Aves in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

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In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae published in 1758, the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus described 554 species of bird and gave each a binomial name.

Linnaeus first included birds in the 6th edition of his Systema Naturae which was published in 1748. In it he listed 260 species arranged into 51 genera and six orders. The entries for each species were very brief; he did not include a description but instead provided a citation to an earlier publication, often to his own Fauna suecica which was published in 1746.[1][2] Linnaeus generally followed the classification scheme introduced by the English parson and naturalist John Ray which grouped species based on the characteristics of their bill and feet.[3]

The 10th edition appeared in 1758 and was the first in which Linnaeus consistently used his binomial system of nomenclature. He increased the number of birds to 554 species which filled 116 pages compared with only 17 in the 6th edition.[Note 1] For each species he included both a brief description and also citations to earlier publications.[1][6] He maintained 6 orders as in the 6th edition but renamed Scolopaces to Grallae. He rearranged some of the genera, dropping several and adding others to bring the total to 63.[5][Note 2][Note 3]

The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature chose 1 January 1758 as the "starting point" for zoological nomenclature, and asserted that the 10th edition of Systema Naturae was to be treated as if published on that date.[11] In 2016 the list of birds of the world maintained by Frank Gill and David Donsker on behalf of the International Ornithologists' Union included 448 species for which Linnaeus's description in the 10th edition is cited as the authority. Of the species 101 have been retained in their original genus and 347 have been moved to a different genus. In addition, there are five species on Linnaeus's 1758 list that are now considered as subspecies. Of Linnaeus's 63 genera, only Tantalus and Colymbus are not now used.[10]

In the 12th edition of his Systema Naturae published in 1766, Linnaeus described many additional birds that had not been included in the 10th edition. The 12th edition included 931 bird species divided into 6 orders and 78 genera.[5][12] The 12th edition is cited as the authority for 257 modern species of which only 25 have been retained in their original genus.[10] There are now believed to be around 10,000 extant species.[13][14]

Linnaeus described the class Aves as:

A beautiful and cheerful portion of created nature consisting of animals having a body covered with feathers and down; protracted and naked jaws (the beak), two wings formed for flight, and two feet. They are aereal, vocal, swift and light, and destitute of external ears, lips, teeth, scrotum, womb, bladder, epiglottis, corpus callosum and its arch, and diaphragm.[15]

Linnaean Characteristics [15]

  • Heart: 2 auricles, 2 ventricles. Warm, dark red blood
  • Lungs: respires alternately
  • Jaw: incombent, naked, extended, without teeth
  • Eggs: covered with a calcareous shell
  • Organs of Sense: tongue, nostrils, eyes, and ears without auricles
  • Covering: incumbent, imbricate feathers
  • Supports: 2 feet, 2 wings; and a heart-shaped rump. Flies in the Air & Sings

In the list below, the binomial name is that used by Linnaeus.

Accipitres[edit]

The turkey vulture was named Vultur aura in 1758
Vultur (vultures & condors)
The swallow-tailed kite was named Falco forficatus in 1758.
The snowy owl was named Strix scandiaca and Strix nyctea in 1758
Falco (falcons, eagles, & kin)
Strix (owls)
The eastern kingbird was named Lanius tyrannus in 1758
Lanius (shrikes)
The bohemian waxwing was named Lanius garrulus in 1758

Picae[edit]

The grey parrot, Psittacus erithacus, is the only species to remain in the genus Psittacus
Psittacus (parrots)
The scarlet macaw was named Psittacus macao in 1758.
Ramphastos (toucans[44]
The white throated toucan.
Buceros (hornbills)
The rhinoceros hornbill.
Crotophaga (anis)
The smooth billed ani.
The common raven was named Corvus corax in 1758
Corvus (crows & ravens)
Coracias (rollers & orioles)
The common european roller.
The common hill myna was named Gracula religiosa in 1758
Gracula (mynas)
Paradisaea (birds-of-paradise)
The greater bird of paradise.
The yellow-billed cuckoo was named Cuculus americanus in 1758
Cuculus (cuckoos)
Jynx (wrynecks)
Picus (woodpeckers)
The Eurasian nuthatch was named Sitta europaea in 1758
Sitta (nuthatches)
Alcedo (kingfishers)
Merops (bee-eaters)
The Hoopoe, Upupa epops, is now the only species in the genus Upupa and the family Upupidae
Upupa (hoopoes)
Certhia (treecreepers)
The ruby-throated hummingbird was named Trochilus colubris in 1758
Trochilus (hummingbirds)

Anseres[edit]

