ, ZIL, UralAZ, KrAZ, MAZ, BelAZ, and plants continued to produce other types of trucks.
By the early 1980s, Soviet automobile industry consisted of several main plants, which produced vehicles for various market segments. In late 1987, the industry produced 2 million cars, satisfying 45% of the domestic demand.
In the early 1990s the Russian car market expanded dramatically, largely due to a drastic cut on import duties, so that by 1993 foreign-made imported cars made up 49% of all sales. At the same time, Russian automakers were integrated into a market economy and immediately hit by a crisis due to the loss of financial support, economic turmoil, criminal activities and stiffer competition in the domestic market during the 1990s.
The main domestic manufacturers in the early 1990s were AvtoVAZ, AZLK, IzhAvto, GAZ and UAZ. Some of them, like AvtoVAZ, turned to cooperation with other companies (such as GM-AvtoVAZ) in order to obtain substantial capital investment and overcome the crisis.
By 1993, total output was down 14% compared to 1990 levels. Lada's declining sales during the 1990s, and toughening European Union emissions requirements, saw exports to Western Europe discontinued by the end of the decade. Lada had enjoyed particularly strong sales in Britain, peaking at more than 30,000 sales a year in the late 1980s, but had failed to remain competitive with other budget brands over the subsequent few years.
850,000 cars were sold in 1996. As demand kept rising, local brands continued to be affected by a reputation for poor manufacturing quality. It was estimated in 1996 that a newly bought AvtoVAZ car needed $1–2,000 worth of repairs to bring it to a comfortable level of safety.
The 1998 Russian financial crisis affected the industry, as car manufacturers stopped using imported components because of higher import prices. Nevertheless, the industry quickly recovered in subsequent years.
In 1997, car production increased by 13.2% in comparison with 1996 and achieved 981,000. AvtoVAZ and UAZ extended their output by 8.8 and 52 percent respectively, whereas KamAZ doubled it. The overall truck production in Russia increased by 7 percent, reaching 148,000 in 1997 and 184,000 in 2000. The overall production of cars rose from about 800,000 in 1993 to more than 1.16 million in 2000, or 965,000 (969,235 according to OICA) excluding commercial vehicles.
Throughout the 1990s, the unavailability of dealer financing meant that cars had to be purchased in cash.
2000 to 2008
In the early 2000s, the Russian economy recovered. Russian metal companies, having achieved significant profits on foreign markets, sought to invest in Russia's automotive sector. Siberian Aluminum initially bought Pavlovo Bus Factory and accumulated increasing ownership stakes in GAZ. At the same time, Severstal gained control of UAZ.
In 2001 Ford became the first western manufacturer to establish its own assembly plant in Russia, investing $150 million in their Vsevolozhsk factory, manufacturing the Ford Focus, which briefly became the best-selling foreign-branded car in Russia.
In 2003 Russian manufacturers still accounted for over 90% of car production in Russia, either under their own brand or in partnership with a foreign company. The six main automotive groups were AvtoVAZ, SOK Group, Kamaz, RusPromAvto, SeverstalAvto and AZLK. Just 11,000 cars were locally assembled by foreign manufacturers in 2002.
Macroeconomic trends were strong and growing incomes of the population led to a surging demand, and by 2005 the Russian car market was booming. In 2005, 1,446,525 new cars were sold, including 832,200 Russian models and 614,325 foreign ones.
During the first quarter of 2005, foreign-branded cars outsold local ones for the first time in Russian history (including used imports). Foreign companies started to massively invest in production in Russia: the number of foreign cars produced in the Russian Federation surged from 157,179 in 2005 to 456,500 in 2007. To keep up with the competition, local brands launched more modern-looking models, such as Lada Kalina.
The value of the Russian market grew at a brisk pace: 14% in 2005, 36% in 2006 and 67% in 2007—making it the world's fastest growing automotive market by 2008. Foreign companies started flocking to enter Russia in the 2000s, seeing it as a local production location and export powerhouse. Russia's labour, material and energy costs were only 1/6 compared to those in Western Europe.
