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Sculpture of Avalokiteśvara holding a lotus (padma). Nālandā, Bihar, India, 9th century CE.
  • ကွမ်ယင်
  • IPA: [kwàɴ jɪ̀ɴ]
  • 观世音, 觀世音
  • Pinyin: Guānshìyīn
  • 观音, 觀音
  • Pinyin: Guānyīn
  • 观自在, 觀自在
  • Pinyin: Guānzìzài
  • かんじざい
  • Romaji: Kanjizai
  • かんのん
  • Romaji: Kannon
  • かんぜおん
  • Romaji: Kanzeon
  • អវលោកេស្វរៈ
  • GD: Avalokesvarak
  • អវលោកិតេស្វរៈ
  • GD: Avalokitesvarak
  • លោកេស្វរៈ
  • GD: Lokesvarak
  • 관음
  • RR: Gwaneum
  • 관자재
  • RR: Gwanjajae
  • 관세음
  • RR: Gwanseeum
  • อวโลกิเตศวร
  • RTGS: Avalokitesuan
  • กวนอิม
  • RTGS: Kuan Im
  • THL: Chenrézik
VietnameseQuan Âm, Quán Thế Âm, Quán Tự Tại
Venerated byBuddhism, Chinese folk religion, Taoism
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In Buddhism, Avalokiteśvara (meaning "God looking upon men with pity",[1] IPA: /ˌʌvəlkɪˈtʃvərə/[2]), also known as Lokeśvara ("Lord of the World") and Chenrezig (in Tibetan), is a tenth-level bodhisattva associated with great compassion (mahakaruṇā). He is often associated with Amitabha Buddha.[3] Avalokiteśvara has numerous manifestations and is depicted in various forms and styles. In some texts, he is even considered to be the source of all Hindu deities (such as Vishnu, Shiva, Saraswati, Brahma, etc).[4]

While Avalokiteśvara was depicted as male in India, in East Asian Buddhism, Avalokiteśvara is most often depicted as a female figure known as Guanyin /Kuan Yin (in Chinese), Kannon (in Japanese), Gwaneum (in Korean) and Quan Am (in Vietnam).[5] Guanyin is also an important figure in other East Asian religions, particularly Chinese folk religion and Daoism.

Avalokiteśvara is also known for his popular mantra, oṃ maṇi padme hūṃ, which is the most popular mantra in Tibetan Buddhism.[6]



The name Avalokiteśvara combines the verbal prefix ava "down", lokita, a past participle of the verb lok "to look, notice, behold, observe", here used in an active sense, and finally īśvara, "lord", "ruler", "sovereign", or "master". In accordance with sandhi (Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit rules of sound combination), a+īśvara becomes eśvara. Combined, the parts mean "lord who gazes down (at the world)". The word loka ("world") is absent from the name, but the phrase is implied.[7] It does appear in the Cambodian form of the name, Lokesvarak.

The earliest translation of the name Avalokiteśvara into Chinese by authors such as Xuanzang was as Guānzìzài (Chinese: 觀自在; pinyin: Guān zìzài), not the form used in East Asian Buddhism today, which is Guanyin (Chinese: 觀音; pinyin: Guānyīn). It was initially thought that this was due to a lack of fluency, as Guanyin indicates the original Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit form was instead Avalokitasvara, "who looked down upon sound", i.e., the cries of sentient beings who need help.[8] It is now understood that Avalokitasvara was the original form[9][10] and is also the origin of Guanyin "perceiving sound, cries". This translation was favored by the tendency of some Chinese translators, notably Kumārajīva, to use the variant GuānshìyīnChinese: 觀世音; pinyin: Guānshìyīn "who perceives the world's lamentations"—wherein lok was read as simultaneously meaning both "to look" and "world" (Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit loka; Chinese: ; pinyin: shì).[8] The original form of Guanyin's name appears in Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit fragments from the fifth century.[11]

This earlier Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit name was supplanted by the form containing the ending -īśvara "lord", but Avalokiteśvara did not occur in Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit before the seventh century.

