Avel Safronovich Enukidze (Georgian: აბელ ენუქიძე, Abel Enukiʒe, Georgian pronunciation: [ˈɑbɛl.ˈɛnukʰid͜zɛ]; Russian: А́вель Сафронович Енуки́дзе; 19 May [O.S. 7 May] 1877—30 October 1937) was a prominent "Old Bolshevik" and, at one point, a member of the Soviet Central Committee in Moscow. In 1932, along with Mikhail Kalinin and Vyacheslav Molotov, Enukidze co-signed the infamous "Law of Spikelets".
Enukidze had written a book on the history of a famous Bolshevik printing press in the Caucasus which had distributed, throughout Russia, Vladimir Lenin's revolutionary theses during the Czarist period. Soon he was accused of having deliberately diminished Joseph Stalin's contributions to the printing press and the Bolshevik movement in Baku. In fact, Stalin had little to do with these things; it was Enukidze himself who had played the major role. But revolutionary contributions were important to a Bolshevik's prestige, and Stalin did not like Enukidze outshining him. In July 1935, after suggesting to Stalin that he give up power, Enukidze was called to account before a Central Committee Plenum in Moscow, expelled from the Party immediately, and two years later, arrested, tried, and shot.
Enukidze was rehabilitated as a victim of Stalin's purges.
His family name in Russian is transliterated incorrectly as Ienukidze (should be Enukidze), and his given name as Avel (should be Abel) in Alan Bullock's Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives (1993). Bullock also transliterates Enukidze as Yenukidze (since it is pronounced Ienukidze in Russian).
- Simon Sebag Montefiore. Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar. pg 177
- Alexander Barmine, One who survived, 1945
- Leon Trotsky, Behind the Kremlin Walls