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Awan (Urdu: اعوان, Punjabi Gurmukhi ਆਵਾਨ), is a South Asian Zamindar tribe, living predominantly in northern, central, and western parts of Punjab and Khyber Pukhtunkhwa provinces of Pakistan. Additionally smaller populations live Balochistan, Sindh and Azad Kashmir. The Awans subscribe to the belief that they are the descendants of the fourth Caliph, Ali, and as such, a number adopt the title, Alvi.
There are different theories pertaining to the origin of the Awans:
The Awan historiographers maintain that the Awans are descended from an individual named Qutb Shah, who originally resided in Herat, served in the army of Mahmud of Ghazni, and was a Hashemite descendant of the Prophet Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, Ali (but by a wife other than the Prophet's daughter, Fatimah). As Sir Lepel Henry Griffin states:
"All branches of the tribe are unanimous in stating that they originally came from the neighbourhood of Ghazni to India, and all trace their genealogy to Hasrat Ali the son-in-law of the Prophet. Kutab Shah, who came from Ghazni with Sultan Mahmud, was the common ancestor of the Awans."
It is asserted that Qutb Shah and six of his sons accompanied and assisted Mahmud in his early eleventh century conquests of what today forms parts of Afghanistan, Pakistan and Northern India. It is claimed that in recognition of their services and valour, Mahmud bestowed upon Qutb Shah and his sons (who, according to tribal traditions, settled primarily in the Salt Range) the title of Awan, meaning "helper".
Tribal history holds that Qutb Shah and his sons married local women who converted to Islam from Hinduism. Qutb Shah’s sons are said to have settled in different regions of the Punjab and to a lesser extent, what now constitutes parts of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa; Gauhar Shah or Gorrara, settled near Sakesar, Kalan Shah or Kalgan, settled in Kalabagh, Chauhan colonized the hills close to the Indus, Mohammad Shah or Khokhar, settled by the Chenab, and Tori and Jhajh settled in Tirah. Their descendants not only came to heavily populate these regions, but a number of Awan sub-clans that trace their origins to these six individuals, give their names to various localities such as Golera in Rawalpindi, Khewra in Jhelum, Banjara in Sialkot, Jand in Attock, and Dhudial in Chakwal. Some of Qutb Shah’s sons are supposed to have assumed names that reflected the Hindu heritage of their mothers and the Awan sub-clans that trace their origins to these particular individuals, bear the names of their eponyms.
Amongst those who support the Awan claim to Arab ancestry, are H. A. Rose, Malik Fazal Dad Khan and Sabiha Shaheen. Although Rose was more cautious in assigning an Arab origin to the Awans, he was willing to concede that the tribe may well be Alvi Sayyids, who having sought refuge in Sindh from the Abbasids, allied themselves to Sabuktagin and assisted him in his Indian adventure, for which he bestowed the title of Awan on them (Rose considering it plausible that the name of the Awan tribe was derived from the word 'Ahwan', meaning "helper". And although the Ferozsons Urdu-English Dictionary lists the Awans as a Rajput clan, it does state that the title of the tribe is of Arabic origin, being the plural of the word 'aun', and defining "Awan" as "helpers"). Making reference to W.S. Talbot's assessment of the Awans, Rose also commented:
"But in the best available account of the tribe, the Awans are indeed said to be of Arabian origin and descendants of Qutb Shah."