The original meaning of the name fits the Buddhist understanding of the role of a bodhisattva. The reinterpretation presenting him as an īśvara shows a strong influence of Hinduism, as the term īśvara was usually connected to the Hindu notion of Vishnu (in Vaishnavism) or Shiva (in Shaivism) as the Supreme Lord, Creator, and Ruler of the world. Some attributes of such a god were transmitted to the bodhisattva, but the mainstream of those who venerated Avalokiteśvara upheld the Buddhist rejection of the doctrine of any creator god.[12]

In Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, Avalokiteśvara is also referred to as Lokeśvara ("Lord of the World"). In Tibetan, Avalokiteśvara is Chenrézig (Tibetan: སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་). The etymology of the Tibetan name Chenrézik is spyan "eye", ras "continuity", and gzig "to look". This gives the meaning of one who always looks upon all beings (with the eye of compassion).[13]



Mahayana account

Avalokiteśvara painting from a Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit palm-leaf manuscript. Nalanda, India, 12th century.

The name Avalokiteśvara first appeared in the Avatamsaka Sutra, a Mahayana scripture that precedes the Lotus Sutra.[14] On account of its popularity in Japan and as a result of the works of the earliest Western translators of Buddhist Scriptures, the Lotus Sutra, however, has long been accepted as the earliest literature teaching about the doctrines of Avalokiteśvara. These are found in Chapter 25 of the Lotus Sutra: The Universal Gate of Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara (Chinese: 觀世音菩薩普門品; pinyin: Guānshìyīn púsà pǔ mén pǐn). This chapter is devoted to Avalokiteśvara, describing him as a compassionate bodhisattva who hears the cries of sentient beings and who works tirelessly to help those who call upon his name. A total of 33 different manifestations of Avalokiteśvara are described, including female manifestations, all to suit the minds of various beings. The chapter consists of both a prose and a verse section. This earliest source often circulates separately as its own sutra, called the Avalokiteśvara Sūtra (Chinese: 觀世音經; pinyin: Guānshìyīn jīng), and is commonly recited or chanted at Buddhist temples in East Asia.[15]

Four-armed Tibetan form of Avalokiteśvara.

When the Chinese monk Faxian traveled to Mathura in India around 400 CE, he wrote about monks presenting offerings to Avalokiteśvara.[16] When Xuanzang traveled to India in the 7th century, he provided eyewitness accounts of Avalokiteśvara statues being venerated by devotees from all walks of life, from kings to monks to laypeople.[16]

Avalokiteśvara / Padmapani, Ajanta Caves, India

In Chinese Buddhism and East Asia, Tangmi practices for the 18-armed form of Avalokiteśvara called Cundī are very popular. The popularity of Cundī is attested by the three extant translations of the Cundī Dhāraṇī Sūtra from Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit to Chinese, made from the end of the seventh century to the beginning of the eighth century.[17] In late imperial China, these early esoteric traditions still thrived in Buddhist communities. Robert Gimello has also observed that in these communities, the esoteric practices of Cundī were extremely popular among both the populace and the elite.[18]

In the Tiantai school, six forms of Avalokiteśvara are defined. Each of the bodhisattva's six qualities is said to break the hindrances in one of the six realms of existence: hell-beings, pretas, animals, humans, asuras, and devas.

According to the prologue of Nīlakaṇṭha Dhāraṇī Sūtra, Gautama Buddha told his disciple Ānanda that Avalokiteśvara had become a Buddha from countless previous incarnations ago, alias Samyaka Dharma-vidya Tathāgata means "Tathāgata who clearly understood the right Dharma". Because of his great compassion and because he wanted to create proper conditions for all the Bodhisattva ranks and bring happiness and peacefulness to sentient beings, he became a Bodhisattva, taking the name of Avalokiteshvara and often abiding in the Sahā world. At the same time, Avalokiteśvara is also the attendant of Amitabha Buddha, assisting Amitabha Buddha to teach the Dharma in his Pure Land.

