Avelanges is located some 45 km north of Dijon and 35 km east by south-east of Aignay-le-Duc. Access to the commune is by the D120 road which branches from the D112 south of Avot in the north and passes through the commune and village before continuing south-west to Marey-sur-Tille. The commune has extensive forests mixed with smaller areas of farmland.
In 2010 the commune had 42 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger communes that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]
^At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by Law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002, the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" allows, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For communes with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these communes is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force on 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.