Avagraha

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Avagraha
Diacritics in Latin & Greek
accent
acute´
double acute˝
grave`
double grave ̏
circumflexˆ
caron, háčekˇ
breve˘
inverted breve  ̑  
cedilla¸
diaeresis, umlaut¨
dot·
palatal hook  ̡
retroflex hook  ̢
hook above, dấu hỏi ̉
horn ̛
iota subscript ͅ 
macronˉ
ogonek, nosinė˛
perispomene ͂ 
overring˚
underring˳
rough breathing
smooth breathing᾿
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe
bar◌̸
colon:
comma,
full stop/period.
hyphen˗
prime
tilde~
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
kamora ҄
pokrytie ҇
titlo ҃
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara
avagraha
chandrabindu
nuqta
virama
visarga
Gurmukhī diacritics
Khmer diacritics
Thai diacritics
IPA diacritics
Japanese kana diacritics
dakuten
handakuten
Syriac diacritics
Related
Dotted circle
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols

Avagraha () is a symbol used to indicate prodelision of an (a) in many South Asian languages like Sanskrit (संस्कृतम्), Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ), Telugu and Hindi as shown below. It is usually transliterated with an apostrophe in Roman script and, in case of Devanagari, as in the Sanskrit philosophical expression शिवोऽहम् Śivo’ham (Śivaḥ aham), which is a sandhi of (शिवः + अहम्) ‘I am Shiva’. The avagraha is also used for prolonging vowel sounds in some languages, for example Hindi माँऽऽऽ! for ‘Mãããã!’ when calling to one’s mother, or when transliterating foreign words in instant messaging: for example, 'cool' can be transliterated as कूऽल.

In the case of Hindi, the character is also sometimes used as a symbol to denote long or heavy syllables, in metrical poetry. For example, the syllables in the word छंदः chandaḥ ‘metre’ (in nominative) can be denoted as "ऽऽ", meaning two long syllables. (Cf. other notations in entry "Systems of scansion".)

Avagraha in Unicode[edit]

The avagraha symbol is encoded at several Unicode points, for various Brahmic scripts that use it.[1][2][3][4][5][6]

Avagraha characters in Unicode
Character Unicode character number Full Unicode name
U+093D Devanagari sign avagraha
U+A8F1 Combining Devanagari sign avagraha
U+A8F7 Devanagari sign candrabindu avagraha
U+09BD Bengali sign avagraha
U+0ABD Gujarati sign avagraha
U+0B3D Odia sign avagraha
U+0C3D Telugu sign avagraha
U+0CBD Kannada sign avagraha
U+0D3D Malayalam sign avagraha
U+1BBA Sundanese sign avagraha
𑓄 U+114C4 Tirhuta sign avagraha
U+0F85 Tibetan sign paluta

References[edit]

  1. ^ Devanagari (PDF), Unicode
  2. ^ Bengali (PDF), Unicode
  3. ^ Oriya(Odia) (PDF), Unicode
  4. ^ Telugu (PDF), Unicode
  5. ^ Malayalam (PDF), Unicode
  6. ^ Tibetan (PDF), Unicode