Malik Fazal Dad Khan supports the traditional account of the Awans' origins, but with some modifications. He considers the Awans to be of Arabian origin and traces their lineage to Ali, but according to him, Abdullah Rasul Mirza was the remote ancestor of the Awans; in the eighth century, he was made a commander of the army of Ghaur by Caliph Haroon-ur-Rasheed, the title of Awan being conferred upon him, and his descendants consequently being called Awans. Sabiha Shaheen (who addressed this issue as part of her MA Thesis) deems this theory tenable. Furthermore, she states that Qutb Shah fled to the Subcontinent along with a small group of people due to Mongol attacks and joined the court of Iltutmish. The majority of his descendants came to refer to themselves as Qutb Shahi Awans
However, there are those who attribute an indigenous origin to the Awan tribe; these include Alexander Cunningham, Harikishan Kaul, and Professor Ahmed Hasan Dani. Alexander Cunningham looked upon the Awans as a Rajput clan,. He writes, " According to the Emperor Babar the Jud and the Janjuha were "two races descended from the same father, " who from old times had been rulers of the hills between Nilab and Bhera, that is, of the salt range. "On one-half of the hill lived the Jud, and on the other half the Janjua." The Awans now occupy western half of these hills towards Nilab, and from all I could learn, they would appear to have been settled there for many centuries. They must therefore be the Jud of Baber's memoirs, for Jud was not the true name of the people, but was applied to them as the inhabitants of Mt' Sakeswar, which was called Jud by the Muhammadans on account of fancied resemblance to Mt. Jud, or Ararat in Armenia". However he accepts that,"In the total absence of all written records, I have almost nothing to offer in favour of this identification, except its great probability." According to Robert George Thomson, "General Cunningham's argument leads him to class the Awans as Rajputs and cousins of the Janjuas, and to represent them also as residents of three thousand years standing, this is almost certainly erroneous.
Kaul was of the opinion that the tribe was of either Jat or Rajput origin, pointing to the fact that in Sanskrit, the term Awan means "defender" or "protector" and asserting that this title was awarded by surrounding tribes due to the Awans successfully defending their strongholds against aggression. However it is also stated in Census of India, 1901, that "In the Salt-range Tract, however, the higher Rajput tribes, such as Janjua, are carefully excluded; and Jat means any Muhammadan cultivator of Hindu origin who is not an Awan, Gakkhar, Pathan, Saiyad."
Dani claimed that following the spread of Islam in the region where the Awans predominated, the tribe made a conscious decision to associate itself with a Semitic past, and hence Awans came to refer to themselves as “Qutub Shahis.” Citing Kaul's conclusions, James Wikeley said of the Awans that:
Arthur Brandreth believed the Awans to be remnants of Bactrian Greeks. Robert George Thomson writes that, "Mr. Arthur Brandreth thinks that they may be descended from Bactrian Greeks. But Mr. Lepel Griffin considers that all real Greeks would have refused to stay in the Panjab.
The Awans have a strong martial tradition; as Christophe Jaffrelot states:
"The Awan deserve close attention, because of their historical importance and, above all, because they settled in the west, right up to the edge of Baluchi and Pashtun territory. Legend has it that their origins go back to Imam Ali and his second wife, Hanafiya. Historians describe them as valiant warriors and farmers who imposed their supremacy on the Janjua in part of the Salt Range, and established large colonies all along the Indus to Sind, and a densely populated centre not far from Lahore."
According to Denzil Ibbetson, the Awans may well have accompanied the forces of Babur, and the Awans of Jalandhar, who claimed to have shifted from the Salt Range at the behest of one of the early Emperors of Delhi, were particularly notable for being in the imperial service at Delhi.
The Awans were amongst those the British considered to be "martial races" and as such, formed an important part of the British Indian Army. In particular, the Awans formed part of the core Muslim group recruited by the British during the First and Second World Wars.
"The choice of Muslims was not merely one of physical suitability. As in the case of the Sikhs, recruiting authorities showed a clear bias in favour of the dominant landowning tribes of the region, and recruitment of Punjabi Muslims was limited to those who belonged to tribes of high social standing or reputation - the 'blood proud' and once politically dominant aristocracy of the tract. Consequentially, socially dominant Muslim tribes such as the Gakkhars, Janjuas and Awans, and a few Rajput tribes, concentrated in the Rawalpindi and Jhelum districts in the northern Salt Range tract in the Punjab, accounted for more than ninety per cent of Punjabi Muslim recruits."
According to Philip Edward Jones:
On a rural level, Awans belong to the Zamindar or landowning class, and many Awan families to this day live on and cultivate land, which their ancestors have held for centuries. They often carry titles typical to Punjabis who own tracts of ancestral land such as Malik, Chaudhry and Khan. The modern surname system often results in members of the same family with different surnames, some choosing their position as a surname i.e. Malik or Chaudhry, and some choosing their tribal name of Awan.
