Autonomous administrative divisions of India

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Autonomous councils in India
Autonomous councils in North East India

The Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India allows for the formation of autonomous administrative divisions which have been given autonomy within their respective states.[1] Most of these autonomous district councils are located in North East India but two are in Ladakh, a region administered by India as a union territory. Presently, 10 Autonomous Councils in Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura are formed by virtue of the Sixth Schedule[2] with the rest being formed as a result of other legislation.

Powers and competencies[edit]

Executive and legislative powers[edit]

Under the provisions of the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India, autonomous district councils can make laws, rules and regulations in the following areas:[3]

  • Land management
  • Forest management
  • Water resources
  • Agriculture and cultivation
  • Formation of village councils
  • Public health
  • Sanitation
  • Village and town level policing
  • Appointment of traditional chiefs and headmen
  • Inheritance of property
  • Marriage and divorce
  • Social customs
  • Money lending and trading
  • Mining and minerals

Judicial powers[edit]

Autonomous district councils have powers to form courts to hear cases where both parties are members of Scheduled Tribes and the maximum sentence is less than 5 years in prison.[4]

Taxation and revenue[edit]

Autonomous district councils have powers to levy taxes, fees and tolls on: building and land, animals, vehicles, boats, entry of goods into the area, roads, ferries, bridges, employment and income and general taxes for the maintenance of schools and roads.[5]

List of autonomous administrative divisions[edit]

Autonomous district councils operating under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India are shown in bold.

State/Union Territory Autonomous Council Headquarters Districts / Subdivisions Formation Last Election Ruling Party Chief Executive Party Position
Assam Bodoland Territorial Council Kokrajhar Baksa, Chirang, Kokrajhar, Udalguri 2003 2020 BJP & UPPL & GSP Pramod Boro Total-40 UPPL-15 BJP-12 GSP-1 BPF-12.
North Cachar Hills (Dima Hasao) Autonomous Council Haflong Dima Hasao 1951 2019 BJP Debolal Gorlosa Total-28 BJP-26 INC-2
Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council Diphu Karbi Anglong, West Karbi Anglong 1952 2017 BJP Tuliram Ronghang Total-26 BJP-24 KADF-2.
Tiwa Autonomous Council Morigaon Kamrup (Metro), Morigaon, Nagaon and Hojai 1995 2020 BJP Jiban Chandra Konwar Total-36 BJP-33 AGP-2 INC-1.
Mising Autonomous Council Dhemaji Dhemaji 1995 2019 BJP & SGS Ranoj Pegu Total-36 SGS+BJP-(29+5) IND-1.
Rabha Hasong Autonomous Council Dudhnoi Kamrup Rural, Goalpara 1995 2019 BJP & RHJMC Tankeswar Rabha Total-36 BJP+RHJMC-34 INC-1 AGP-1.
Sonowal Kachari Autonomous Council Dibrugarh 2005 2019 BJP Dipu ranjan Markari Total-26 BJP-20 INC-5 IND-1.
Thengal Kachari Autonomous Council Titabar 2005 2016 BJP Kumud Ch Kachari Total-22 BJP-13 INC-4 AGP-3 IND-2.
Deori Autonomous Council Narayanpur Lakhimpur 2005 2016 BJP Madhav Deori Total-17 BJP-7 INC-2 AGP-1 IND-7.
Moran Autonomous Council ** Tinsukia district 2020 Not yet **
Matak Autonomous Council ** 2020 Not yet **
Bodo Kachari Welfare Autonomous Council Simen Chapori 2020 Not yet ** Mihiniswar Basumatary
Kamatapur Autonomous Council ** 2020 Not yet ** Hiteswar Barman
Ladakh LAHDC Kargil Kargil Kargil 2003 2018 JKNC & BJP Feroz Ahmad
LAHDC Leh Leh Leh 1995 2020 BJP Tashi Gyalson
Manipur Chandel Autonomous District Council Chandel 2015
Churachandpur Autonomous District Council Churachandpur 2015
Sadar Hills Autonomous District Council Kangpokpi Saikul, Saitu and Sadar Hills West subdivisions of Kangpokpi district 2015
Manipur North (Senapati) Autonomous District Council Senapati 2015
Tamenglong Autonomous District Council Tamenglong 2015
Ukhrul Autonomous District Council Ukhrul 2015
Meghalaya Garo Hills Autonomous District Council Tura East Garo Hills, West Garo Hills, South Garo Hills, North Garo Hills and South West Garo Hills 1973 2021 NPP & GNC & IND. Benedick R Marak Total-29 NPP-11 INC-12 BJP-2 GNC-1 IND-3
Jaintia Hills Autonomous District Council Jowai East Jaintia Hills, West Jaintia Hills 1973 2019 NPP & UDP T Shiwat Total-29 NPP-12 UDP-10 INC-4 IND-3
Khasi Hills Autonomous District Council Shillong West Khasi Hills, East Khasi Hills and Ri Bhoi 1973 2019 UDP & NPP & HSPDP & PDF & IND Titosstarwell Chyne Total-29 INC-10 NPP-7 UDP-6 HSPDP-2 PDF-1 IND-3
Mizoram Chakma Autonomous District Council Kamalanagar Tuichawng subdivision 1972 2018 MNF Durjya Dhan Chakma Total-20 MNF-19 BJP-1
Lai Autonomous District Council Lawngtlai Lawngtlai subdivision, Sangau subdivision 1972 2020 MNF V. Zirsanga Total-25 MNF-20 BJP-1 INC-1 IND-3
Mara Autonomous District Council Siaha Siaha subdivision, Tipa subdivision 1972 2017 BJP N Zakhai Total-25 BJP-19 INC-5 IND-1
Tripura Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council Khumulwng West Tripura 1982 2021 TIPRA & INPT Purna Chandra Jamatia
West Bengal Gorkhaland Territorial Administration Darjeeling Darjeeling, Kurseong and Mirik subdivisions of Darjeeling district, Kalimpong district 2012 2012 -- Anit Thapa

De facto self-governing areas[edit]

North Sentinel Island[edit]

North Sentinel Island is situated in the island chain of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands which is a union territory of India. It is home to the Sentinelese people, who are among some of the world's last uncontacted peoples. They reject any contact with other people and are among the last people to remain virtually untouched by modern civilization. There has never been any treaty with the people of the island nor any record of a physical occupation.

The local government (Andaman and Nicobar Islands) has stated[6] that they have no intention to interfere with the Sentinelese's lifestyle or habitat. Although the island is likely to have suffered seriously from the effects of the December 2004 tsunami, the survival of the Sentinelese was confirmed when, some days after the event, an Indian government helicopter observed several of them, who shot arrows at the hovering aircraft to repel it.

Although this has not been done with any formal treaty, the official policy of minimal interference has ensured that they have de facto autonomy and sovereignty over their island under the framework of the central and local governments.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Sixth Schedule of The Constitution of India" (PDF).
  2. ^ "Union Cabinet approves amendment in Sixth Schedule to strengthen 10 North East autonomous councils-India News , Firstpost". 24 January 2019.
  3. ^ "Sixth Schedule of The Constitution of India" (PDF).
  4. ^ "Sixth Schedule of The Constitution of India" (PDF).
  5. ^ "Sixth Schedule of The Constitution of India" (PDF).
  6. ^ The Sentineli Archived March 2, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ "Administration in India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands has finally decided upon a policy of minimal interference". Archived from the original on 2012-09-14. Retrieved 2008-08-21.

External links[edit]