Autonomous Republic of Crimea

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This article is about the autonomous republic of Ukraine. For the Russian federal subject, see Republic of Crimea.

Coordinates: 45°18′N 34°24′E / 45.3°N 34.4°E / 45.3; 34.4

Autonomous Republic of Crimea
  • Автономна Республіка Крим
  • Автономная Республика Крым
  • Qırım Muhtar Cumhuriyeti
Flag Coat of arms
"Процветание в единстве" (Russian)
Protsvetaniye v yedinstve  (transliteration)
Prosperity in Unity
"Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина" (Russian)
Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina  (transliteration)
Your fields and mountains are magical, Motherland
Location of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (white).
Location of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (white).
Location of the  Autonomous Republic of Crimea  (light yellow)in the Crimean Peninsula
Location of the  Autonomous Republic of Crimea  (light yellow)

in the Crimean Peninsula

Status Exile
Capital Simferopola
Official languages Ukrainian
Recognized regional languages Russian, Crimean Tatarb
Ethnic groups (2001)
Government Autonomous republic
 -  Nataliya Popovych[1]
Legislature Supreme Council
 -  Autonomy 12 February 1991 
 -  Constitution 21 October 1998 
 -  Total 26,100 km2 (148th)
10,038 sq mi
 -  2014 estimate 1,966,801
 -  2001 census 2,033,700
 -  Density 75.6/km2 (116th)
196.6/sq mi
Calling code +380e
ISO 3166 code UA-43
Internet TLD .crimea.uad
a. Ukraine has not formed a government-in-exile for Crimea. On May 17, 2014, the Crimean Presidential Representative moved to Kherson, which is the only existing authority for the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.[2]
b. Because Ukrainian is the only state language in Ukraine, no other language may be official, although according to the Constitution of Crimea, Russian is the language of inter-ethnic communication. However, government duties are fulfilled mainly in Russian, hence it is a de facto official language. Crimean Tatar is also used.
c. The Crimean Oblast's autonomy was restored when it became the Autonomous Republic of Crimea within the newly independent Ukraine.
d. Not officially assigned.
e. +380 65 for the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, +380 692 for the administratively separate City of Sevastopol.
Collage of Crimean culture
A view of the Bay of Sevastopol

The Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Ukrainian: Автономна Республіка Крим, Avtonomna Respublika Krym; Crimean Tatar: Qırım Muhtar Cumhuriyeti)[3] is a de jure autonomous republic of Ukraine covering most of the Crimean Peninsula, although the Russian Federation administers the territory as a federal subject, the Republic of Crimea, since March 2014. It is subject to a territorial dispute between Ukraine and Russia, with most foreign governments recognising it as Ukrainian territory. It has a population of 1,965,177 (2013 est.)[4].

The Crimean Peninsula has been outside the control of Ukrainian authorities since late February 2014, when Russian Armed Forces and pro-Russian separatists occupied the region. In March 2014, a popular referendum in support of reunification with Russia (see annexation to Russia) was held in Crimea and Sevastopol, although the vote was disavowed by Ukraine and did not enjoy widespread international recognition. Within days, Russia absorbed the peninsula. Russia and six other UN member states recognize Crimea as part of the Russian Federation; Ukraine continues to claim Crimea as an integral part of its territory, supported by most foreign governments.[5]

Under Ukrainian law, Crimea is considered an autonomous parliamentary republic within Ukraine,[6] which is governed by the Constitution of Crimea in accordance with the laws of Ukraine. The capital of the autonomous republic is the city of Simferopol, located in the center of the peninsula. The city of Sevastopol is a separate administrative unit and is considered a city with special status, like the Ukrainian capital city of Kiev.


Main article: History of Crimea

From Soviet Russia to Soviet Ukraine[edit]

See also 1954 Transfer of Crimea

Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet "About the transfer of the Crimean Oblast"

On 19 February 1954, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union issued a decree transferring the Crimean Oblast from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.[7][8] The transfer of the Crimean Oblast to Ukraine has been described as a "symbolic gesture," marking the 300th anniversary of Ukraine becoming a part of the Russian Empire.[9][10] The General Secretary of the Communist Party in the Soviet Union at the time was Nikita Khrushchev, who was born and raised in the border region of Eastern Ukraine/Western Russia and married a Ukrainian.[10]

In the post-war years, Crimea thrived as a prime tourist destination, built up with new attractions and spas for tourists. Tourists came from all over the Soviet Union and neighbouring countries.[11] Crimea's infrastructure and manufacturing was also developed, particularly around the seaports at Kerch and Sevastopol and in the oblast's landlocked capital of Simferopol.