Theravāda account

Bronze statue of Avalokiteśvara from Sri Lanka, ca. 750 CE

Veneration of Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva has continued to the present day in Sri Lanka.

In times past, both Tantrayana and Mahayana have been found in some of the Theravada countries, but today the Buddhism of Sri Lanka (formerly, Ceylon), Myanmar (formerly, Burma), Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia is almost exclusively Theravada, based on the Pali Canon. The only Mahayana deity that has entered the worship of ordinary Buddhists in Theravada Buddhism is Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara. In Sri Lanka, he is known as Natha-deva and is mistaken by the majority for the Buddha yet to come, Bodhisattva Maitreya. The figure of Avalokitesvara is usually found in the shrine room near the Buddha image.[19]

In more recent times, some western-educated Theravādins have attempted to identify Nātha with Maitreya Bodhisattva; however, traditions and basic iconography (including an image of Amitābha Buddha on the front of the crown) identify Nātha as Avalokiteśvara.[20] Andrew Skilton writes:[21]

... It is clear from sculptural evidence alone that the Mahāyāna was fairly widespread throughout Sri Lanka, although the modern account of the history of Buddhism on the island presents an unbroken and pure lineage of Theravāda. (One can only assume that similar trends were transmitted to other parts of Southeast Asia with Sri Lankan ordination lineages.) Relics of an extensive cult of Avalokiteśvara can be seen in the present-day figure of Nātha.

Avalokiteśvara is popularly worshipped in Myanmar, where he is called Lokanat or lokabyuharnat, and Thailand, where he is called Lokesvara. The bodhisattva goes by many other names. In Indochina and Thailand, he is Lokesvara, "The Lord of the World." In Tibet, he is Chenrezig, also spelled Spyan-ras gzigs, "With a Pitying Look." In China, the bodhisattva takes a female form and is called Guanyin (also spelled Kwan Yin, Kuanyin, or Kwun Yum), "Hearing the Sounds of the World." In Japan, Guanyin is Kannon or Kanzeon; in Korea, Gwaneum; and in Vietnam, Quan Am.[22]

Wood carving of Lokanat at Shwenandaw Monastery, Mandalay, Burma

Modern scholarship


Avalokiteśvara is worshipped as Nātha in Sri Lanka. The Tamil Buddhist tradition developed in Chola literature, such as Buddamitra's Virasoliyam, states that the Vedic sage Agastya learned Tamil from Avalokiteśvara. The earlier Chinese traveler Xuanzang recorded a temple dedicated to Avalokitesvara in the south Indian Mount Potalaka, a Sanskritization of Pothigai, where Tamil Hindu tradition places Agastya as having learned the Tamil language from Shiva.[23][24][25] Avalokitesvara worship gained popularity with the growth of the Abhayagiri vihāra's Tamraparniyan Mahayana sect.

Pothigai Malai in Tamil Nadu is proposed as the original Mount Potalaka in India.

Western scholars have not reached a consensus on the origin of the reverence for Avalokiteśvara. Some have suggested that Avalokiteśvara, along with many other supernatural beings in Buddhism, was a borrowing or absorption by Mahayana Buddhism of one or more deities from Hinduism, in particular Shiva or Vishnu. This seems to be based on the name Avalokiteśvara.[11]