To boost the market share of locally produced vehicles, the Russian government implemented several protectionist measures and launched programs to attract foreign producers into the country. In late 2005, the Russian leadership enacted legislation to create special economic zones (SEZ) with the aim of encouraging investments by foreign automotive companies. The benefits of operating in the special economic zones include tax allowances, exemption from asset and land taxes and protection against changes in the tax regime. Some regions also provide extensive support for large investors (over $100 million.) These include Saint Petersburg/Leningrad Oblast (Toyota, GM, Nissan) and Kaluga Oblast (VW). Kaluga has been especially successful in attracting foreign companies, as has been Kaliningrad Oblast.
Global financial crisis
Russia's automotive industry was hit hard by the late 2000s recession. Production of passenger cars dropped from 1,470,000 units in 2008 to just 597,000 units in 2009. Lorry production fell from 256,000 to 91,000 in the same period.
In late 2008, the Russian government introduced protectionist measures, worth $5 billion, to improve the situation in the industry. This included $2 billion of bailouts for troubled companies and $3 billion of credits for buyers of Russian cars. Prime minister Vladimir Putin described the move as vital in order to save jobs. The tariffs for imported foreign cars and trucks were increased to a minimum of 50% and go up to 100%. The tariffs are linked to the engine size of the vehicle. The increased duties led to protests in Russian cities, most notably in Vladivostok, where the importation of Japanese cars is an important sector of the city's economy. To compensate for the losses of the Vladivostok businesses, Prime Minister Putin ordered the car manufacturing company Sollers to move one of its factories from Moscow to Vladivostok. The move was completed in 2009, and the factory now employs about 700 locals. It was planned to produce 13,200 cars in Vladivostok in 2010.
The most efficient anti-crisis measure executed by the Russian government was the introduction of a car scrappage scheme in March 2010. Under the scheme, buyers of new cars could receive a subsidy of up to 600,000 rubles (US$20,000). Sales of Russia's largest carmaker Avtovaz doubled in the second quarter of 2010 as a result, and the company returned to profit.
By the end of 2010, automotive production had returned to pre-crisis levels. Nine out of the ten most sold models in Russia in 2010 were domestically produced, with Avtovaz's Lada models topping the list. In the first 7 months of 2010, sales of Lada cars increased by 60%, the Korean KIA reported a jump of 101%, and Chevrolet's sales rose by 15%.
In 2010, Russia was the world's 15th largest producer of cars. The Russian automotive industry currently (as of 2010) accounts for about 2% of worldwide car production.
The market share of Russian-branded vehicles fell to 34% in 2010 and to 21% in 2012. At the same time, the market share of foreign-branded cars made in Russia kept rising, reaching 45% in 2012. Imported vehicles account for a sizable portion of the Russian automotive market: in 2014 they made up 27% of cars and 46% of trucks.
The number of cars on Russian roads reached 40,629,200 in 2016. Lada cars accounted for 34.6% of the total, down from 41.6% five years earlier. Almost half of those cars were over ten years old, and the single most popular car model was still the classic Lada Riva.
The Russian automotive industry can be divided into four types of companies: local brand producers, foreign OEMs, joint ventures and Russian companies producing foreign brands. In 2008, there were 5,445 companies manufacturing vehicles and related equipment in Russia. The volume of production and sales amounted to 1,513 billion rubles.
Cars with diesel engines are not popular in Russia, accounting for just 7.6% of all sales as of 2015, compared to half of the market in much of Western Europe. There are 145,000 natural gas vehicles in Russia as of 2016, or 0.3% of all vehicles in the country. The sale of leaded gasoline was outlawed in 2003.
Domestic car brands
The four most popular cars in Russia in 2009 were all AvtoVAZ models. The economy car Lada Priora topped the list with 84,779 sold units. Lada Samara was second with 77,679 units sold in Russia, and the classic Lada 2105/2107 was third with sales of 57,499. Lada 2105 was expected to considerably increase sales following the car scrappage scheme launched in March 2010. The higher-end Lada Kalina was the fourth most sold car in Russia in 2009, selling 52,499 units that year.