Following a referendum on 20 January 1991, the Crimean Oblast was upgraded an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic on 12 February 1991 by the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR.[12]

An Independent Ukraine[edit]

With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Crimea became part of the newly independent Ukraine, which led to tensions between Russia and Ukraine.[nb 1] With the Black Sea Fleet based on the peninsula, worries of armed skirmishes were occasionally raised. Crimean Tatars began returning from exile and resettling in Crimea.

On 26 February 1992, the Verkhovniy Sovet (the Crimean parliament) renamed the ASSR the Republic of Crimea and proclaimed self-government on 5 May 1992[14][15] (which was yet to be approved by a referendum held 2 August 1992[16])[clarification needed Did the referendum happen, or was it cancelled?] and passed the first Crimean constitution the same day.[16] On 6 May 1992 the same parliament inserted a new sentence into this constitution that declared that Crimea was part of Ukraine.[16]

On 19 May, Crimea agreed to remain part of Ukraine and annulled its proclamation of self-government but Crimean Communists forced the Ukrainian government to expand on the already extensive autonomous status of Crimea.[17]:587 In the same period, Russian president Boris Yeltsin and Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk agreed to divide the former Soviet Black Sea Fleet between Russia and the newly formed Ukrainian Navy.[18]

On 14 October 1993, the Crimean parliament established the post of President of Crimea and agreed on a quota of Crimean Tatars represented in the Council of 14. However, political turmoil continued. Amendments[clarification needed] to the constitution eased the conflict,[citation needed] but on 17 March 1995, the parliament of Ukraine intervened, scrapping the Crimean Constitution and removing Yuriy Meshkov (the President of Crimea) along with his office for his actions against the state and promoting integration with Russia.[19] After an interim constitution, the current constitution was put into effect, changing the territory's name to the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.

Swallow's Nest, built in 1912 for oil millionaire Baron von Steingel, a landmark of Crimea

Following the ratification of the May 1997 Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Partnership on friendship and division of the Black Sea Fleet, international tensions slowly eased. However, in 2006, anti-NATO protests broke out on the peninsula.[20] In September 2008, the Ukrainian Foreign Minister Volodymyr Ohryzko accused Russia of giving out Russian passports to the population in the Crimea and described it as a "real problem" given Russia's declared policy of military intervention abroad to protect Russian citizens.[21]

On 24 August 2009, anti-Ukrainian demonstrations were held in Crimea by ethnic Russian residents. Sergei Tsekov (of the Russian Bloc[22] and then deputy speaker of the Crimean parliament[23]) said then that he hoped that Russia would treat the Crimea the same way as it had treated South Ossetia and Abkhazia.[24] Chaos in the Ukrainian parliament erupted during a debate over the extension of the lease on a Russian naval base on 27 April 2010 after Ukraine's parliament ratified the treaty that extends Russia's lease on naval moorings and shore installations in port of Sevastopol and other locations in Crimea until 2042 with optional five-year renewals. Along with Verkhovna Rada, the treaty was ratified by the Russian State Duma as well.[25]

Events of 2014[edit]

Geopolitics of the Crimean autonomous Republic, March 2014.

On 26 February 2014, following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution, thousands of pro-Russian and pro-Ukraine protesters clashed in front of the parliament building in Simferopol. The pretext of the clash was the abolition, on 23 February 2014, of the law on languages of minorities, including Russian.[26] This decision, that would make Ukrainian the sole state language, has not been upheld by interim Ukraine president Turchynov.[27][28]

The demonstrations followed the ousting of Ukraine President Viktor Yanukovych on 22 February 2014, and a push by pro-Russian protesters for Crimea to secede from Ukraine and seek assistance from Russia.[29]

On 28 February 2014, Russian forces occupied airports and other strategic locations in Crimea.[30] The interim Government of Ukraine described the events as an invasion and occupation of Crimea by Russian forces.[31][32] Gunmen, either armed militants or Russian special forces, occupied the Crimean parliament. Under armed guard and with the doors locked, members of parliament apparently elected Sergey Aksyonov as the new Crimean Prime Minister[citation needed]. De facto Crimean Prime Minister Sergey Aksyonov said he asserted sole control over Crimea's security forces and appealed to Russia "for assistance in guaranteeing peace and calmness" on the peninsula. The central Ukrainian government did not recognize the Aksyonov administration and considers it illegal.[33][34] Ousted Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovich sent a letter to Putin asking him to use military force in Ukraine to restore law and order.[35] The Russian foreign ministry stated that "movement of the Black Sea Fleet armored vehicles in Crimea (...) happens in full accordance with basic Russian-Ukrainian agreements on the Black Sea Fleet".[36]

On 1 March, the Russian parliament granted President Vladimir Putin the authority to use military force in Ukraine.[37] The move was condemned by many Western and Western-aligned nations. On the same day, the acting president of Ukraine, Oleksandr Turchynov decried the appointment of the Prime Minister of Crimea as unconstitutional.[38] Russia established de facto control of the territory.