On the basis of the study of Buddhist scriptures and ancient Tamil literary sources as well as a field survey, Japanese scholar Shu Hikosaka proposes the hypothesis that ancient Mount Potalaka, the residence of Avalokiteśvara described in the Gaṇḍavyūha Sūtra and Xuanzang’s Great Tang Records on the Western Regions, is Mount Potigai in Ambasamudram, Tirunelveli, at the Tamil Nadu-Kerala border.[26] Shu also said that Mount Potalaka has been a sacred place for the people of South India since time immemorial. It is the traditional residence of Siddhar Agastya at Agastya Mala. With the spread of Buddhism in the region beginning at the time of the great king Aśoka in the third century BCE, it became a holy place also for Buddhists, who gradually became dominant as a number of their hermits settled there. The local people, though, mainly remained followers of the Tamil animist religion. The mixed Tamil-Buddhist cult culminated in the formation of the figure of Avalokiteśvara.[27]

The name Lokeśvara should not be confused with that of Lokeśvararāja, the Buddha under whom Dharmakara became a monk and made forty-eight vows before becoming Amitābha.

Avalokiteśvara's six armed manifestation as Cintāmaṇicakra is also widely venerated in East Asia. The Cintāmaṇicakra Dharani (Chinese: 如意寶輪王陀羅尼; pinyin: Rúyì Bǎolún Wáng Tuóluóní) is another popular dharani associated with the bodhisattva.[28][29]

Mantras and Dharanis

OṂ MAŅI PADME HǕṂ. The six syllable mantra of Avalokiteśvara written in the Tibetan alphabet.

There are various mantras and dharanis associated with Avalokiteśvara.

Mani mantra


In Tibetan Buddhism, the central mantra is the six-syllable mantra oṃ maṇi padme hūṃ (Sanskrit: ॐ मणि पद्मे हूँ, also called the Mani mantra. Due to his association with this mantra, one form of Avalokiteśvara is called Ṣaḍākṣarī ("Lord of the Six Syllables") in Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit. The Mani mantra is also popular in East Asian Mahayana.

Recitation of this mantra while using prayer beads is the most popular religious practice in Tibetan Buddhism. Another popular religious practice associated with om mani padme hum is the spinning of prayer wheels clockwise, which contains numerous repetitions of this mantra and effectively benefits everyone within the vicinity of the practitioner.[30]

The connection between this famous mantra and Avalokiteśvara is documented for the first time in the Kāraṇḍavyūhasūtra. This text is dated to around the late 4th century CE to the early 5th century CE.[31] In this sūtra, a bodhisattva is told by the Buddha that recitation of this mantra while focusing on the sound can lead to the attainment of eight hundred samādhis.[32]

Ārolik mantra


Another mantra for Avalokiteśvara commonly recited in East Asian Buddhism is "three and a half syllables" (ardhacaturthākṣara) heart-mantra: "oṃ ārolik svāha" (or sometimes just Ārolik or oṁ ārolik), which is found (in many forms and variations like ārolika, arulika, etc.) in numerous pre-tenth-century Indian texts, including the 7th century Chinese translation of the Dhāraṇīsaṁgraha, the Susiddhikarasūtra, the Mañjuśriyamūlakalpa, and the Guhyasamājatantra.[33]

This is also the main mantra for the bodhisattva in Shingon Buddhism and is considered to be the main mantra of the Lotus Buddha family.[34][35][36]

One text (Taisho Tripitaka no. 1031) describes a visualization practice done after reciting oṁ ārolik svāhā seven times which includes meditating on the meanings of the four letters of ārolik which are:[33]

  1. a: all dharmas are originally unborn (ādyanutpanna);
  2. ra: all dharmas are dissociated from defilement (rajas);
  3. la: characteristics (lakṣaṇa) are inapprehensible in all dharmas;
  4. ka: all dharmas are without action (kārya).