Though the origins of the Awans may be a matter of some debate, it has long been recognised that the composition of the tribe is wholly Muslim. The most extensive study of the tribe was conducted during the era of the British Raj, and as a result of census data collated during this period, the Awan tribe was invariably classified as being entirely Muslim. In the opening to his account of the Awan tribe, H. A. Rose comments:
"The Awans are an important tribe, exclusively Muhammadan."
Similarly, John Henry Hutton has said of the Awans:
"They are exclusively Muslim and probably the descendants of some of the earlier Muslim invaders of the tenth century or earlier."
The bulk of the Awan tribe is to be found in the Punjab (Pakistan). Its population is concentrated in the districts of Rawalpindi, Attock, Chakwal, Jhelum, Sargodha, Khushab (particularly the Soon Valley), Mianwali (Awan clans residing here are believed to have been almost the sole occupants of the Mianwali Salt Range Tract for over six hundred years), Gujranwala, Hafizabad, Gujrat, Sialkot, Narowal and Layyah, and is also scattered throughout the rest of Punjab.
Tracts in regions such as Attock, Jhelum and Mianwali are so heavily populated by Awans, that they have long been referred to as Awankari. Pre-Partition, an Awankari existed in Jalandhar and an Awan bara in Hoshiarpur. Awankari is also a dialect of Punjabi. Though these areas are their ancestral homelands and many own farms and other property there, numerous Awans live in the major cities of Pakistan such as Lahore (where a section of the Awan tribe has established a settlement, aptly named Awan Town), Islamabad, and Karachi.
The Awan tribe is also to be found in great numbers in Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, particularly in the Hazara Division, Peshawar valley and the districts of Nowshera, Kohat, Abbottabad, Haripur, Mansehra, Bannu, Swat, and Mardan. A smaller portion of the tribe resides in Azad Kashmir, and to a lesser extent is also present in the Pakistani provinces of Sindh and Balochistan. In addition, Awans can also be found in Afghanistan.
Many Awans have played, and continue to play, prominent roles in areas as varied as politics, the armed forces, academia, literature, and sport. These include figures such as:
- Lance Naik Sher Shah (VC) Awan (Recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest recognition for valour “in the face of the enemy” that was awarded to British Empire personnel)
- Malik Amir Mohammad Khan (The Nawab of Kalabagh, Governor of West Pakistan, 1960–66)
- Nawabzada Malik Amad Khan (Minister of State for Foreign Affairs (Pakistan) and a member of the Majlis-e-Shoora. Grandson of Malik Amir Mohammad Khan)
- Air Marshal Nur Khan (Commander in Chief of the Pakistan Air Force, 1965–69, Governor of West Pakistan, 1969–70, and recipient of the Hilal-i-Jurat, Pakistan’s second highest military award. A close relative of Malik Amir Mohammad Khan)
- Malik Meraj Khalid (Caretaker Prime Minister of Pakistan, Speaker of the National Assembly, Chief Minister of Punjab, Federal Minister for Food and Agriculture, and Rector of the International Islamic University Islamabad)*Sumaira Malik (Member of the National Assembly of Pakistan. During the tenure of former Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz, headed the Ministry of Women Development and Ministry of Youth Affairs. Granddaughter of Malik Amir Mohammad Khan, and niece of the former President of Pakistan, Farooq Leghari)
- Qazi Mian Muhammad Amjad (Aristocrat and eminent legal scholar of the Qur'an, Hadith, and the Hanafi school of Islamic law)
- Qazi Mazhar Qayyum (Raees-Azam Naushera. Eldest son of Qazi Mian Muhammad Amjad. Renowned Hakeem, who wielded considerable political influence in the Punjab, prior to and following creation of Pakistan)
- Khan Sahib Qazi Zafar Hussain (Youngest son of Qazi Mian Muhammad Amjad and brother of Qazi Mazhar Qayyum. Awarded the title of Khan Sahib by the British Crown)
