Autostrada A3 (Italy)

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A3 Motorway shield}}

A3 Motorway
Autostrada A3
The motorway by Torre Annunziata
Route information
Existed1974–present
Major junctions
FromNaples
ToSalerno
Location
Regions:Campania
Highway system
Autostrade of Italy
A2A4

The Autostrada A3 is a motorway in Southern Italy, which runs from Naples to Salerno, in the region Campania.
Until 2017 the route was much longer, going after Salerno further south until Reggio Calabria; on this year, this section became part of the new A2 motorway and of its two spur routes.

Overview[edit]

Due to sections not being originally constructed to anywhere near Motorway standard and to the notoriously poor conditions of maintenance, and also to the difficult terrain along some of the route, the motorway has been often taken as a symbol of the backwardness and economical problems of southern Italy. Italian historian Leandra D'Antone has defined it "a true Italian shame".[1] The European Union declines to classify the road as a “motorway” due to the decades-long roadwork restrictions on a supposedly modern road[2] and seeks recompense for its financial contributions.[3]

On 22 December 2016 the Salerno-Reggio Calabria freeway was declared 'complete', 55 years after the first works started, with the opening of Larìa tunnel in Cosenza.[4] In a ceremony held in Reggio Calabria, prime minister Paolo Gentiloni begged pardon "for the delay"[5] and the road name was changed from "A3 Salerno-to-Reggio Calabria" to "A2 Autostrada del Mediterraneo" (Highway of the Mediterranean).

History[edit]

The first stretch of the road to be completed was the Naples-Pompeii section, finished on 22 June 1929. The connection onward to Salerno was completed on 16 July 1961.

In 1964 the Italian government decided to build a motorway which connected the rest of Italy to Calabria, so far considered a kind of "Third Island" (together with Sicily and Sardinia), due to the nature of its terrain, which made it problematic to reach the region. The new motorway was built in a total of 8 years, the works being delivered on 13 June 1974.

The road built by 1974 is more similar to a sub-standard freeway (Italian: strada statale, "state road") than to the other autostrade (motorways) in Italy.[6] Queues became a common feature, especially in summer. To solve the situation, the Italian government funded renovation works in 1997. As of 2010, many of them are still ongoing, despite it being announced in 1993 that the works would be completed by 2003.[7] The EU antifraud investigation of works undertaken between 2007 and 2010 together with the repayment of over €300m to the EU in July 2012 have delayed completion of the upgrade works even further.[3][8]

The cost of the upgrade (in August 2013) was projected to reach over €10bn by the time it was eventually completed, then envisaged as perhaps by 2018. The section from Salerno to Reggio Calabria alone, 442 km long, would cost €10bn with the rest spent on widening/upgrades already completed between Naples and Salerno. €7.443 Bn had been spent up to 2011 on parts of the 442 km section between Salerno and Reggio Calabria.[9][10]

Most of the works were completed by 2015.

Overview[edit]

The entire road was constructed as a substandard freeway[11] by the mid 1970s and later an upgrade program from Naples to Reggio Calabria started in the early 1990s. The section with three lanes in each direction has a length of 105 km, between Naples and RA02 which goes towards Potenza. The section from the interchange with the A1 motorway in Naples to the Pompeii exit, built during the 1920s, originated as a local turnpike, and was later retrofitted to motorway standard. Many of the junctions along the original A3 route completed in the 1970s had very tight corners and extremely limited deceleration fields; this is especially significant on the now more than 50-year-old Naples-Salerno section, where at some junctions there are stop-signs for traffic entering the motorway.[6] Hard shoulders only appeared along the route as part of the post 1990 upgrades, with only occasional emergency bays at infrequent locations on the sections that have not been upgraded yet. Much of the route is often congested even where upgraded.[12] The concession of the Northern part was owned by Autostrade Meridionali [it], a company listing in Borsa Italiana and a subsidiary of Autostrade per l'Italia, which in turn a subsidiary of Atlantia.

The southern segment (Salerno-Reggio Calabria) is toll-free and is maintained by ANAS, the state agency for public routes. Located in a mountainous area, it is prone to very high levels of traffic (especially at the start and at the end of holiday periods) and is known for the bad state of maintenance compared to other Italian motorways.[11] ANAS has been slowly upgrading this section during the last three decades.[11]

Upgrade progress[edit]

The motorway underwent heavy modernisation, in many cases a completely new parallel motorway was built alongside the original A3 and involved in most cases a complete rebuilding or replacement of the road where the alignment was retained.[13]

By August 2014, works on 391 km of the road (88%) were completed. 16 more km of rebuilding/modernization was then due to be completed.[14]

A number of new junctions were also to be constructed, in some cases to service certain towns with no direct access at present.[15]

In May 2015 then prime minister Renzi indicated that the upgrade programme would be terminated by 2016.[16]

By March 2016 68 km remained to be done. Plans to upgrade 58 km were abandoned and changed from Motorway Construction projects to "Maintenance" [17][18]