The Ārolik mantra has also been found engraved on a few sculptures found in north India. One of these begins with "ārolik oṁ hrīḥ". Another one of these found in Bihar also included other mantras, including ye dharma hetu, followed by "namo ratnatrayāya namo Āryāvalokiteśvarāya bodhisatvāya mahāsatvāya mahākāruṇikāya Ārolok Oṁ hriḥ hriḥ".[33]

Another longer mantra appears in a translation by Amoghavajra (T. 1033, 20: 9b1–7):[33]

namoratnatrayāya | nama āryāvalokiteśvarāya bodhisattvāya mahāsattvāya mahākāruṇikāya | tadyathā padmapāṇi sara sara ehy ehi bhagavann āryāvalokiteśvara ārolik |

In Chinese, oṃ ārolik svāha is pronounced Ǎn ālǔlēi jì suōpóhē (唵 阿嚕勒繼 娑婆訶). In Korean, it is pronounced Om aroreuk Ge Sabaha (옴 아로늑계 사바하). In Japanese, it is pronounced On arori kya sowa ka (おん あろりきゃ そわか).



The Kāraṇḍavyūha Sūtra also features the first appearance of the dhāraṇī of Cundī, which occurs at the end of the sūtra text.[17] After the bodhisattva finally attains samādhi with the mantra "oṃ maṇipadme hūṃ", he is able to observe 77 koṭīs of fully enlightened buddhas replying to him in one voice with the Cundī Dhāraṇī: namaḥ saptānāṃ samyaksaṃbuddha koṭīnāṃ tadyathā, oṃ cale cule cunde svāhā.[37]

The Nīlakaṇṭha Dhāraṇī is an 82-syllable dhāraṇī for Avalokiteśvara also known as the Great Compassion Mantra. It is very popular in East Asian Buddhism. Another popular Avalokiteśvara dharani in East Asian Buddhism is Eleven-Faced Avalokitesvara Heart Dharani. This dharani is associated with Avalokiteśvara's eleven face form, known as Ekādaśamukha, one of the six forms of Guanyin.


Clay images of Amoghapasha Lokesvara flanked by Arya Tara and Bhrikuti Tara enshrined at the side wing of Vasuccha Shil Mahavihar, Guita Bahi, Patan: This set of images is popular in traditional monasteries of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.
Ekādaśamukha (Eleven faced) Avalokiteśvara

Avalokiteśvara has an extraordinarily large number of forms, emanations or manifestations, including wisdom goddesses (vidyās) directly associated with him in images and texts.

Furthermore, at least two separate female Buddhist deities, Cundī and Tara also later came to be associated with Avalokiteśvara (and were even seen as manifestations of him).

Some of the more commonly mentioned forms include:[38][39][40]

Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit name Meaning Description
Āryāvalokiteśvara Noble Avalokiteśvara The root form of the Bodhisattva
Caturbhuja Lokeśvara "Four armed" Lokeśvara Two hands in anjali, one hand holds a lotus, the other hand holds a mala
Padmapani Lotus in hand Holds a vase and a lotus
Ekādaśamukha Eleven Faced Additional faces to teach all in 10 planes of existence
Sahasrabhuja Thousand-Armed, Thousand-Eyed Avalokitesvara White, with multiple arms holding many symbols
Sahasranetra Thousand-eyed Often depicted with multiple arms with eyes on the hands
Cintāmaṇicakra Wish Fulfilling Wheel Holds the wish-fulfilling jewel (cintamani) and the wheel (chakra)
Hayagrīva Horse-necked one Wrathful form; simultaneously bodhisattva and a Wisdom King
Amoghapāśa Unfailing noose Avalokitesvara with rope and net
Nīlakaṇṭhāvalokiteśvara Dark blue necked Dark blue in color
Siṃhanādalokeśvara Lord with the voice of a lion Seated on a roaring lion
Harihariharivāha Triple Hari Appears with Vishnu and Garuda
Sṛṣṭikartā Lokeśvara Avalokiteshvara in the process of creation Red in color, shown emanating numerous devas
Jinasagara Avalokiteśvara Ocean of conquerors, also known as "Red Chenrezig" A Vajrayana form, often depicted with a female consort
Khasarpaṇi Lokeśvara "Sky flyer" Lokeśvara White, two harms, holds a lotus
Gaṇapati Ganesha
Bhṛkuti Fierce-Eyed
Pāndaravāsinī White Clad
Sadakṣarī Six Syllables
Śvetabhagavatī White Lord
Udakaśrī Auspicious Water
Lokanātha Kala Lokeshvara Lord of worlds Black Lokeshvara A wrathful tantric form with 12 arms

