Avianca Holdings (formerly AviancaTaca AirHoldings Inc.) is a Latin American airline holding company formed in February 2010 by the merger of two airlines, Avianca from Colombia and TACA Airlines from El Salvador.  On May 10, 2020, Avianca filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in the United States after failing to pay bond holders, becoming one of the major airlines to filed for bankruptcy due to the COVID-19 pandemic crisis.
The company is the second largest airline holding in Latin America by revenue and fleet size after LATAM Airlines Group based in Santiago, Chile. With a fleet of 173 aircraft and more than 19,000 employees, Avianca serves over 100 destinations in America and Europe, which connect to over 750 destinations worldwide through codeshare agreements with partner airlines. Avianca carried 24,6 million passengers in 2013.
On 5 November 2017, the Paradise Papers, a set of confidential electronic documents relating to offshore investment, revealed that the former company's Chairman Germán Efromovich was linked to an offshore conglomerate used for the aerocommercial holding business with ramifications in Bermuda, Panama and Cyprus. Efromovich used a Panamanian offshore that hid more than 20 firms located in tax havens. The conglomerate was used by Avianca Holdings in the purchase of MacAir Jet, now Avianca Argentina, aircraft company owned by Macri Group, for an amount of US$ 10 million. Allowing Avianca to make headway in the low-cost carrier business in Argentina. The Argentine government accepted this offshores as a financial guarantee to assign air routes to Avianca which is now being investigated by the Argentine federal justice system.
Shareholding composition of Avianca Holding S.A. as of April 8, 2019:
- BRW Aviation LLC - 51,53 %
- Kingsland Holdings Limited - 14,46 %
- United Airlines - less of 1 %
- Avianca Holdings S.A - 15,64 %
- Several pension funds plus numerous individual investors, mostly Colombian and others - 17, 37%
- fatos e números Archived April 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Pagina oficial da Star Alliance, Julho 2012
- BVC: PFAVH
- Quiénes Somos Avianca Holdings S.A. Fact Sheet, aviancaholdings.com, retrieved 16 June 2017
- "Avianca files for bankruptcy in the United States due to the COVID-19 crisis". Explica. 11 May 2020. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
- "Avianca Holdings files for Chapter 11". CH-AVIATION. 10 May 2020. Retrieved May 11, 2020.
- "World's 'second oldest airline' files for bankruptcy". www.9news.com.au. Retrieved 2020-05-12.
- Avianca Holdings - Corporate Presentation 2014 Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine. aviancaholdings.com. Retrieved 14 May 2015
- Delfino, Emilia; Crucianelli, Sandra; Fitz Patrick, Mariel; Brom, Ricardo; Jastreblansky, Maia; Ruiz, Iván; Alconada Mon, Hugo (10 November 2017). "Paradise Papers - El entramado de más de 20 offshores detrás del desembarco de Avianca". Perfil. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
- "Composición Accionaria Avianca Holdings S.A." (PDF).