Avi Loeb

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Avi Loeb
אברהם לייב
Loeb in 2023
Born
Abraham Loeb

(1962-02-26) February 26, 1962 (age 61)
Beit Hanan, Israel
NationalityIsraeli
American
Alma materHebrew University of Jerusalem (BSc, MSc, PhD)
Scientific career
FieldsCosmology, astrophysics
InstitutionsInstitute for Advanced Study
Harvard University
Doctoral advisorShalom Eliezer
Lazar Friedland
Other academic advisorsJohn N. Bahcall
Doctoral studentsDaniel Eisenstein

Abraham "Avi" Loeb (Hebrew: אברהם (אבי) לייב; born February 26, 1962) is an Israeli-American theoretical physicist who works on astrophysics and cosmology. Loeb is the Frank B. Baird Jr. Professor of Science at Harvard University, where since 2007 he has been Director of the Institute for Theory and Computation at the Center for Astrophysics.[1][2][3][4][5][6] He chaired the Department of Astronomy from 2011–2020, and founded the Black Hole Initiative in 2016.

Loeb is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Physical Society, and the International Academy of Astronautics. In 2015, he was appointed as the science theory director for the Breakthrough Initiatives of the Breakthrough Prize Foundation.

Loeb has published popular science books including Extraterrestrial: The First Sign of Intelligent Life Beyond Earth (2021) and Interstellar: The Search for Extraterrestrial Life and Our Future in the Stars (2023).

In 2018, he suggested that alien space craft may be in the Solar System, using ʻOumuamua as an example.[7] In 2023, he claimed to have recovered material from an interstellar meteor that could be evidence of an alien starship,[8] which some experts criticized as hasty and sensational.[9][10]

Life and career[edit]

Loeb was born in Beit Hanan,[11] Israel, in 1962. He took part in the national Talpiot program of the Israeli Defense Forces at age 18.[12] While in Talpiot, he obtained a BSc degree in physics and mathematics in 1983, an MSc degree in physics in 1985, and a PhD in physics in 1986, all from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HUJI).[5] From 1983 to 1988, he led the first international project supported by the U.S. Strategic Defense Initiative. Between 1988 and 1993, Loeb was a long-term member at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, where he started to work in theoretical astrophysics.

In 1993, he moved to Harvard University as an assistant professor in the department of astronomy, and was tenured three years later.[4][6][2]

Loeb has written eight books, including textbooks How Did the First Stars and Galaxies Form?[13][14] and The First Galaxies in the Universe.[15] He has co-authored many papers on topics in astrophysics and cosmology,[2][5] including the first stars, the epoch of reionization, the formation and evolution of massive black holes, the search for extraterrestrial life, gravitational lensing by planets, gamma-ray bursts at high redshifts, the use of the Lyman-alpha forest to measure the acceleration/deceleration of the universe in real time,[16] the future collision between the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies,[17] the future state of extragalactic astronomy,[18] astrophysical implications of black hole recoil in galaxy mergers,[19] tidal disruption of stars,[20] and imaging black hole silhouettes.[21][3]

In 1992, Loeb and Andy Gould suggested that exoplanets could be detected through gravitational microlensing. In 1993, he proposed the use of the C+ fine-structure line to discover galaxies at high redshifts. In 2005, he predicted, in a series of papers with his postdoc Avery Broderick, how a hot spot in orbit around a black hole would appear; their predictions were confirmed in 2018 by the GRAVITY instrument on the Very Large Telescope which observed a circular motion of the centroid of light of the black hole at the center of the Milky Way, Sagittarius A*. In 2009, Broderick and Loeb predicted the shadow of the black hole in the giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87, which was imaged in 2019 by the Event Horizon Telescope.