In the light commercial vehicle sector, the GAZelle van, manufactured by GAZ has been very popular, occupying a market share of 49% in 2009 and selling 42,400 units. The Avtoperevozchik magazine declared GAZelle as the most successful vehicle of 2009 in the Russian automotive market.
The largest company of Russia's automotive industry is Avtovaz, located in the city of Tolyatti. It currently employs more than 130,000 people, and its Lada models dominate the Russian car market. Avtovaz models account for about 50% of Russia's total car production.
Russian car manufacturing companies are represented by two associations, ASM-Holding (АСМ-холдинг) and the Association of Russian Automakers (Объединением автопроизводителей России).
Foreign car brands
Russia's second largest car manufacturer is Avtotor, located in Kaliningrad Oblast. Avtotor performs SKD, CKD or full-cycle assembly of foreign models, such as BMW, Kia, and General Motors' Cadillac and Chevrolet vehicles. In 2009, Avtotor produced 60,000 cars and accounted for 10% of Russian car production.
Avtoframos, the third largest car manufacturer, produced 49,500 cars in 2009. Its plant is located in the south-east part of the city of Moscow. Avtoframos is a joint venture between France's Renault and the Moscow city administration, but is majority owned by Renault. The company manufactures Renault Logan and Renault Sandero models. The ratio of Russian-made parts is 54%. The figure was expected to rise to 74% by 2012.
The fourth and fifth largest carmakers in Russia are Volkswagen and Ford, respectively. In total, the five largest companies of the industry account for 80% of all cars made in Russia. In 2016, Hyundai Solaris became the first foreign-branded car to be the best-selling vehicle in the country since sales statistics began in 1970.
Commercial and heavy vehicles
In the heavy vehicle sector, the largest company is the truckmaker KaMAZ. It is also one of the largest companies in the whole Russian automotive industry. In 2010, KaMAZ sold a total of 32,293 trucks; 28,254 in Russia and 4,039 in foreign countries.
Another very important company is GAZ, which makes vans, trucks and busses, among other products. Its most popular product is the GAZelle van, which has a market share of 49% in the light commercial vehicle market. In 2009, the company launched an improved version, called GAZelle Business.
The Marussia brand, produced by Marussia Motors, became the first modern sports car and the first supercar produced in Russia. The Marussia B1 was launched on 16 December 2008 in the New Manezh Hall in Moscow. On 10 September 2010 the first Marussia Motors show room opened in Moscow. Marussia Motors was led by Nikolay Fomenko, a notable Russian showman, singer, actor and racer. His company acquired a 'significant stake' in the Virgin Racing Formula One team, which was renamed Marussia Virgin Racing from 2011. This team is to become the first ever Russian-owned team in Formula One. Marussia Motors declared bankruptcy and ceased both support for their F1 team and overall trading in 2014.
Another short-lived project was the Yo-mobile, a city car that could burn both gasoline and natural gas and was connected to a pair of electric motors. The car was introduced on 13 December 2010 in Moscow, a product of a joint venture between Yarovit, a producer of trucks based in St. Petersburg, Russia and the Onexim investment group, headed by Mikhail Prokhorov, who was the leader and financier of the project. In 2014 the entire project was sold to the Russian government for a nominal sum, thus signalling the abandonment of the idea. No actual vehicles other than a few concept cars were ever produced.
Economic and political significance
Russia's automotive industry is a significant economic sector. It directly employs 600,000 people and supports around 2–3 million people in related industries. It is politically a very important part of the country's economy: firstly, due to the large number of employed people and secondly, because many citizens depend on the social services provided by automotive companies. For example, the well-being of the giant AvtoVAZ factory in Tolyatti is massively important to the city or to the region of Samara Oblast. Tolyatti is a typical monotown, a city whose economy is dependent on a single company. The factory employed around 100,000 people of the city's population of 700,000 in 2009.