Sections to be 'maintained' in future rather than upgraded to Motorway standard are:

Morano Calabro - Firmo, from km 185 + 000 to km 206 + 500: 21 km *Former Macrolotto 3.4

Cosenza - Altilia, from km 259 + 700 to km 286: 26 km *Former Macrolottos 4.1 4.2.1 and 4.2.2

Pizzo Calabro - S.Onofrio, from km 337 + 800 to km 348 + 600: 11 km *Former Macrolotto 5 (originally scheduled for completion 2012)[19]

Maintenance will involve pavement and structural renewal and is projected to cost €1bn between 2016 and 2021 instead of the €3bn that ANAS projected as the cost of fully upgrading the 3 remaining sections.[20]

These total 58 km of the new length of 435 km from Salerno to Campo Calabria and do not include the final 10 km from Campo Calabria to Reggio Calabria which remains as constructed in the 1970s.

also abandoned were a number of planned junctions.[21]

The motorway standard road will terminate at Campo Calabro approximately 10 km to the north of Reggio Calabria, and the remaining 10 km of old A3 into Reggio Calabria will not be upgraded to full motorway standards.

Route[edit]

A2 AUTOSTRADA DEL MEDITERRANEO: NAPOLI - REGGIO CALABRIA
Exit ↓km↓ ↑km↑ Province European Route
AB-AS-grün.svg Napoli Centro 2,0 51,6 NA  
AB-AS-grün.svg Napoli San Giovanni a Teduccio 2,5 46,1 NA  
AB-AS-grün.svg Tabliczka E45.svg Autostrada A1 Italia.svg Roma, Firenze, Bologna, Milano 2,5 4,1 NA  
AB-AS-grün.svg Napoli Ponticelli-S.Giorgio Nord 5,5 45,2 NA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg San Giorgio a Cremano 6,4 45,2 NA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Portici (Bellavista) 8,0 43,6 NA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Ercolano 8,5 43,1 NA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Torre del Greco (Nord) 11,5 40,1 NA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Torre Annunziata Nord 15,0 36,6 NA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Torre Annunziata Sud 20,0 31,6 NA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Pompei Ovest 21,9 29,7 NA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Castellammare di Stabia 22,5 29,1 NA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Scafati-Pompei Est 25,0 26,6 NA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Angri 29,7 21,9 SA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Nocera Inferiore 36,6 15,0 SA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Cava de' Tirreni 42,9 8,7 SA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Vietri sul Mare 48,4 3,2 SA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Salerno 51,6 0,0 SA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Salerno Fratte 0,0 442,9 SA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svgItalian traffic signs - strada extraurbana principale.svg RA02 Avellino
Autostrada A30 Italia.svg Caserta
Tabliczka E842.svg Autostrada A16 Italia.svg Napoli - Canosa
Autostrada A1 Italia.svgRoma
0,2 442,7 SA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg San Mango Piemonte 7,3 435,7 SA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Pontecagnano 13,0 429,9 SA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Montecorvino Pugliano 17,5 425,4 SA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Battipaglia 23,0 419,9 SA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Eboli 30,0 412,9 SA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Campagna 36,1 406,8 SA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Contursi Terme-Postiglione 46,0 396,9 SA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Sicignano - Potenza
Tabliczka E847.svg Italian traffic signs - strada extraurbana principale.svg RA05 Potenza
54,0 388,9 SA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Petina 65,0 377,9 SA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Polla 76,0 366,9 SA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Atena Lucana 83,0 359,9 SA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Sala Consilina 88,0 354,9 SA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Padula - Buonabitacolo 104,0 338,9 SA Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Maratea-Lagonegro Nord 124,0 318,9 PZ Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Lagonegro Sud 126,0 316,9 PZ Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Lauria Nord 138,0 304,9 PZ Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Lauria Sud 145,0 297,9 PZ Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Laino Borgo 153,0 289,9 CS Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Mormanno-Scalea 164,0 278,9 CS Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Campotenese 174,0 268,9 CS Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Castrovillari-Morano Calabro 185,0 257,9 CS Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Castrovillari-Frascineto 194,0 248,9 CS Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Tabliczka E844.svg Sibari 208,0 234,9 CS Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Altomonte 214,0 228,9 CS Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Spezzano 220,0 222,9 CS Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Tarsia 225,0 217,9 CS Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Torano 235,0 207,9 CS Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Montalto Uffugo 246,0 196,9 CS Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Cosenza Nord
Tabliczka E846.svg Crotone