In 2013, a report was published on the discovery of the "Einstein Planet" Kepler-76b,[22] the first Jupiter-size exoplanet identified by detecting the relativistic beaming of its parent star, based on a technique Loeb and Gaudi proposed in 2003.[23] In addition, a pulsar was discovered around the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A*,[24] following a prediction by Pfahl and Loeb in 2004.[25] Also, a hypervelocity star candidate from the Andromeda galaxy was discovered,[26] as predicted by Sherwin, Loeb, and O'Leary in 2008.[27] Together with his postdoc James Guillochon, Loeb predicted the existence of a new population of stars moving near the speed of light throughout the universe.[28] Together with his postdoc John Forbes and Howard Chen of Northwestern University, Loeb made another prediction that sub-Neptune-sized exoplanets have been transformed into rocky super-Earths by the activity of Sagittarius A*.[29]

Together with Paolo Pani, Loeb showed in 2013 that primordial black holes in the range between the masses of the Moon and the Sun cannot make up dark matter.[30] Loeb led a team that reported tentative evidence for the birth of a black hole in the young nearby supernova SN 1979C.[31] In collaboration with Dan Maoz, Loeb demonstrated in 2013 that biomarkers, such as molecular oxygen (O
2
), can be detected by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in the atmosphere of Earth-mass planets in the habitable zone of white dwarfs.[32]

In 2018, he served a term as chair of the Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA)[33] of the National Academies.

Life in the universe[edit]

In a series of papers with his students and postdocs, Loeb addressed how and when the first stars and black holes formed and what effects they had on the young universe. In 2013, Loeb wrote about the "Habitable Epoch of the Early Universe".[34][35] In April 2021, he presented an updated summary of his ideas of life in the early universe.[36]

In 2020, Loeb published a paper about the possibility that life can propagate from one planet to another,[37] followed by the opinion piece "Noah's Spaceship" about directed panspermia.[38]

'Oumuamua[edit]

In December 2017, Loeb cited ʻOumuamua's unusually elongated shape as one of the reasons the Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia should listen for radio emissions from it to see if there were any unexpected signs that it might be of artificial origin,[39] although earlier limited observations by other radio telescopes such as the SETI Institute's Allen Telescope Array had produced no such results.[40] The Green Bank Telescope observed the asteroid for six hours, detecting no radio signals.[41][42]

On October 26, 2018, Loeb and his postdoctoral student Shmuel Bialy submitted a paper exploring the possibility that ʻOumuamua is an artificial thin solar sail accelerated by solar radiation pressure in an effort to help explain the object's non-gravitational acceleration.[43][44][45] The consensus among other astrophysicists was that the available evidence is insufficient to consider such a premise,[46][47][48] and that a tumbling solar sail would not be able to accelerate.[49][50] In response, Loeb wrote an article detailing six anomalous properties of ʻOumuamua that make it unusual, unlike any comets or asteroids seen before.[51][52]

On November 27, 2018, Loeb and Amir Siraj, a Harvard undergraduate, proposed a search for ʻOumuamua-like objects that might be trapped in the Solar System as a result of losing orbital energy through a close encounter with Jupiter.[53] They identified four candidates (2011 SP25, 2017 RR2, 2017 SV13, and 2018 TL6) for trapped interstellar objects that dedicated missions could visit. The authors pointed out that future sky surveys, such as with Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, could find many more.[54]

In public interviews and private communications with reporters and academic colleagues, Loeb has become more vocal about the prospects of proving the existence of alien life.[55] On April 16, 2019, Loeb and Siraj reported the discovery of a meteor of interstellar origin.[56] Extraterrestrial: The First Sign of Intelligent Life Beyond Earth, a popular science account of ʻOumuamua by Loeb,[57] was published in 2021.[58][59][60] A followup book, Interstellar: The Search for Extraterrestrial Life and Our Future in the Stars, was published on August 29, 2023.[61][62]

The Galileo Project[edit]

"Constructing new telescope systems to infer the nature of Unidentified Aerial Phenomena (UAP), similar to those mentioned in the ODNI report (ODNI 2021) to the US Congress"[63]

In July 2021, Loeb founded The Galileo Project for the Systematic Scientific Search for Evidence of Extraterrestrial Technological Artifacts.[64][65] The project was inspired by the detection of ʻOumuamua and by release of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence report on Unidentified Aerial Phenomena (UAP). As stated on the project's website, the aim is:

Given the recently discovered abundance of Earth-Sun systems, the Galileo Project is dedicated to the proposition that humans can no longer ignore the possible existence of Extraterrestrial Technological Civilizations (ETCs), and that science should not dogmatically reject potential extraterrestrial explanations because of social stigma or cultural preferences, factors which are not conducive to the scientific method of unbiased, empirical inquiry. We now must 'dare to look through new telescopes', both literally and figuratively.[64]

