|Type||Sauce and soup|
|Main ingredients||Eggs, lemon juice, broth|
Avgolemono (Greek: αυγολέμονο or αβγολέμονο) or egg–lemon is a family of sauces and soups made with egg yolk and lemon juice mixed with broth, heated until they thicken. They are found in Greek, Arab, Sephardic Jewish, Turkish, Balkan and Italian cuisine.
In Sephardic Jewish cuisine, it is called agristada or salsa blanco, and in Italian cuisine, bagna brusca, brodettato, or brodo brusco. In Arabic, it is called tarbiya or beida bi-lemoune 'egg with lemon'; and in Turkish terbiye. It is also widely used in Balkan cuisine.
Agristada was made by Jews in Iberia before the expulsion from Spain with verjuice, pomegranate juice, or bitter orange juice, but not vinegar. In later periods, lemon became the standard acidic ingredient.
As a sauce, it is used for warm dolma, for vegetables like artichokes, and roast meats. According to Joyce Goldstein, the dish terbiyeli köfte is made by frying meatballs until they are cooked through, then preparing a pan sauce by deglazing the pan and using the cooking juices to temper the avgolemono, which is served over the meatballs.
Avgolemono can also be used to thicken soups and stews. Yuvarlakia is a Greek meatball soup made with rice and meat meatballs that are cooked in liquid. Avgolemono is added to the soup to thicken it. Magiritsa soup is a Greek avgolemono soup of lamb offal served to break the fast of Great Lent.
As a soup, avgolemono usually starts with chicken broth, though meat (usually lamb), fish, or vegetable broths are also used. Typically, rice, orzo, pastina, or tapioca are cooked in the broth before the mixture of eggs and lemon is added. Its consistency varies from near-stew to near-broth. It is often served with pieces of the meat and vegetables reserved from the broth.
The soup is usually made with whole eggs, but sometimes with just yolks. The whites may be beaten into a foam separately before mixing with the yolks and lemon juice, or whole eggs may be beaten with the lemon juice. The starch of the pasta or rice contributes to stabilizing the emulsion.
- Babiniotis, Λεξικό της Νέας Ελληνικής Γλώσσας
- Gil Marks, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Food, 2010, ISBN 0-470-39130-8, p. 5
- Maria Kaneva-Johnson, Balkan Food and Cookery, 1995, ISBN 0-907325-57-2, p. 349
- Emily Paster (October 2, 2019). "This Greek Chicken Soup Has a Surprising Sephardic History". The Nosher (blog).
- Goldstein, Jource (2016). The New Mediterranean Jewish Table: Old World Recipes for the Modern Home. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520284999.
- Joyce Esersky Goldstein, Cucina Ebraica: Flavors of the Italian Jewish Kitchen, 1998, ISBN 0-8118-1969-8, p. 166
- "Meatball soup (giouvarlakia)". SBS.
- Claudia Roden, A Book of Middle Eastern Food, 1968, ISBN 978-0-394-71948-1, p. 111