Thousand-armed Avalokiteśvara

Shrine to the Thousand-Hand Guanyin (Qianshou Guanyin) and Eleven-Headed Guanyin (Shiyimian Guanyin) on Mount Putuo Guanyin Dharma Realm in Zhejiang, China
Shrine to the Thousand-Hand Guanyin (Qianshou Guanyin) and Eleven-Headed Guanyin (Shiyimian Guanyin) on Mount Putuo Guanyin Dharma Realm in Zhejiang, China

One prominent Buddhist story tells of Avalokiteśvara vowing never to rest until he had freed all sentient beings from saṃsāra. Despite strenuous effort, he realizes that many unhappy beings were yet to be saved. After struggling to comprehend the needs of so many, his head splits into eleven pieces. Amitābha, seeing his plight, gives him eleven heads with which to hear the cries of the suffering. Upon hearing these cries and comprehending them, Avalokiteśvara tries to reach out to all those who needed aid, but found that his two arms shattered into pieces. Once more, Amitābha comes to his aid and invests him with a thousand arms with which to aid the suffering multitudes.[41]

Avalokiteśvara as a cosmic maheśvara ("great lord")

Sṛṣṭikartā Lokeśvara (Avalokiteshvara in the process of creation), in which the bodhisattva takes on the form of Sṛṣṭikartā (creator) and emanates all the Hindu gods for the benefit of sentient beings.

According to various Mahayana sources, numerous Hindu deities are considered to be emanations of Avalokiteshvara. For example, in the Kāraṇḍavyūhasūtra, Vishnu, Shiva, Brahma and Saraswati are all said to have emerged from Avalokiteshvara.[4] The passage states:

Āditya and Candra came from his eyes, Maheśvara came from his forehead, Brahmā came from his shoulders, Nārāyaṇa came from his heart, Devi Sarasvatī came from his canines, Vāyu came from his mouth, Dharaṇī came from his feet, and Varuṇa came from his stomach.[42]

In a similar manner, Hindu deities like Nīlakaṇṭha and Harihara are cited in the Nīlakaṇṭha Dhāraṇī, possibly as forms of Avalokiteshvara or as associated bodhisattvas (the text is not clear, though traditionally these have been interpreted as various names or forms of Avalokiteshvara).[43]

Alexander Studholme writes that these sources are influenced by Puranic Hinduism, and its concepts of an Īśvara ("lord") and Maheśvara ("great lord"), both of which are terms that refer to a transcendent and all pervasive being.[44] The name Maheśvara is also applied to Avalokiteshvara three times in the Kāraṇḍavyūhasūtra, and some passages he is described as a cosmic man, similar to how the Puranas depict Vishnu or Shiva.[44] However, this Buddhist myth only focuses on how Avalokiteshvara gives birth to all the gods (devas), and he is not depicted as a true Creator God (who creates the cosmos, like the Hindu Īśvara), instead he is depicted as a great cosmic being that manifests in myriad ways as a skillful means to guide living beings to Buddhahood.[45]

Tibetan Buddhist beliefs


Avalokiteśvara is an important deity in Tibetan Buddhism. He is regarded in the Vajrayana teachings as a Buddha.[46]

In Tibetan Buddhism, Tãrã came into existence from a single tear shed by Avalokiteśvara.[5] When the tear fell to the ground it created a lake, and a lotus opening in the lake revealed Tara. In another version of this story, Tara emerges from the heart of Avalokiteśvara. In either version, it is Avalokiteśvara's outpouring of compassion which manifests Tãrã as a being.[47][48][49]

