Awin–Pa–Kamula languages

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Kamula – Elevala River
northern Western Province, Papua New Guinea
Linguistic classificationTrans–New Guinea
Awin-Pa-Kamula languages.svg
Map: The Awin–Pa–Kamula languages of New Guinea
  The Awin–Pa and Kamula languages
  Other Trans–New Guinea languages
  Other Papuan languages
  Austronesian languages

The Awin–Pa or Awin–Pare languages – or, more precisely, Awin–Pa–Kamula – are a small family of the Trans–New Guinea languages (TNG)


The languages are just three, Aekyowm (Awin), Pare (Pa) and Kamula. They are not obviously related to each other, but Aekyowm and Pare are closer to each other than to Kamula.[3]


The reconstructed pronouns are 1sg *nɔ, 2sg *ɡo, 3sg *yɔ. Awin and Pare share 2du *gi.


Stephen Wurm (1975) added Awin and Pa to an expanded Central and South New Guinea branch of TNG, a position reversed by Ross (2005). The connection to Kamula was established by Usher.


Awin-Pa reflexes of proto-Trans-New Guinea (pTNG) etyma:[4]

Aekyom language:

  • kendoke ‘ear’ < *kand(e,i)k[V]
  • khatike ‘leg’ < *k(a,o)
  • ndok[V], kare ‘skin’ < *(ŋg,k)a(nd,t)apu
  • di ‘firewood, fire’ < *inda

Pa language:

  • keba ‘head’ < *kV(mb,p)(i,u)tu
  • ama ‘mother < *am(a,i)
  • di- ‘burn’ < *nj(a,e,i)


  • Ross, Malcolm (2005). "Pronouns as a preliminary diagnostic for grouping Papuan languages". In Andrew Pawley; Robert Attenborough; Robin Hide; Jack Golson (eds.). Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 15–66. ISBN 0858835622. OCLC 67292782.
  1. ^ New Guinea World, Digul River – Ok
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Elevala". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Edgar Suter & Timothy Usher, 2017, 'The Kamula–Elevala Language Family', Language & Linguistics in Melanesia, vol. 25.
  4. ^ Pawley, Andrew; Hammarström, Harald (2018). "The Trans New Guinea family". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 21–196. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.