On 3 March, Ukrainian defense sources were reported to have said that the head of Russia's Black Sea Fleet gave Ukraine a deadline of dawn on the 4th to surrender their control of the Crimea, or face an assault by Russian troops occupying the area.[39] However, Interfax news agency later quoted a fleet spokesman who denied that any ultimatum had been issued.[39] Nothing came to pass at the deadline.

On 4 March, several Ukrainian bases and navy ships in Crimea reported being intimidated by Russian forces but vowed non-violence. Ukrainian warships were also effectively blockaded in their port of Sevastopol.[40][41]

On 6 March, MPs of the Crimean Parliament asked the Russian Government for the region to become a subject of the Russian Federation with a referendum on the issue set for the Crimean region for March 16. The Ukrainian central government, EU and US disputed the legitimacy of the request and referendum. Article 73 of the Constitution of Ukraine states: "Alterations to the territory of Ukraine shall be resolved exclusively by the All-Ukrainian referendum."[42] International monitors arrived in Ukraine to assess the situation in Crimea but were halted by armed militants at the Crimean border.[43][44] Russian forces scuttled a Russian Kara-class Cruiser Ochakov across the entrance channel to Donuzlav Lake on the west coast of Crimea to blockade Ukrainian navy ships in their port.[45][46]

On 7 March, Russian forces scuttled a second ship, a diving support vessel, to further block the navy port at Donuzlav Lake.[46]

The Crimean Parliament released the Ballot Questions for the 16 March referendum. The referendum questions are:

  1. "Do you support rejoining Crimea with Russia as a subject of the Russian Federation?"
  2. "Do you support restoration of the 1992 Constitution of the Republic of Crimea and Crimea's status as a part of Ukraine?"

Only the ballots with exactly one positive response were considered valid. There was no option on the 16 March ballot to maintain the status quo. Ukrainian outlets considered the questions as equivalent to "join Russia immediately or declare independence and then join Russia."[47][48] The current Crimean constitution came into effect in 1999 and Article 135 of the Ukrainian constitution provides that the Crimean Constitution must be approved by the Ukrainian parliament. Turnout for the referendum was 83%, and the overwhelming majority of them (95.5%)[49] voted to join Russia, however, a "huge number of people in the minority population - the Tatars and Ukrainians - abstained from the vote", making it "difficult to tell if the figures added up".[50]

On 18 March, the Kremlin claimed that Crimea is now part of the Russian Federation.[51] Vladimir Putin signed a law formalising Russia's annexation of Crimea on 21 March,[52] Crimea's flag was added to the flags of Russian regions in the Russian Parliament on 24 March.[53] On 29 March, the clocks in Crimea were moved forward to Moscow time.[54] Ukraine's government says "it is a robbery on an international scale".[49][55] On June 1, 2014 Crimea officially switched over to the Russian ruble as its only form of legal tender.[56][57]

Politics and government[edit]

Main article: Politics of Crimea
The Massandra Palace near Yalta is one of the official residences of Ukraine
Vladimir Putin with Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma on board the Black Sea Fleet's flagship, July 2001

The Autonomous Republic of Crimea is technically an autonomous republic within the unitary state of Ukraine, with the Presidential Representative serving as a governor and replacing once established post of president. The legislative body is a 100-seat parliament, the Supreme Council of Crimea.[58]

The executive power is represented by the Council of Ministers, headed by a Chairman who is appointed and dismissed by the Verkhovna Rada, with the consent of the President of Ukraine.[59][60] The authority and operation of the Supreme Council and the Council of Ministers of Crimea are determined by the Constitution of Ukraine and other the laws of Ukraine, as well as by regular decisions carried out by the Supreme Council of Crimea.[60]

Justice is administered by courts, as part of the judicial system of Ukraine.[60]