253,0 189,9 CS Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Cosenza 259,0 183,9 CS Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Rogliano - Grimaldi 273,0 169,9 CS Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Altilia 286,0 156,9 CS Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg San Mango d'Aquino 294,0 148,9 CZ Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Falerna 304,0 138,9 CZ Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Lamezia Terme
Tabliczka E848.svg Catanzaro
320,0 122,9 CZ Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Pizzo 339,0 103,9 VV Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Sant'Onofrio-Vibo Valentia 348,0 94,9 VV Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Serre 359,0 83,9 VV Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Mileto 370,0 72,9 VV Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Rosarno
Italian traffic signs - strada extraurbana principale.svg SGC Jonio-Tirreno: Marina di Gioiosa Ionica
383,0 59,9 RC Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-Tank.svg Service area "Rosarno" 390,0 56,9 RC Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Gioia Tauro 393,0 49,9 RC Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Palmi 401,0 41,9 RC Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Sant'Elia 408,0 34,9 RC Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Bagnara Calabra 412,0 30,9 RC Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Scilla 423,0 19,9 RC Tabliczka E45.svg
Italian traffic signs - divieto di transito.svg Santa Trada of Cannitello (cancelled from 2008) 423,0 RC Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-Tank.svg Service area "Villa San Giovanni" 433,0 10,0 RC Tabliczka E45.svg
AB-AS-grün.svg Villa San Giovanni
Tabliczka E45.svg RWB Fähre(L).svg Car ferry to Sicily
434,0 8,9 RC  
AB-AS-grün.svg Campo Calabro 435,0 7,9 RC  
AB-AS-grün.svg Reggio Catona - Arghillà 436,0 6,9 RC  
AB-AS-grün.svg Reggio Gallico 437,0 5,9 RC  
AB-AS-grün.svg Reggio maritime port - Promenade
RWB Fähre(L).svg Car ferry to Sicily
441,6 1,3 RC  
AB-AS-grün.svgItalian traffic signs - autostrada.svg Tabliczka E90.svg RA04 Reggio Calabria - SS106 442,5 0,4 RC  
Sinnbild Innerorts.svg Reggio Calabria Nord 442,9 0,0 RC  
Reggio Calabria: end of the A3 and beginning of the RA04 that connects with the SS106.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ (in Italian) ...una vera e propria «vergogna italiana», in La storia della Salerno Reggio Calabria Archived July 22, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, book about Salerno-Reggio Calabria
  2. ^ Organised crime may be behind problems with southern motorway: Awkward questions remain about Italian infrastructure, in [1]
  3. ^ a b http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2012/07/07/the-mafia-built-highway-that-could-cost-italy-471-million.html
  4. ^ "Salerno-to-Reggio Calabria complete". ANSA. 22 December 2016.
  5. ^ "Da oggi A2, l'Autostrada del Mediterraneo. Gentiloni: "Scusate per il ritardo"". calabriapage.it (in Italian).
  6. ^ a b (in Italian) l'autostrada, completamente statale e senza pedaggio, con le sue due corsie, somiglia più ad una strada statale Salerno-Reggio Calabria: L’autostrada che non c'è Archived February 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, La Soria siamo noi, Rai Educational, in which the A3 is defined "the most devastated motorway stretch in Italy".
  7. ^ Completion of the upgrade work has been, as of 2010, postponed to 2012-13, see: (in Italian)Autostrade: Salerno-Reggio Calabria pronta per 2012-2013 Archived July 13, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, ItaliaInformazione, July 8, 2009
  8. ^ [2] Italy Repays €307m to EU after Road Project Mafia Corruption.
  9. ^ "Archived copy" (in Italian). Archived from the original on 2011-09-29. Retrieved 2011-08-21.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Stradaneanas Works Update (in Italian)
  10. ^ (in Italian)repubblica.it Around €10bn projected for Salerno = Reggio upgrade 06 March 2011 (in Italian)
  11. ^ a b c Photos and videos of the Salerno-Reggio Calabria "scandal" at A3 Salerno-Reggio Calabria:uno Scandalo! Archived April 3, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, radicalweb.org, January 23, 2010
  12. ^ (in Italian) Viaggio dall’A3 al traghettamento sullo Stretto Archived July 25, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, terrelibere.org, August 7, 2009
  13. ^ (in Italian) Salerno Reggio Calabria ed il General Contractor unico Archived July 22, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Le strade, may 2007
  14. ^ (in Italian)ANAS Update Summer 2014 Archived September 29, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ Pietro Ciucci ANAS CEO Speech in Brussels 14 November 2012 (English)
  16. ^ "Prime Minister announces completion A3 by 2016, here is the current situation/Premier annuncia completamento A3 entro 2016, ecco la situazione attuale". La Metino. 18 May 2015. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
  17. ^ "A3 Upgrade History". Stradeanas. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
  18. ^ "'Maintenance' Plan Infographic March 2016 ( Italian)" (PDF). Stradeanas. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 19, 2016.
  19. ^ "Autostrada A3: Lotto 5 Pizzo Calabro - Sant'Onofrio" (in Italian). Retrieved 30 December 2016.
  20. ^ "Sa-Rc, only maintenance for the last 58 km/Sa-Rc, solo manutenzione per gli ultimi 58 chilometri". Il Sole 24. Il Sole 24. 11 March 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
  21. ^ "Prime Minister announces completion A3 by 2016, here is the current situation". La Metino. 18 May 2015. Retrieved 30 December 2016.

External links[edit]