In 2009, former President Dmitry Medvedev launched the Medvedev modernisation programme, which aims to diversify Russia's raw materials and energy-dominated economy, turning it into a modern high-tech economy based on innovation. Following this, Russia's automotive industry has been in the spotlight due to its great potential for modernisation.
Former Prime Minister and current President Vladimir Putin has taken a personal interest in the automotive industry. In a symbolic gesture of support, Putin made a highly publicized road trip on the new Amur Highway in August 2010, driving 2,165 kilometers in a Lada Kalina Sport. Putin described the car as "excellent, even beyond my expectations", and praised it as "comfortable" and "almost noise-free." The event was intended to show support for AvtoVAZ, which was recovering from the serious economic crisis.
Top ten manufacturers and car models on the Russian market according to AEB sales figures for 2016:
|1||Hyundai Solaris||90,380||Hyundai Motor Group|
|3||Kia Rio||87,662||Hyundai Motor Group|
|5||Volkswagen Polo||47,702||Volkswagen Group|
|8||Chevrolet Niva||29,844||General Motors|
Best-selling model by year
Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast
- Hyundai: established in 2010, produced over 200,000 vehicles in 2016. As of 2016 the plant is the second largest in Russia, and employs 2,200 workers.
- Nissan: started production in June 2009, produced 33,600 vehicles in 2015.
- Toyota: manufactured 39,000 vehicles in 2016. Toyota Motor Manufacturing Russia (TMMR), 224-ha factory in Shushary laid down in 2005 and launched production on 21 December 2007. In 2007 it produced 20,000 2.4L and 3.5L Toyota Camry vehicles per year.
- General Motors: opened in July 2008, closed in 2015.
- Scania AB, truck plant Scania-Piter, established in 2002. Produces Scania P, R, G.
- MAN Truck & Bus truck plant, established in 2013.
- Ford Sollers in Vsevolozhsk: opened in 2002. It was the first foreign-owned car plant to be established in Russia.
- Caterpillar Inc. in Tosno, established in 2000, produces rigid dump trucks.
- Volkswagen: started production in November 2007, produced 110,000 cars in 2016. A 200 m2 facility with a projected full annual output capacity of 150,000 vehicles, reached during 2010, with employees rising to 3,000. All vehicles produced were initially semi knock downs (SKD), with full production planned to start 2010. Served by Grabtsevo Airport, part of Volkswagen Group Russia (OOO Volkswagen Rus).
- Peugeot Citroen Mitsubishi Automotive: opened in April 2010, produced 25,733 vehicles in 2015.
- Volvo Vostok truck plant in Kaluga, established in 2009. Produces Volvo FH, Volvo FMX, Volvo FM, Renault Premium, Renault Kerax.
Volga Federal District
- Nizhny Novgorod - GAZ, produced 41,691 vehicles in 2015. The plant also produces Volkswagen and Skoda vehicles due to a partnership between Volkswagen Group Rus and GAZ Group.
- Izhevsk: IzhAvto (Nissan), produced 72,884 vehicles in 2015.
- Naberezhnye Chelny: Sollers - Naberezhnye Chelny, produced 10,000 vehicles in 2015.
- Yelabuga: Ford Sollers, produced 10,300 vehicles in 2015.
- Naberezhnye Chelny: Kamaz truck plant, also produces Mercedes-Benz trucks under a joint venture established in 2010. Produces Mercedes-Benz Axor, Mercedes-Benz Actros, Mercedes-Benz Unimog.
- Syzran: JBC truck plant, established in 2014 on the production facilities of the former RosLada plant. Produces JBC SY1041, JBC SY1060.
Rest of Russia
- Kaliningrad: Avtotor (Kia, Hyundai, BMW), produced 92,200 vehicles in 2015.
- Moscow: Renault Russia, produced 73,633 vehicles in 2015.