While not an official body controlling Crimea, the Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People is a representative body of the Crimean Tatars, which could address grievances to the Ukrainian central government, the Crimean government, and international bodies.[61]

During the 2004 presidential elections, Crimea largely voted for the presidential candidate Viktor Yanukovych. In both the 2006 Ukrainian parliamentary elections and the 2007 Ukrainian parliamentary elections, the Yanukovych-led Party of Regions also won most of the votes from the region, as they did in the 2010 Crimean parliamentary election.[62]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Crimea (excluding Sevastopol) is subdivided into 25 administrative areas: 14 raions (districts) and 11 mis'kradas and mistos (city municipalities), officially known as territories governed by city councils.[63] While the City of Sevastopol is located on the Crimean peninsula, it is administratively separate from the rest of Crimea and is one of two special municipalities of Ukraine. Sevastopol, while having a separate administration, is tightly integrated within the infrastructure of the whole peninsula.

1. Bakhchysarai Raion
2. Bilohirsk Raion
3. Dzhankoy Raion
4. Kirovske Raion
5. Krasnohvardiiske Raion
6. Krasnoperekopsk Raion
7. Lenine Raion
8. Nizhnyohirskyi Raion
9. Pervomayske Raion
10. Rozdolne Raion
11. Saky Raion
12. Simferopol Raion
13. Sovetskyi Raion
14. Chornomorske Raion
City municipalities
15. Alushta municipality
16. Armyansk municipality
17. Dzhankoy municipality
18. Yevpatoria municipality
19. Kerch municipality
20. Krasnoperekopsk municipality
21. Saki municipality
22. Simferopol municipality
23. Sudak municipality
24. Feodosia municipality
25. Yalta municipality
Subdivisions of Crimea
Map of Crimea with major cities

The largest city is Simferopol with major centers of urban development including Kerch (heavy industry and fishing center), Dzhankoy (transportation hub), Yalta (holiday resort) and others.

Foreign and intergovernmental relations[edit]

Crimea is subject to the Constitution of Ukraine. At the local level it has its own constitution.

On 18 February 2009 the Verkhovna Rada of Crimea sent a letter to the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine and the President of Ukraine, in which it stated that it deemed it inexpedient to open a representative office of the United States in Crimea, and urged the Ukrainian leadership to give up this idea. The letter had passed in the Crimean parliament by a 77 to 9 roll-call vote with one abstention.[64] The letter was also sent to the Chairman of the UN General Assembly.


Map of Ukraine by language in the 2001 census, with Russian (in red) dominant in Crimea.

According to the 2001 Ukrainian census, the population of Crimea was 2,033,700.[65] As of 2013, however, the population decreased to 1,965,177.

Ethnic makeup comprised the following self-reported groups: Russians: 58.5%; Ukrainians: 24.4%; Crimean Tatars: 12.1%; Belarusians: 1.5%; Tatars: 0.5%; Armenians: 0.4%; Jews: 0.2% and others.[66][67]


Crimean boxer Oleksandr Usyk.

Crimea has figured prominently in Ukrainian sports,[citation needed] especially the most popular: association football. The most successful Crimean football club was Tavriya Simferopol who won the inaugural Ukrainian Premier League title in 1992. FC Sevastopol competed in the top division until the end of the 2013-14 season, before ceasing to exist due to the 2014 Crimea crisis. In the Ukrainian First League, Crimea had been represented by clubs such as FC Feniks-Illichovets Kalinine, FC Krymteplitsia Molodizhne (from Simferopol suburbs) and FC Tytan Armyansk.

Crimea has a bandy federation.[citation needed] Their[clarification needed] chairman is Vice president of Ukrainian Federation of Bandy and Rink-Bandy.[68] In 2011 they for the first time organized the rink bandy tournament Crimea Open.[69]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ In a summer 2013 poll by VTSIOM where respondents in Russia were asked what they consider Russian territory 56% claimed that Crimea was part of Russia.[13]