The three main avenues of research are:[66]

  • Obtaining high-resolution images of UAPs and discovering their nature
  • Searching for and research of ʻOumuamua-like interstellar objects
  • Searching for potential ETC satellites

Unlike other similar projects, the goal of the Galileo Project is to search for physical objects, and not electromagnetic signals, associated with extraterrestrial technological equipment.[67] The project was covered by many independent publishers, among them Nature, Science, New York Post, Scientific American, The Guardian, etc.[68] To allegations that studies of UFOs is pseudoscience, Loeb answers that the project aims not to study UFOs based on previous data, but to study Unidentified Aerial Phenomena "using the standard scientific method based on a transparent analysis of open scientific data to be collected using optimized instruments".[69]

In June 2023, Loeb announced the project had found interstellar material on the ocean floor[70] that he asserted could be remnants of an extraterrestrial starship.[71] The findings were the result of Loeb and the Galileo Project seeking the remnants of a fireball the US Department of Defense observed in 2014.[71] These claims were criticized by other scientists as hasty, sensational, and part of a pattern of improper behavior. Peter Brown, a meteor physicist at the University of Western Ontario, argued the material can be explained as non-interstellar, noting that measurements from Defense Department data are opaque and error-prone. Brown further said he was disturbed by Loeb's lack of engagement with relevant experts.[9] In March 2022, the U.S. Space Force affirmed their position that their 2014 data indicated an interstellar origin, while the following month NASA stated the evidence was inconclusive.[72] Astrophysicist Steve Desch, at Arizona State University, commented "[Loeb's claims are] polluting good science—conflating the good science we do with this ridiculous sensationalism and sucking all the oxygen out of the room", and said several of his colleagues are consequently refusing to engage with Loeb in the peer review process.[9] Monica Grady from the Open University argued that the evidence for Loeb's claims is "rather shaky" and pointed more plausibly to terrestrial pollution.[71] Patricio A. Gallardo in an American Astronomical Society paper similarly concluded the samples were consistent with coal ash contamination.[73]

Media appearances[edit]

In 2006, Loeb was featured in a Time magazine cover story on the first stars, and in a Scientific American article on the Dark Ages of the universe. In 2008, he was featured in a Smithsonian magazine cover story on black holes, and in two Astronomy magazine cover stories, one on the collision between the Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy and the second on the future state of our universe. In 2009, Loeb reviewed in a Scientific American article a new technique for imaging black hole silhouettes. Loeb received considerable media attention[74] after proposing in 2011 (with E.L. Turner) a new technique for detecting artificially-illuminated objects in the Solar System and beyond,[75] and showing in 2012 (with I. Ginsburg) that planets may transit hypervelocity stars or get kicked to a fraction of the speed of light near the black hole at the center of the Milky Way.[76]

He has been profiled a number of times, including in Science magazine,[77] Discover,[78] and The New York Times.[79] He has been interviewed by Astronomy magazine,[80] by Lex Fridman,[81] Joe Rogan,[82] and Mick West,[83] and by the H3 Podcast.[84] On August 24, 2023, The New York Times published an article about Loeb and his search for signs of extraterrestrial life.[61]

Loeb also regularly writes opinion essays on science and policy.[85][86]

Honors and awards[edit]