- Vladivostok: Sollers JSC (Toyota, Mazda, Ssangyong, Isuzu), produced 31,823 vehicles in 2015.
- Cherkessk - Derways (Lifan, Geely, Great Wall Hover, Chery), produced 24,800 cars in 2014.
- Argun: ChechenAvto - produced 6,700 cars in 2016.
- Yaroslavl, Komatsu Limited established in 2010, produces rigid dump trucks.
- Miass, Iveco truck plant (Iveco AMT, former joint venture Iveco-UralAZ) established in 1994. Produces Iveco Trakker, Iveco Stralis.
- Uzlovaya: Great Wall Motors plant under construction.
- Esipovo, Moscow Oblast: Mercedes-Benz plant under construction.
- Lipetsk: Lifan plant under construction.
Manufacturers of automobile engines
- AvtoVAZ, based in Togliatti and established in 1966. Manufactures gasoline engines for passenger cars under the Lada brand.
- Cummins Kama, based in Naberezhnye Chelny and established in 2006 as a joint venture between Cummins and Kamaz. Manufactures diesel engines for trucks under the Kamaz brand.
- Ford Sollers, engine plant established in 2015.
- Kamaz, based in Naberezhnye Chelny and established in 1969. Manufactures diesel engines for heavy-duty trucks and large buses under the brands KAMAZ, NefAZ, and also for the BTR-80.
- Tutaev Motor Plant (TMZ), based in Tutaev and established in 1969. Manufactures diesel engines for heavy trucks under the brands MZKT (MZKT-742910), BAZ.
- Ulyanovsk Motor Plant (UMZ), based in Ulyanovsk and established in 1944, part of the GAZ Group. Manufactures gasoline and gasoline-gas engines for light commercial vehicles and SUVs under the brands GAZ (GAZ Gazelle, GAZ Sobol), UAZ (UAZ-3151 military performance).
- Volkswagen Group Rus, plant in Kaluga producing 1.6 MPI engines.
- Yaroslavl Motor Plant (YaMZ), based in Yaroslavl and established in 1916 (as Autoworks), 1958 (conversion to the production of engines), part of the GAZ Group. Manufactures diesel engines for trucks, small buses, large buses, armored vehicles, armored personnel carriers under the brands PAZ (PAZ-3205, PAZ-4234), LiAZ (LiAZ-5256), BTR-80, GAZ Tigr (AMZ Tigr), BAZ, MAZ, KrAZ, MZKT, BelAZ (younger models with BelAZ-7540-7547 to BelAZ-7547), MoAZ (MoAZ-7505).
- Zavolzhye Motor Plant (ZMZ), based in Zavolzhye and established in 1958, owned by UAZ. Manufactures petrol and diesel engines for off-road vehicles, light commercial vehicles and small buses under the brands UAZ, PAZ (PAZ-3203, PAZ-3204, PAZ-3205).
- ZiL, based in Moscow and established in 1916. Manufactures gasoline engines for medium trucks under the brands ZiL (ZiL-4331).
- "Production Statistics 2018 Statistics". Retrieved 21 November 2019.
- Hill M. Polzunov`s Engine: Innovation in Eighteenth Century Russia // Icon: Journal of the International Committee for the History of Technology. Volume 8. 2002. P. 127
- Kelly M. A. Russian Motor Vehicles: The Czarist Period 1784 to 1917. Veloce Publishing Ltd. 2009. P. 8
- Kelly (2009), p. 12
- Kelly (2009), p. 50ff
- Kelly (2009), pp. 71-72
- "Andrei Platonovich Nagel (the organiser of the first Russian auto show)" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
- Scalextric Rally Champions. Vol. I: The interwar period. Altaya. 2008. pp. 20-24.
- "Melbourne to Moscow". Archived from the original on 28 February 2016.
- Davies, R. W. (1990). From Tsarism to the New Economic Policy: Continuity and Change in the Economy of the U. S. S. R. Springer. pp. 193–195. ISBN 9781349099337.