  1. ^ Турчинов назначил постпредом президента в Крыму Наталию Попович - (Russian)
  2. ^ "Crimean Presidential Representative will be moved to Kherson". Ukrainian Independent Information Agency (in Russian). 17 May 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 
  3. ^
  4. ^ "Чисельність наявного населення України (Actual population of Ukraine)" (in Ukrainian). State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Retrieved 21 January 2015. 
  5. ^ "Kremlin: Crimea and Sevastopol are now part of Russia, not Ukraine". CNN. 18 March 2014. 
  6. ^ Regions and territories: The Republic of Crimea, BBC News
  7. ^ ""The Gift of Crimea".". Retrieved 2014-03-06. 
  8. ^ ""Подарунок Хрущова". Як Україна відбудувала Крим". Retrieved 2014-02-28. 
  9. ^ Arutunyan, Anna (2 March 2014). "Russia testing the waters on Ukraine invasion". USA Today. Retrieved 2 March 2014. 
  10. ^ a b Calamur, Krishnadev (27 February 2014). "Crimea: A Gift To Ukraine Becomes A Political Flash Point". NPR. Retrieved 2 March 2014. 
  11. ^ "History". Retrieved 28 March 2007. 
  12. ^ "Day in history - 20 January". RIA Novosti (in Russian). January 8, 2006. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved August 6, 2007. 
  13. ^ (Ukrainian) Майже 60% росіян вважають, що Крим - це Росія Almost 60% of Russians believe, that Crimea - is Russian, Ukrayinska Pravda (10 September 2013)
  14. ^ Wolczuk, Kataryna (August 31, 2004). "Catching up with 'Europe'? Constitutional Debates on the Territorial-Administrative Model in Independent Ukraine". Taylor & Francis Group. Retrieved December 16, 2006. 
    Wydra, Doris (November 11, 2004). "The Crimea Conundrum: The Tug of War Between Russia and Ukraine on the Questions of Autonomy and Self-Determination". 
  15. ^ Eastern Europe, Russia and Central Asia 2004, Routledge, 2003, ISBN 1857431871 (page 540)
  16. ^ a b c Russians in the Former Soviet Republics by Pål Kolstø, Indiana University Press, 1995, ISBN 0253329175 (page 194)
  17. ^ Subtelny, Orest (2000). Ukraine: A History. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-8390-0. 
  18. ^ Ready To Cast Off, TIME Magazine, June 15, 1992
  19. ^ Laws of Ukraine. Verkhovna Rada law No. 93/95-вр: On the termination of the Constitution and some laws of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. Adopted on 1995-03-17. (Ukrainian)
  20. ^ Russia tells Ukraine to stay out of Nato, The Guardian (8 June 2006)
  21. ^ Cheney urges divided Ukraine to unite against Russia 'threat. Associated Press. September 6, 2008.
  22. ^ [1]
  23. ^ [2]
  24. ^ Levy, Clifford J. (2009-08-28). "Russia and Ukraine in Intensifying Standoff". Retrieved 2014-02-28. 
  25. ^ Update: Ukraine, Russia ratify Black Sea naval lease, Kyiv Post (April 27, 2010)
  26. ^ Ayres, Sabra (February 28, 2014). "Is it too late for Kiev to woo Russian-speaking Ukraine?". The Christian Science Monitor. 
  27. ^ "Olexandre Tourtchinov refuse de signer l’abrogation de la loi sur la politique linguistique". 
  28. ^ "Olexandre Tourtchinov demande d’urgence une nouvelle loi sur le statut des langues en Ukraine". 
  29. ^ "Putin orders military exercise as protesters clash in Crimea". Russia Herald. Retrieved February 27, 2014. 
  30. ^ "This is what it looked like when Russian military rolled through Crimea today (VIDEO)". UK Telegraph. Retrieved February 28, 2014. 
  31. ^ Charbonneau, Louis (28 February 2014). "UPDATE 2-U.N. Security Council to hold emergency meeting on Ukraine crisis". Reuters. Retrieved February 28, 2014. 
  32. ^ Higgons, Andrew, Grab for Power in Crimea Raises Secession Threat, New York Times, February 28, 2014, page A1; reporting was contributed by David M. Herszenhorn and Andrew E. Kramer from Kiev, Ukraine; Andrew Roth from Moscow; Alan Cowell from London; and Michael R. Gordon from Washington; with a graphic presentation of linguistic divisions of Ukraine and Crimea
  33. ^ Radyuhin, Vladimir (March 1, 2014). "Crimean PM claims control of forces, asks Putin for help". Chennai, India. The Hindu. Retrieved March 1, 2014. 
  34. ^ "Ukraine army on full alert as Russia backs sending troops". BBC. March 1, 2014. Retrieved March 1, 2014. 
  35. ^ Yanukovich sent letter to Putin asking for Russian military presence in Ukraine
  36. ^ "Movement of Russian armored vehicles in Crimea fully complies with agreements - Foreign Ministry". Russia Today. February 28, 2014. Retrieved March 1, 2014. 