Loeb has received many honors, including:[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Avi Loeb". Institute for Theory and Computation @ Harvard University. Harvard University.
  2. ^ a b c "Professor Avi Loeb". Harvard & Smithsonian Center For Astronomy. Harvard University.
  3. ^ a b "Abraham (Avi) Loeb". Black Hole Initiative @ Harvard University. Harvard University.
  4. ^ a b Loeb, Avi. "Autobiographical sketch" (PDF). Harvard University.
  5. ^ a b c d Loeb, Abraham. "Curriculum Vitae of Abraham Loeb" (PDF). Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.
  6. ^ a b "Avi Loeb". Department of Astronomy @ Harvard University. Harvard University.
  7. ^ Groll, Johan (January 7, 2019). "Thinking About Distant Civilizations Isn't Speculative". Der Spiegel. Retrieved January 7, 2019.
  8. ^ "Why a Harvard professor thinks he may have found fragments of an alien spacecraft". The Independent. July 5, 2023. Retrieved July 25, 2023.
  9. ^ a b c Miller, Katrina (July 24, 2023). "Scientist's Deep Dive for Alien Life Leaves His Peers Dubious - Avi Loeb, a Harvard astrophysicist, says that material recovered from the seafloor could be from an extraterrestrial spacecraft. His peers are skeptical. + comment". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 25, 2023. Retrieved July 24, 2023.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  10. ^ Siegel, Ethan. "Watch: Harvard Astronomer Mansplains SETI To The Legend Who Inspired Carl Sagan's Contact". Forbes. Retrieved September 22, 2023.
  11. ^ Carmeli, Oded (2019). "If true, this could be one of the greatest discoveries in human history". Haaretz.com.
  12. ^ Avi Loeb - website American Friends of the Hebrew University
  13. ^ "How Did the First Stars and Galaxies Form?" book jacket (pdf)
  14. ^ Loeb, Abraham (February 8, 2016). Loeb, A.: How Did the First Stars and Galaxies Form? (eBook and Paperback). Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691145167. Retrieved February 19, 2016. {{cite book}}: |website= ignored (help)
  15. ^ ""The First Galaxies in the Universe" by Loeb and Furlanetto". Cfa.harvard.edu. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
  16. ^ Abraham Loeb (1998). "Direct Measurement of Cosmological Parameters from the Cosmic Deceleration of Extragalactic Objects". The Astrophysical Journal. 499 (2): L111–L114. arXiv:astro-ph/9802122. Bibcode:1998ApJ...499L.111L. doi:10.1086/311375. S2CID 6479300.
  17. ^ Cox, T. J.; Loeb, Abraham (2008). "The collision between the Milky Way and Andromeda". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 386 (1): 461–474. arXiv:0705.1170. Bibcode:2008MNRAS.386..461C. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13048.x. S2CID 14964036.
  18. ^ Loeb, Abraham (2002). "Long-term future of extragalactic astronomy". Physical Review D. 65 (4): 47301. arXiv:astro-ph/0107568. Bibcode:2002PhRvD..65d7301L. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.65.047301. S2CID 1791226.
  19. ^ o'Leary, Ryan M.; Loeb, Abraham (2012). "Recoiled star clusters in the Milky Way halo: N-body simulations and a candidate search through the SDSS". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 421 (4): 2737–2750. arXiv:1102.3695. Bibcode:2012MNRAS.421.2737O. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.20078.x. S2CID 118524459.
  20. ^ Stone, N; Loeb, A (2012). "Observing Lense-Thirring Precession in Tidal Disruption Flares". Physical Review Letters. 108 (6): 61302. arXiv:1109.6660. Bibcode:2012PhRvL.108f1302S. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.061302. PMID 22401052. S2CID 33103563.
  21. ^ Broderick, Avery E.; Loeb, Abraham (2006). "Testing General Relativity with High-Resolution Imaging of Sgr A*". Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 54: 448–455. arXiv:astro-ph/0607279. Bibcode:2006JPhCS..54..448B. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/54/1/070. S2CID 16053017.
  22. ^ Faigler, S.; Tal-Or, L.; Mazeh, T.; Latham, D. W.; Buchhave, L. A. (July 1, 2013). "BEER Analysis of Kepler and CoRoT Light Curves. I. Discovery of Kepler-76b: A Hot Jupiter with Evidence for Superrotation". The Astrophysical Journal. 771 (1): 26. arXiv:1304.6841. Bibcode:2013ApJ...771...26F. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/771/1/26. S2CID 119247392.