- "Хроника: неудачное рождение российской автомобильной промышленности". За рулем. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
- "The AMO, known and unknown" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 3 November 2015.
- "Oldtimer picture gallery. The AMO-F-15" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 6 January 2016.
- Kelly, (2009) p. 78-79
- "The Ford Motor Company in the Soviet Union in the 1920s-1930s".
- "Soviet Fordism in Practice – Yale University".
- "Was the original Fiat better than the Lada?". Total Car Magazine. Archived from the original on 16 December 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2017.
- "AVTOVAZ Joint Stock Company History". Archived from the original on 24 November 2015.
- "The history of Togliatti" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 17 December 2015.
- "The history of the Russian automotive industry: IzhAvto" (in Russian). Za Rulem. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015.
- Begley, Jason; Collis, Clive; Morris, David. "THE RUSSIAN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT" (PDF). Applied Research Centre in Sustainable Regeneration. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 February 2011. Retrieved 13 December 2010.
- Ireland, R. Duane; Hoskisson, Robert; Hitt, Michael. Understanding Business Strategy: Concepts and Cases. Cengage Learning. ISBN 032428246X.
- Ireland A. D., Hoskisson R., Hitt M. Understanding Business Strategy: Concepts and Cases. Cengage Learning. 2005. P. 145
- Glazunov M. Business in Post-Communist Russia: Privatisation and the Limits of Transformation. Routledge. 2013. Pp. 80-82
- O’Neal M. Democracy, Civic Culture and Small Business in Russia's Regions: Social Processes in Comparative Historical Perspective. Routledge. 2015. P. 81
- "The Passenger Cars Market in Russia". Business Information Service for the Newly Independent States (BISNIS). 8 April 1997. Archived from the original on 8 April 1997. Retrieved 2 June 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- "Russian Car Market Overview". Business Information Service for the Newly Independent States (BISNIS). 13 February 1998. Archived from the original on 13 February 1998. Retrieved 2 June 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- "Industry Sector Analysis: Russian Automotive Industry". U.S. Foreign Commercial Service. 8 November 2004. Archived from the original on 8 November 2004. Retrieved 6 June 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- "The post-Soviet automobile industry: first signs of revival)".[permanent dead link]
- "Rosstat data" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.
- Overview of the Russian Automotive Sector // Kalicki J. H., Lawson E. K. Russian-Eurasian Renaissance? U.S. Trade and Investment in Russia and Eurasia. Stanford University Press. 2003. P. 219
- "OICA data". Archived from the original on 9 December 2015.
- Tavernise, Sabrina (6 December 2000). "Siberian Aluminum Bolsters Role at Carmaker". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 27 May 2015. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
- Емельянова, Екатерина (5 April 2005). "Остановка по требованию". Kommersant. p. 21. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
- A Review of the Russian Automotive Component Sector (PDF). International Finance Corporation. 2004. p. 47.
- Glazunov, Mikhail (2013). Business in Post-Communist Russia: Privatisation and the Limits of Transformation. Routledge. p. 84. ISBN 9781135021504.
- Vahtra, Peeter; Zashev, Peter (July 2008). "Russian automotive manufacturing sector – an industry snapshot for foreign component manufacturers" (PDF). Turku School of Economics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2010.
- Krkoska, Libor; Spencer, Alan (2008). "Automotive Industry in Russia: Impact of foreign investments in car assembly plants on suppliers' entry" (PDF). European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 September 2015.
- Wielgat, Andrea (2003). "Russian return: investment begins to flow back into the Russian auto industry". Automotive Industries.
- Smolchenko, Anna (15 April 2005). "Foreign Automakers Line Up to Enter Russia". The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011.
- "BASIC INDICATORS OF ORGANISATIONS BY KIND OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY "MANUFACTURE OF TRANSPORT MEANS AND EQUIPMENT"". Federal Statistics Agency. 2010. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011.
- "Car import curbs have Russians on streets". Financial Times. 21 December 2008. Archived from the original on 6 June 2009.