  37. ^ Smale, Alison; Erlanger, Steven (1 March 2014). "Kremlin Clears Way for Force in Ukraine; Separatist Split Feared". New York Times. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  38. ^ Турчинов издал указ о незаконности назначения Аксенова премьером Крыма
  39. ^ a b "Russia 'demands surrender' of Ukraine's Crimea forces". BBC News. March 3, 2014. Retrieved March 3, 2014. 
  40. ^ "'So why aren't they shooting?' is Putin's question, Ukrainians say". Kyiv Post. March 4, 2014. Retrieved March 4, 2014. 
  41. ^ "Ukraine resistance proves problem for Russia". BBC Online. March 4, 2014. Retrieved March 4, 2014. 
  42. ^ "'another view of the Ochakov - scuttled by Russian forces Wed night to block mouth of Donuzlav inlet". Twitter@elizapalmer. March 6, 2014. Retrieved March 6, 2014. 
  43. ^ "'Ukraine crisis: Crimea parliament asks to join Russia". BBC. March 6, 2014. Retrieved March 6, 2014. 
  44. ^ "'Ukraine crisis: 'Illegal' Crimean referendum condemned". BBC. March 6, 2014. Retrieved March 6, 2014. 
  45. ^ "'Constitution of Ukraine - Title III". Government of Ukraine. Retrieved March 6, 2014. 
  46. ^ a b "'Russians Scuttle Another Ship to Block Ukrainian Fleet". Ukrainian Pravda. March 7, 2014. Retrieved March 7, 2014. 
  47. ^ "'Приложение 1 к Постановлению Верховной Рады Автономной Республики Крым от 6 марта 2014 года No 1702-6/14" (PDF). March 7, 2014. Retrieved March 7, 2014. 
  48. ^ "'Two choices in Crimean referendum: yes and yes". Kyiv Post. March 7, 2014. Retrieved March 7, 2014. 
  49. ^ a b "Crimea referendum: Voters 'back Russian union'". BBC News. 16 March 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014. 
  50. ^ "Ukraine crisis: Do Crimea referendum figures add up?". BBC News. 17 March 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  51. ^ "Kremlin: Crimea and Sevastopol are now part of Russia, not Ukraine". CNN. 18 March 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2014. 
  52. ^ "Ukraine: Putin signs Crimea annexation". BBC News. 21 March 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2014. 
  53. ^ "Crimea flag added to line-up at Russian parliament". BBC News. 24 March 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2014. 
  54. ^ "Ukraine crisis: Crimea celebrates switch to Moscow time". BBC News. 29 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  55. ^ "Ukraine cries 'robbery' as Russia annexes Crimea -". CNN. 18 March 2014. 
  56. ^
  57. ^ Verbyany, Volodymyr (1 June 2014). "Crimea Adopts Ruble as Ukraine Continues Battling Rebels". Bloomberg. 
  58. ^ The Verkhovna Rada of Crimea should not be confused with the national Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine.
  59. ^ Crimean parliament to decide on appointment of autonomous republic's premier on Tuesday, Interfax Ukraine (7 November 2011)
  60. ^ a b c "Autonomous Republic of Crimea – Information card". Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. Retrieved February 22, 2007. 
  61. ^ Ziad, Waleed; Laryssa Chomiak (February 20, 2007). "A lesson in stifling violent extremism". CS Monitor. Retrieved March 26, 2007. 
  62. ^ Local government elections in Ukraine: last stage in the Party of Regions’ takeover of power, Centre for Eastern Studies (October 4, 2010)
  63. ^ "Infobox card – Avtonomna Respublika Krym". Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (in Ukrainian). Retrieved February 23, 2007. 
  64. ^ Crimean parliament votes against opening U.S. diplomatic post, Interfax-Ukraine (18 February 2009)
  65. ^ "Regions of Ukraine / Autonomous Republic of Crimea". 2001 Ukrainian Census. Retrieved December 16, 2006. 
  66. ^ "Results / General results of the census / National composition of population". 2001 Ukrainian Census. Retrieved December 16, 2006. 
  67. ^ These figures do not include the area and population of the City of Sevastopol. Administratively, Sevastopol is a municipality excluded from the surrounding Autonomous Republic of Crimea
  68. ^ "Ukrainian Bandy and Rink-bandy Federation". Retrieved 2014-02-28. 
  69. ^ "Ukrainian national and regional competition". Retrieved 2014-02-28. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

  •, the official web-site of the Permanent Presidential Representative in the Republic of Crimea (Ukrainian) (Russian)