- Lieutenant Colonel Qazi Altaf Hussain (Eldest son of Qazi Zafar Hussain. Served in the 11th Prince Albert Victor's Own Cavalry (Frontier Force) Regiment, and former Commandant of the Zhob Militia)
- Lieutenant General Abdul Qayyum (Former chairman of Pakistan Ordnance Factories, and former chairman of Pakistan Steel Mills. Recipient of the Hilal-i-Imtiaz, Pakistan’s second highest civilian award, and the highest medal award that can be given to those who have attained the rank of Lieutenant General)
- Major General Ameer Faisal Alavi (First General Officer Commanding of the elite Special Service Group of the Pakistan Army)
- Maulana Ameer Mohammad Akram Awan (Famed Sufi, Shaikh of the Naqshbandia Owaisiah Order, mufassir, philosopher and reformist, Dean of the Siqarah Education System, and head of a welfare organisation, the Al-Falah Foundation)
- Ahmad Nadeem Qasimi (Renowned author, poet and journalist. Founded, published and edited the prestigious literary journal Funoon, served as Secretary of the Progressive Writers Movement and was a recipient of the President’s Pride of Performance, the Pakistan Academy of Letters Lifetime Achievement award, as well as the Sitara-i-Imtiaz for Literature)
Awan soldier belonging to the 30th Punjabis, in battle uniform
Awan soldier belonging to the 82nd Punjabis
A letter written by the Sajjada Nashin, Pir Sial Sharif Khawaja Zia-ud-Din, to Qazi Mian Muhammad Amjad, requesting him to lend the book Kihalastah al-Nisab, a treatise written by Jamal ad-Din Hasan ibn Yusuf ibn 'Ali ibn Muthahhar al-Hilli, on the descendants of Ali ibn Abi Talib; this rare tome also covers the descendants of Ali ibn Abi Talib, who migrated to lands outside Arabia - including the Indian subcontinent - following the rise of the Umayyad Caliphate. The treatise is the oldest work dealing with the history of the Awan tribe
- 1. Tareekh Alvi, Maulvi Haider Ali,1896, published by Hakeem Dr. Ghulam Nabi,p.14, p.16
About this book, there is a note in " A glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab" by H.A Rose that "There is the history of Awans in Urdu, published by Dr.Ghulam nabi of Lahore p.28 footnote". later on Dr.Ghulam nabi in 1906 published the second book on this subject. 2. Bab-ul-Awan,Muhammad Noor ud Din Sulemani, 1906, published by Hakeem Dr. Ghulam Nabi, p.p135.
3. Aulad Amir ul Momeneen, Abu al Husnain Wazir Hussain Al-Alvi, published by Itmaad, Qum al Muqdsa, Iran p.22 23
4. History of Awan, by Muhammad Sarwar Khan, 2009 by the Al- Faisal Nashran, Lahore. Alvi, p130, 205, 213
- Tareekh Alvi (A History of the Alwis), Maulvi Haider Ali,1896, published by Hakeem Dr. Ghulam Nabi,
- Tareekh Bab-Ul-Awan (A History of the Awan Tribe), Muhammad Noor-ud-Din Sulemani, 1906.
- Tarikh-ul-Awan (History of Awan), Malik Sher Muhammad,Lahore,
- History of Awan, by Muhammad Sarwar Khan Awan, 2009 by the Al- Faisal Nashran, Lahore.
- Maarif al Awan, by Abu Hasaan Muhammad Riaz Chishti, 2014.
- .Punjab District Gazetteers: Attock District, 1930, 1932, Superintendent Government Printing, p.80.
- Griffin, L.H., 1865, The Panjab Chiefs: Historical and Biographical Notices of the Principal Families in the Territories Under the Panjab Government, Chronicle Press, p.p. 570-571.
- Talbot, W.S., 1991, Gazetteer of the Jhelum District 1904: Part 1, Sang-e-Meel Publications, p.100, Kaul, H., 1912, Report on the Census of Punjab 1911, p.p.445-446 and Wikeley, J.M., 1973, Punjabi Musalmans, The Book House, p.67.
- Rose, H.A., 1997, A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province, Nirmal Publishers and Distributors, p.p. 25-29 and Wikeley, J.M., 1973, Punjabi Musalmans, The Book House, p.67.
- Talbot, W.S., 1991, Gazetteer of the Jhelum District 1904: Part 1, Sang-e-Meel Publications, p.100, Kaul, H., 1912, Report on the Census of Punjab 1911, p.p.445-446 and Wikeley, J.M., 1973, Punjabi Musalmans, The Book House, p.68.