- Parfitt, Tom (22 December 2008). "Protesters beaten as anger grows at Russian car import tax". The Guardian. UK. Archived from the original on 14 January 2009. Retrieved 12 January 2009.
- "Controversial higher tax on Russian car imports comes into effect". RIA Novosti. 12 January 2009. Archived from the original on 22 January 2012.
- "Putin Is Turning Vladivostok into Russia's Pacific Capital" (PDF). Russia Analytical Digest. Institute of History, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland (82): 9–12. 12 July 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 November 2017.
- "Russia's car sector stalls, but foreigners still investing". Russia Beyond the Headlines. 5 June 2010.
- "Avtovaz in profit thanks to Russia car scrappage scheme". BBC News. 12 June 2010. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011.
- Rozhnov, Konstantin (7 March 2010). "What will save the Russian car industry?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 11 March 2010.
- "Car production reaches pre-crisis level". Voice of Russia. 13 December 2010. Archived from the original on 1 April 2012. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
- "Prime Minister Vladimir Putin is confident that the automotive industry in Russia's Far East has a future". Premier.gov.ru. 7 December 2010. Archived from the original on 6 October 2011.
- "Car production clicks into top gear". Russia Today. 13 August 2010. Archived from the original on 12 November 2010.
- "Russia gaining the importance in the world car industry". Autostat Analytic Agency. 17 February 2011.[permanent dead link]
- "An overview of the Russian and CIS automotive industry". EY. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 April 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- "Russia may ban import of cars if West applies new sanctions: paper". Reuters. 18 August 2017. Archived from the original on 31 December 2015. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
- Rapoza, Kenneth. "Russia's Incredibly Shrinking Auto Industry". Forbes. Archived from the original on 10 May 2016. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
- "Парк легковых автомобилей в России к началу 2016 года вырос умеренно, но 40-миллионный барьер взял". Автостат ИНФО. Archived from the original on 25 November 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
- "Brand structure of passenger car parc on 01.01.2011". Autostat.ru. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
- "Emerging Trends and Future Prospects in Russian Automotive Industry". Growth Consulting. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011.
- "Russians still dislike diesel". eng.autostat.ru. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
- "Current Natural Gas Vehicle Statistics". NGV Global Knowledgebase. Archived from the original on 1 July 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
- Этилированный бензин могут запретить. РИА Новости (in Russian). Retrieved 22 June 2017.
- "Самые популярные автомобили в России за 10 месяцев 2009 года". NEWSru.com. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011.
- "GAZ Group Annual Report 2009". GAZ Group. 2010.[permanent dead link]
- Московский международный автомобильный салон. РИА Новости (in Russian). Archived from the original on 27 August 2016. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
- "Renault says Avtoframos '10 output up 70% to 87,600 vehicles". RIA Novosti. 25 January 2011. Archived from the original on 16 October 2011.
- "Russia Full Year 2016: Hyundai Solaris ends 45 years of Lada domination". Best Selling Cars Blog. Archived from the original on 5 May 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2017.
- "KAMAZ in January". KaMAZ. January 2011. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011.
- Marussia Motors has launched its Moscow plant and started the official sales of its cars Archived 25 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine Marussia Motors website (in Russian)
- "Russian buys 'significant' stake in Virgin". TheF1Times.com. Archived from the original on 12 November 2010. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
- Formula One. "Marussia ceases trading and makes all 200 staff redundant". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 23 December 2015. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
- Kramer, Andrew E. (13 December 2010). "Russian Billionaire Backs New Hybrid Car". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
- Popova, Nadia (14 December 2010). "Russian Billionaire Ventures into Hybrid Cars". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
- 08.04.2014. "One of Russia's wealthiest men sells Yo-Mobile project for 1 euro - PravdaReport". English.pravda.ru. Archived from the original on 15 September 2015. Retrieved 24 December 2015.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- INFOGRAPHICS AvtoVAZ ecosystem in Russia, May 2013 Archived 3 June 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- "From Lada the Car to Winnie the Pooh". Russia Today. 16 November 2009. Archived from the original on 18 February 2011.