  23. ^ Abraham Loeb; B. Scott Gaudi (2003). "Periodic Flux Variability of Stars due to the Reflex Doppler Effect Induced by Planetary Companions". The Astrophysical Journal. 588 (2): L117–L120. arXiv:astro-ph/0303212. Bibcode:2003ApJ...588L.117L. doi:10.1086/375551. S2CID 10066891.
  24. ^ Rea, N.; Esposito, P.; Pons, J. A.; Turolla, R.; Torres, D. F.; Israel, G. L.; Possenti, A.; Burgay, M.; Viganò, D.; Papitto, A.; Perna, R.; Stella, L.; Ponti, G.; Baganoff, F. K.; Haggard, D.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Zane, S.; Minter, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Tiengo, A.; Schödel, R.; Feroci, M.; Mignani, R.; Götz, D. (2013). "A Strongly Magnetized Pulsar within the Grasp of the Milky Way's Supermassive Black Hole". The Astrophysical Journal. 775 (2): L34. arXiv:1307.6331. Bibcode:2013ApJ...775L..34R. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/775/2/L34. S2CID 15111955.
  25. ^ Eric Pfahl; Abraham Loeb (2004). "Probing the Spacetime around Sagittarius A* with Radio Pulsars". The Astrophysical Journal. 615 (1): 253–258. arXiv:astro-ph/0309744. Bibcode:2004ApJ...615..253P. doi:10.1086/423975. S2CID 14470701.
  26. ^ Palladino, Lauren E.; Schlesinger, Katharine J.; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun; Schneider, Donald P. (2014). "Hypervelocity Star Candidates in the SEGUE G and K Dwarf Sample". The Astrophysical Journal. 780 (1): 7. arXiv:1308.3495. Bibcode:2014ApJ...780....7P. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/780/1/7. S2CID 119251211.
  27. ^ Blake D. Sherwin; Abraham Loeb; Ryan M. O'Leary (2008). "Hypervelocity stars from the Andromeda galaxy". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 386 (3): 1179–1191. arXiv:0709.1156. Bibcode:2008MNRAS.386.1179S. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13097.x. S2CID 18336240.
  28. ^ Lemonick, Michael D. (November 26, 2014). "You've Heard of Shooting Stars, But This is Ridiculous". Time.
  29. ^ Howard Chen; John C. Forbes; Abraham Loeb (2018). "Habitable Evaporated Cores and the Occurrence of Panspermia Near the Galactic Center". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 855 (1): L1. arXiv:1711.06692. Bibcode:2018ApJ...855L...1C. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aaab46. S2CID 119398803.
  30. ^ "The Mystery of Dark Matter Clarified—a Little". Time. September 5, 2013.
  31. ^ "Supernova Shines Light On Black Hole Formation". NPR.org. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
  32. ^ "Could Tiny Stars Be Home to Mirror Earths?". Time. March 6, 2013.
  33. ^ "BPA". nationalacademies.org. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
  34. ^ Loeb, Abraham (September 9, 2014). "The habitable epoch of the early Universe". International Journal of Astrobiology. 13 (4): 337–339. arXiv:1312.0613. Bibcode:2014IJAsB..13..337L. doi:10.1017/S1473550414000196. S2CID 2777386.
  35. ^ Adam Frank (February 4, 2014). "First Life In The Universe : 13.7: Cosmos And Culture". NPR.org. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
  36. ^ Loeb, Avi (April 4, 2021). "When Did Life First Emerge in the Universe? - We don't know, but we could try to find out by searching for it on planets orbiting the very oldest stars". Scientific American. Retrieved April 4, 2021.
  37. ^ Siraj, Amir; Loeb, Abraham (April 17, 2020). "Possible Transfer of Life by Earth-Grazing Objects to Exoplanetary Systems". Life. 10 (4): 44. arXiv:2001.02235. Bibcode:2020Life...10...44S. doi:10.3390/life10040044. ISSN 2075-1729. PMC 7235815. PMID 32316564.
  38. ^ Loeb, Avi (November 29, 2020). "Noah's Spaceship". Scientific American. Archived from the original on November 29, 2020. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  39. ^ Ian Sample (December 11, 2017). "Astronomers to check interstellar body for signs of alien technology". The Guardian. Retrieved December 12, 2017. Green Bank telescope in West Virginia will listen for radio signals from ʻOumuamua, an object from another solar system ... "Most likely it is of natural origin, but because it is so peculiar, we would like to check if it has any sign of artificial origin, such as radio emissions," said Avi Loeb, professor of astronomy at Harvard University and an adviser to the Breakthrough Listen project. "If we do detect a signal that appears artificial in origin, we'll know immediately." ... While many astronomers believe the object is an interstellar asteroid, its elongated shape is unlike anything seen in the asteroid belt in our own solar system. Early observations of ʻOumuamua show that it is about 400m long but only one tenth as wide. "It's curious that the first object we see from outside the solar system looks like that," said Loeb.