Certain living tulku lineages, including the Dalai Lamas and the Karmapas, are considered by many Tibetan Buddhists to also be manifestations of Avalokiteśvara.[50][51][52]


See also



  1. ^ Gour, H. S. (1929). The Spirit Of Buddhism Vol. 1. p. 10.
  2. ^ "Avalokitesvara". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  3. ^ Ellwood, Robert S. (2008). The Encyclopedia of World Religions. Facts on file. p. 40. ISBN 978-1-4381-1038-7.
  4. ^ a b Studholme, Alexander (2002). The Origins of Om Manipadme Hum: A Study of the Karandavyuha Sutra. State University of New York Press. p. 39-40.
  5. ^ a b Leighton, Taigen Dan (1998). Bodhisattva Archetypes: Classic Buddhist Guides to Awakening and Their Modern Expression. New York: Penguin Arkana. pp. 158–205. ISBN 0140195564. OCLC 37211178.
  6. ^ Studholme, Alexander (2002). The Origins of Om Manipadme Hum: A Study of the Karandavyuha Sutra. State University of New York Press. p. 2.
  7. ^ Studholme p. 52-54, 57.
  8. ^ a b Pine, Red. The Heart Sutra: The Womb of the Buddhas (2004) Shoemaker 7 Hoard. ISBN 1-59376-009-4 pg 44-45
  9. ^ Lokesh Chandra (1984). "The Origin of Avalokitesvara" (PDF). Indologica Taurinensia. XIII (1985-1986). International Association of Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Studies: 189–190. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 6, 2014. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
  10. ^ Mironov, N. D. (1927). "Buddhist Miscellanea". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 59 (2): 241–252. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00057440. JSTOR 25221116. S2CID 250344585.
  11. ^ a b Studholme p. 52-57.
  12. ^ Studholme p. 30-31, 37-52.
  13. ^ Bokar Rinpoche (1991). Chenrezig Lord of Love - Principles and Methods of Deity Meditation. San Francisco, California: Clearpoint Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-9630371-0-2.
  14. ^ Huntington, John (2003). The Circle of Bliss: Buddhist Meditational Art: p. 188
  15. ^ Baroni, Helen (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Zen Buddhism: p. 15
  16. ^ a b Ko Kok Kiang. Guan Yin: Goddess of Compassion. 2004. p. 10
  17. ^ a b Studholme, Alexander (2002). The Origins of Oṃ Maṇipadme Hūṃ: A Study of the Kāraṇḍavyūha Sūtra: p. 175
  18. ^ Jiang, Wu (2008). Enlightenment in Dispute: The Reinvention of Chan Buddhism in Seventeenth-Century China: p. 146
  19. ^ Baruah, Bibhuti. Buddhist Sects and Sectarianism. 2008. p. 137
  20. ^ "Art & Archaeology - Sri Lanka - Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara".
  21. ^ Skilton, Andrew. A Concise History of Buddhism. 2004. p. 151
  22. ^ "Meet Avalokiteshvara, Buddhism's Bodhisattva of Infinite Compassion".
  23. ^ Iravatham Mahadevan (2003), EARLY TAMIL EPIGRAPHY, Volume 62. pp. 169
  24. ^ Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta Sastri (1963) Development of Religion in South India - Page 15
  25. ^ Layne Ross Little (2006) Bowl Full of Sky: Story-making and the Many Lives of the Siddha Bhōgar, pp. 28
  26. ^ Hirosaka, Shu. The Potiyil Mountain in Tamil Nadu and the origin of the Avalokiteśvara cult
  27. ^ Läänemets, Märt (2006). "Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara in the Gandavyuha Sutra". Chung-Hwa Buddhist Studies 10, 295-339. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
  28. ^ "Ten Small Mantras". www.buddhamountain.ca. Retrieved 2021-05-10.
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