The king eider was named Anas spectabilis in 1758
The Eurasian wigeon was named Anas penelope in 1758
Anas (ducks, geese, & swans)
Mergus (mergansers)
The little auk was named Alca alle in 1758
Alca (auks)
Procellaria (petrels)
The African penguin was named Diomedea demersus in 1758
Diomedea (albatrosses & penguins)
Pelecanus (pelicans & kin)
Phaethon (tropicbirds)
The horned grebe, or Slavonian grebe, was named Colymbus auritus in 1758
Colymbus (grebes & loons)[Note 4][Note 5]
Larus (gulls)
Sterna (terns)
Rynchops (skimmers)

Grallae[edit]

The American flamingo was named Phoenicopterus ruber in 1758
Phoenicopterus (flamingoes)
Platalea (spoonbills)
Mycteria (storks)
Tantalus
Ardea (herons, cranes & kin)
Scolopax (godwits, ibises & kin)
The bar-tailed godwit was named Scolopax lapponica in 1758
Tringa (phalaropes and sandpipers)
The ruff (shown here in breeding plumage) was named Tringa pugnax in 1758
Charadrius (plovers)
The European golden plover was named Charadrius apricarius and Charadrius pluvialis in 1758
Recurvirostra (avocets)
Haematopus (oystercatchers)
Fulica (coots & kin)
Rallus (rails)
Psophia (trumpeters)
Otis (bustards)
Struthio (ratites)

Gallinae[edit]

Pavo (peafowl)
Meleagris (turkeys)
Crax (curassows)
Phasianus (pheasants & chickens)
Tetrao (grouse & kin)

Passeres[edit]

Columba (pigeons & doves)
Alauda (larks & pipits)
Sturnus (starlings)
Turdus (thrushes & kin)
Loxia (cardinals, bullfinches & kin)
Emberiza (buntings)
Fringilla (finches & kin)
Motacilla (wagtails)
Parus (tits & manakins)
Hirundo (swallows & swifts)
Caprimulgus (nightjars)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The number of 554 is from the numbered species contained in Linnaeus's book and are the species listed below. Ernst Mayr claimed that Linnaeus listed 564 species[4] while Joel Allen claimed that Linnaeus listed 545 species.[5]
  2. ^ W. L. McAtee mistakenly claims that Linnaeus in his 10th edition lists 102 genera of birds.[7] In fact Linnaeus numbered his bird genera from 40 to 102.
  3. ^ For the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae Linnaeus dropped six genera that he had introduced in the 6th edition. These were Ispida, Ortygometra, Numenius, Casuarius, Gallus and Ampelis. Linnaeus reintroduced the genus Ampelis in the 12th edition.[8] The French scientist Mathurin Jacques Brisson based some of the genera in his Ornithologie on those introduced by Linnaeus in his 6th edition and adopted Ispida, Numenius, Casuarius and Gallus. As Ornithologie was published in 1760, after the I.C.Z.N. cutoff date of 1758, Brisson and not Linnaeus is considered as the authority for the last three of the above genera.[5][9][10]
  4. ^ The genus Colymbus was mis-spelt "Columbus" in the list of bird genera on p. 84, but appears as Colymbus elsewhere.
  5. ^ The genus Colymbus was suppressed by the I.C.Z.N. in 1956.[84]
  6. ^ a b Linnaeus mixed the two species Turdus iliacus and Turdus musicus in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae. Under Turdus iliacus, he gave a description of the song thrush, but cited references referring to the redwing; under Turdus musicus, he gave a description of the redwing, but cited referenced referring to the song thrush. The confusion was partly clarified in the 1766 12th edition. The name Turdus musicus was suppressed after a 1957 appeal to the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature by Ernst Mayr and Charles Vaurie.[142][143]
  7. ^ For the second occurrence of Frigilla zena Linnaeus cites Plate 37 in Volume 1 of Mark Catesby's The natural history of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands (1729-1732).[157][158] In the 12th edition of his Systema Naturae Linnaeus cites the same plate for the Fringilla bicolor, now Tiaris bicolor, the black-faced grassquit.[159]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Linnaeus, Carl (1846). Fauna suecica, sistens animalia Sueciae regni. Stockholmiae: Sumtu & literis Laurentii Salvii. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.63899.
  3. ^ Newton, Alfred (1893–1896). A Dictionary of Birds. London: Adam and Charles Black. p. 8.
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  6. ^ Linnaeus 1758.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an W. L. McAtee (1957). "The North American birds of Linnaeus". Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History. 3: 291–300. doi:10.3366/jsbnh.1957.3.5.291.
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