  40. ^ Billings, Lee (December 11, 2017). "Alien Probe or Galactic Driftwood? SETI Tunes In to ʻOumuamua". Scientific American. Retrieved December 12, 2017. So far limited observations of 'Oumuamua, using facilities such as the SETI Institute's Allen Telescope Array, have turned up nothing.
  41. ^ "Breakthrough Listen Releases Initial Results and Data from Observations of 'Oumuamua". Breakthrough Listen. December 13, 2017. Retrieved December 15, 2017. No evidence of artificial signals emanating from the object so far detected by the Green Bank Telescope, but monitoring and analysis continue. Initial data are available for public inspection in the Breakthrough Listen archive
  42. ^ Ian Sample (December 15, 2017). "Is 'Oumuamua an alien spacecraft? Initial scans show no signs of technology". The Guardian. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
  43. ^ Williams, Matt (November 2, 2018). "Could Oumuamua Be an Extra-Terrestrial Solar Sail?". Universe Today. Retrieved November 2, 2018.
  44. ^ Bialy, Shmuel; Loeb, Abraham (October 26, 2018). "Could Solar Radiation Pressure Explain 'Oumuamua's Peculiar Acceleration?". The Astrophysical Journal. 868 (1): L1. arXiv:1810.11490. Bibcode:2018ApJ...868L...1B. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aaeda8. S2CID 118956077.
  45. ^ Loeb, Abraham (September 26, 2018). "How to Search for Dead Cosmic Civilizations". Scientific American. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  46. ^ Scientists push back against Harvard 'alien spacecraft' theory. Kerry Sheridan, PhysOrg. November 7, 2018.
  47. ^ Boyle, Alan (November 6, 2018). "'Oumuamua, oh my! Was interstellar object actually an alien solar sail? Not so fast". Yahoo!. Retrieved November 8, 2018.
  48. ^ Schadwinkel, Alina (November 8, 2018). "Glaubt dieser Harvard-Professor selbst, was er sagt?". Zeit Online. Retrieved November 8, 2018.
  49. ^ Cigar-shaped interstellar object may have been an alien probe, Harvard paper claims. CNN News. November 6, 2018.
  50. ^ Koren, Marina (January 23, 2019). "When a Harvard Professor Talks About Aliens – News about extraterrestrial life sounds better coming from an expert at a high-prestige institution". The Atlantic. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  51. ^ Loeb, Abraham (November 20, 2018). "6 Strange Facts about the Interstellar Visitor 'Oumuamua". Scientific American. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
  52. ^ Chotiner, Isaac (January 16, 2019). "Have Aliens Found Us? A Harvard Astronomer on the Mysterious Interstellar Object 'Oumuamua". The New Yorker. Retrieved January 16, 2019.
  53. ^ Siraj, Amir; Loeb, Abraham (November 27, 2018). "Identifying Interstellar Objects Trapped in the Solar System through Their Orbital Parameters". arXiv:1811.09632v2 [astro-ph.EP].
  54. ^ Siraj, Amir; Loeb, Abraham (2019). "Identifying Interstellar Objects Trapped in the Solar System through Their Orbital Parameters". The Astrophysical Journal. 872 (1): L10. arXiv:1811.09632. Bibcode:2019ApJ...872L..10S. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ab042a. S2CID 119198820.
  55. ^ Post, The Washington. "Harvard's top astronomer says an alien ship may be among us". nola.com. Archived from the original on February 5, 2019. Retrieved February 5, 2019.
  56. ^ Siraj, A. and, Loeb, A. (April 16, 2019). "Discovery of a Meteor of Interstellar Origin". arXiv:1904.07224 [astro-ph.EP].{{cite arXiv}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  57. ^ Loeb, Avi (June 22, 2021). "A Possible Link between 'Oumuamua and Unidentified Aerial Phenomena - If some UAP turn out to be extraterrestrial technology, they could be dropping sensors for a subsequent craft to tune into. What if 'Oumuamua is such a craft?". Scientific American. Retrieved June 22, 2021.
