Avicennia

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Avicennia
Avicennia germinans.jpg
Avicennia germinans
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Acanthaceae
Subfamily: Avicennioideae
Genus: Avicennia
L.[1]
Species

See text

Synonyms

Sceura Forssk.[1]

Avicennia is a genus of flowering plants currently placed in the bear's breeches family, Acanthaceae. It contains mangrove trees, which occur in the intertidal zones of estuarine areas and are characterized by aerial roots. It is commonly known as api api which in the Malay language means "fires", a reference to the fact that fireflies often congregate on these trees.[2] Species of Avicennia occur worldwide south of the Tropic of Cancer.

The taxonomic placement of Avicennia is contentious. In some classifications it has been placed in the family Verbenaceae, but more recently has been placed by some botanists in the monogeneric family Avicenniaceae. Recent phylogenetic studies have suggested that Avicennia is derived from within Acanthaceae, and the genus is included in that family in the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system.

Designation of species is made difficult by the great variations in form of Avicennia marina. Between eight and ten species are usually recognised, with Avicennia marina further divided into a number of subspecies.

The generic name honours Persian physician Avicenna (980-1037).[3]

Description[edit]

Members of the genus are among the most salt tolerant mangroves and are often the first to colonise new deposits of sediment. The sap is salty and excess salt is secreted through the leaves. The spreading root system provides stability in shifting substrates. There are vertical roots called pneumatophores projecting from the mud. These are used in gas exchange as there is very little oxygen available in the mud. The flowers are fragrant and rich in nectar and are pollinated by insects. The embryos exhibit cryptovivipary, a process where they start to develop before the seed is shed but do not break through the outside of the fruit capsule.[4]

List of species[edit]

Propagule of Avicennia sp.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Genus: Avicennia L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2006-03-30. Retrieved 2010-05-26. 
  2. ^ Api-api Putih (Avicennia alba) The Tide Chaser. Retrieved 2012-02-08.
  3. ^ Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names. 1 A-C. CRC Press. p. 242. ISBN 978-0-8493-2675-2. 
  4. ^ Api Api Mangrove and wetland wildlife at Sungei Buloh Nature Park. Retrieved 2012-02-08,
  5. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18434
  6. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18435
  7. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-330220
  8. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18436
  9. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18437
  10. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18438
  11. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18439
  12. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18440
  13. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18441
  14. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18442
  15. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18443
  16. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18444
  17. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18445
  18. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18446
  19. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/tro-33701107
  20. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18447
  21. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18448
  22. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18449
  23. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18450
  24. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18451
  25. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18453
  26. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18454
  27. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18455
  28. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18456
  29. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-330221
  30. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18457
  31. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-451858
  32. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18458
  33. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18459
  34. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18460
  35. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18461
  36. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18462
  37. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/tro-33702837
  38. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18463
  39. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18464
  40. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18465
  41. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/tro-33702836
  42. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18466
  43. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18467
  44. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18468
  45. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18469
  46. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18470
  47. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18471
  48. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18472
  49. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18473
  50. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-330222
  51. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-330223
  52. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18474
  53. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-455925
  54. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18475
  55. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18476
  56. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-455926
  57. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18477
  58. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18478
  59. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18479
  60. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18480
  61. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18481
  62. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18482
  63. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18483
  64. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18484
  65. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18485
  66. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-274427
  67. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18486
  68. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18487
  69. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18488
  70. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18489
  71. ^ http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-18490

Further reading[edit]

  • Boland, D. J. (1984). Forest Trees of Australia (Fourth edition revised and enlarged). CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria, Australia. ISBN 0-643-05423-5. .
  • Duke, N.C. (1991). "A Systematic Revision of the Mangrove Genus Avicennia (Avicenniaceae) in Australasia". Australian Systematic Botany. 4 (2): 299–324. doi:10.1071/SB9910299. 
  • Schwarzbach, Andrea E. and McDade, Lucinda A. 2002. Phylogenetic Relationships of the Mangrove Family Avicenniaceae Based on Chloroplast and Nuclear Ribosomal DNA Sequences. Systematic Botany 27: 84-98 (abstract here).

External links[edit]