- Rose, H.A., 1997, A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province, Nirmal Publishers and Distributors, p.p. 25-29.
- Ferozsons Urdu-English Dictionary, Ferozons (Pvt.) Ltd., p.60.
- Shaheen, S., Session 1983-85, The Golra Family of Hazara, [A/No.20]
- Ibbetson, D., 2001, Punjab Castes, Sang-e-Meel Publications, p.170.
- Autobiography translated by Erakine, p251
- Four reports made during the years, 1862-63-64-65, Volume 2, by Sir Alexander Cunningham, p.17
- Four reports made during the years, 1862-63-64-65, Volume 2, by Sir Alexander Cunningham, p.18
- A report of the second regular settlement of the land revenue of the Jehlum District, by Robert George Thomson 1883, p.30
- Kaul, H., 1912, Report on the Census of Punjab 1911, p.p.446-447.
- Census of India, 1901: Volume 1 p.78
- Colonial NWFP or Pakistani Pakhtunkhwa? Prof. Em. Dr Ahmad Hasan Dani, Pakhtunkhwa Times
- Wikeley, J.M., 1973, Punjabi Musalmans, The Book House, p.68.
- A report of the second regular settlement of the land revenue of of the Jehlam by Robert George Thomson - 1883 p.36
- Ali, I., 2003, The Punjab under Imperialism, 1885-1947, Oxford University Press, p.114.
- Jaffrelot, C., 2004, A History of Pakistan and Its Origins, Anthem Press, p.205.
- Bhatia, S., 1987, Social Change and Politics in Punjab, 1898-1910, Enkay Publishers, p.87.
- Talbot, I. 1996, Khizr Tiwana: The Punjab Unionist Party and the Partition of India, Curzon Press, p.38.
- Tan, T.Y., 2005, The Garrison State: The Military, Government and Society in Colonial Punjab, 1849-1947, Sage Publications India Pvt Ltd, p.74.
- Jones, P.E., 2003, The Pakistan People's Party: Rise To Power, Oxford University Press, p.61.
- Ahmed, S., 1977, Class and Power in a Punjabi Village, Monthly Review Press, p.p. 131-132.
- Ahsan, A., 1996, The Indus Saga and the Making of Pakistan, Oxford University Press, p.88.
- Hutton, J.H., 1969, Caste in India: Its Nature, Function and Origins, Oxford University Press, p.39.
- Douie, J., 2003, The Panjab, North West Frontier Province and Kashmir, Asian Educational Services, p.105.
- Rose, H.A., 1997, A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province, Nirmal Publishers and Distributors, p.25.
- Journal of Phonetics, Volumes 7-8, 1979, Seminar Press, p.89.
- Feldman, H., 1972, From Crisis to Crisis: Pakistan 1962-1969, Oxford University Press, p.57.
- Khan,R., 1999, The American Papers: Secret and Confidential India-Pakistan-Bangladesh Documents, 1965-1973, Oxford University Press, p.265.
- "City: Awan community grieved over Malik's demise. - PPI - Pakistan Press International | HighBeam Research - FREE trial". Highbeam.com. 2003-06-13. Retrieved 2010-12-29.
- Sarwar, S., 2002, Wadi Soon Sakesar: The Soon Valley, Al-Faisal Nashran, p.35, p.149, p.152, p.163, p.177.
- "My soldier brother who died for honour, by Nobel laureate V.S. Naipaul's wife". Daily Mail (London). 31 January 2009.
- Mazhar Iqbal. "Pakistan Film News July 2006". Mazhar.dk. Retrieved 2010-12-29.
- , Tareekh Bab-Ul-Awan (A History of the Awan Tribe), Muhammad Noor-ud-Din Sulemani
- , Awan: A research article on the origin and history of the Awan tribe, Malik Sultan Mahmood Nausherwi
- , Zia-e-Soon: A journal of Government College Naushera, dedicated to the history of the Awan tribe
- , Eijaz-e-Masoodi by Maulan Ali
- , Tareekh-e-Alvi by Molvi Haidar Ali