  58. ^ "Object that whizzed by Earth probably came from alien world, Harvard professor asserts". www.cbsnews.com. January 8, 2021. Retrieved January 13, 2021.
  59. ^ Tucker, Reed (January 2, 2021). "A Harvard professor says an alien visited in 2017 — and more are coming". New York Post. Retrieved January 13, 2021.
  60. ^ Anderson, Travis (January 4, 2021). "In new book, Harvard astronomer pushes theory about object that passed through solar system; alien world may have sent it – The Boston Globe". BostonGlobe.com. Retrieved January 13, 2021.
  61. ^ a b Fletcher, Seth (August 24, 2023). "How a Harvard Professor Became the World's Leading Alien Hunter - Avi Loeb's single-minded search for extraterrestrial life has made him the most famous practicing astronomer in the country — and possibly the most controversial. + comment". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 24, 2023. Retrieved August 24, 2023.
  62. ^ Tingley, -Brett (July 20, 2023). "Interstellar meteor fragments found? Harvard astronomer's claim sparks debate, criticism - Avi Loeb is no stranger to controversy". Space.com. Archived from the original on August 25, 2023. Retrieved August 25, 2023.
  63. ^ Loeb, Abraham (2023). "Overview of the Galileo Project". Journal of Astronomical Instrumentation. 12 (1). arXiv:2209.02479. Bibcode:2023JAI....1240003L. doi:10.1142/S2251171723400032. S2CID 252089170.
  64. ^ a b "The Galileo Project: "Daring to Look Through New Telescopes"". Harvard University. Retrieved August 12, 2021.
  65. ^ Loeb, Avi (September 19, 2021). "Astronomers Should be Willing to Look Closer at Weird Objects in the Sky - The Galileo Project seeks to train telescopes on unidentified aerial phenomena". Scientific American. Retrieved September 19, 2021.
  66. ^ "The Galileo Project: Activities". Harvard University.
  67. ^ "The Galileo Project". projects.iq.harvard.edu. Retrieved November 17, 2022.
  68. ^ "The Galileo Project: Press Coverage". Harvard University.
  69. ^ "The Galileo Project: Scope". Harvard University. Retrieved August 12, 2021.
  70. ^ "I'm a Harvard astronomer. I think we found interstellar material". Newsweek. July 5, 2023. Retrieved July 25, 2023.
  71. ^ a b c Grady, Monica (July 7, 2023). "Physicist who found spherical meteor fragments claims they may come from an alien spaceship – here's what to make of it". The Conversation. Retrieved July 25, 2023.
  72. ^ "Harvard astronomer believes an interstellar meteor (or craft) smashed into Earth in 2014 — others aren't so sure". Inverse. April 15, 2022. Retrieved November 17, 2023.
  73. ^ Gallardo, Patricio A. (October 19, 2023). "Anthropogenic Coal Ash as a Contaminant in a Micro-meteoritic Underwater Search". Research Notes of the AAS. 7 (10): 220. doi:10.3847/2515-5172/ad03f9. ISSN 2515-5172.
  74. ^ Lemonick, Michael D. (November 10, 2011). "Is There a City on Pluto? Before You Answer, Consider: We've Never Looked. Two Scientists Want to Change That". Time. Archived from the original on June 16, 2021.
  75. ^ Loeb, Abraham; Turner, Edwin L. (April 2012). "Detection Technique for Artificially Illuminated Objects in the Outer Solar System and Beyond". Astrobiology. 12 (4): 290–294. arXiv:1110.6181. Bibcode:2012AsBio..12..290L. doi:10.1089/ast.2011.0758. PMC 3330268. PMID 22490065.
  76. ^ Ginsburg, Idan; Loeb, Abraham; Wegner, Gary A. (June 11, 2012). "Hypervelocity planets and transits around hypervelocity stars". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 423 (1): 948–954. arXiv:1201.1446. Bibcode:2012MNRAS.423..948G. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.20930.x. S2CID 119193699.
  77. ^ Avi Loeb. "NewsFocus : From Cosmic Dawn to Milkomedia, and beyond" (PDF). Cfa.harvard.edu. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
  78. ^ Steve Nadis. "First" (PDF). Cfa.harvard.edu. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
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  85. ^ From the First Star to Milkomeda, Abraham Loeb, Dror Burstein, Todd Hasak-Lowy, Noa Moav. Abraham Loeb. August 24, 2015. ASIN B014GCTXF0.
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  89. ^ "PCAST_Members". osti.gov. Retrieved July 1, 2020.

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