- Putin’s Lada Kalina Sport | Image galleries | RIA Novosti Archived 8 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine. En.rian.ru. Retrieved on 23 February 2011.
- Vladimir Putin travels by Lada Kalina | Video | RIA Novosti Archived 3 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine. En.rian.ru. Retrieved on 23 February 2011.
- Russian PM hits freshly-built highway in a nationally-made car – RT Archived 31 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Rt.com. Retrieved on 23 February 2011.
- Year 2016 ends with 11% car market decrease - AEB
- "Sales of cars and light commercial vehicles". AEB Rus (in Russian). Retrieved 21 December 2017.
- Статистика российского авторынка: итоги 2018 года
- "Карта заводов: где и какие автомобили собирают в России". Autonews. Archived from the original on 29 March 2017. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- "Hyundai St. Petersburg plant will start the production of new Solaris on 15 February". Rusautonews. 8 February 2017. Archived from the original on 9 February 2017. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- Продажа в России. Hyundai.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 6 June 2017. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
- "Nissan celebrates the 10th anniversary of St Petersburg plant with the launch of the new Nissan Murano". Global Newsroom. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- Опубликована статистика производства автомобилей в России в 2015 году (in Russian). Wroom.ru. Archived from the original on 20 November 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- "St. Petersburg Toyota plant has increased production by 19% in 2016". Rusautonews. 30 January 2017. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- Kostyakova, Elena (24 December 2007). "Toyota запустила огромный завод в Питере" [Toyota has launched a huge plant in St. Petersburg]. autonews.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 7 August 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
- Bennett, Jeff; Stoll, John D. (18 March 2015). "GM to Close Russian Assembly Plant". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 20 February 2017. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- "Vsevolozhsk plant - About company". Ford Sollers. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- "Vsevolozhsk plant". Ford Sollers. Archived from the original on 16 January 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
- "About Volkswagen Group Rus". Volkswagengrouprus.ru. Archived from the original on 13 March 2017. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- "The Volkswagen Plant in Kaluga". Volkswagen-Media-Services.com (Press release). Volkswagen AG. 28 February 2009. Retrieved 9 November 2009.[permanent dead link]
- "Volkswagen Group starts full production in Russia". VolkswagenAG.com. Volkswagen AG. 20 October 2009. Archived from the original on 16 December 2010. Retrieved 9 November 2009.
- "The Central and Eastern European automotive market - Russia". EY. Archived from the original on 14 September 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- "About the Nizhny Novgorod plant". Volkswagengrouprus.ru. Archived from the original on 20 August 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
- "Mercedes-Benz Trucks Vostok eröffnet Produktionsstandort in Russland". Mercedes-Benz Trucks Vostok (in German). Retrieved 2 July 2017.
- "The assembly of Chinese vehicles began in Russia". eng.autostat.ru. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
- "Avtotor plans to maintain the production levels in 2016". Rusautonews. 19 May 2016. Archived from the original on 2 April 2017. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- "Сокращение производства на черкесском Derways". Archived from the original on 10 August 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- ""Chechenavto" is ready to increase the assembly of LADA cars in 2017". eng.autostat.ru. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
- "Great Wall will establish a factory in Tula Region in 2018". Rusautonews. 3 December 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- "Daimler Localizes Production in Russia With New $280Mln Mercedes-Benz Plant". Sputniknews.com. Archived from the original on 21 June 2017. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
- "Chinese automaker Lifan to begin plant construction in Lipetsk on 16 July". Russia & India Report. 30 June 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- "Ford opens $275 million engine plant in Russia". Reuters. 3 September 2015. Archived from the original on 11 January 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2017.
- "100 000 engines produced at the VW engine plant in Kaluga". Rusautonews. 23 September 2016. Archived from the original on 21 April 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2017.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Automotive industry in Russia.|