Kamula–Elevala languages

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Awin–Pa languages)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Kamula–Elevala
Kamula – Elevala River
Geographic
distribution
northern Western Province, Papua New Guinea
Linguistic classificationTrans–New Guinea
Proto-languageProto-Kamula–Elevala
Subdivisions
  • Awin–Pa (Awin–Pare)
  • Kamula
Glottologkamu1264
Awin-Pa-Kamula languages.svg
Map: The Awin–Pa–Kamula languages of New Guinea
  The Awin–Pa and Kamula languages
  Other Trans–New Guinea languages
  Other Papuan languages
  Austronesian languages
  Uninhabited

The Kamula–Elevala languages are a small family of the Trans–New Guinea languages spoken in the region of the Elevala River.

Languages[edit]

There are three languages, namely Aekyowm (Awin), Pare (Pa), and Kamula. They are not obviously related to each other, but Aekyowm and Pare are closer to each other than to Kamula.[2]

A more in-depth classification by Suter and Usher (2017) is as follows.[2]

Kamula-Elevala family
  • Kamula [1,100 speakers in 2000]
  • Elevala (= Awin-Pare) family
    • Pa (= Pare, Ba, Debepare) [6,500 speakers in 2000]
    • Aekyom (= Awin, Akium) [21,100 speakers in 2000]
      • Northeastern (= Aekyom-Skai)
      • North Central
      • Southeastern (= Aekyom-Pare)
      • Western

Classification[edit]

Stephen Wurm (1975) added Awin and Pa to an expanded Central and South New Guinea branch of TNG, a position reversed by Ross (2005). The connection between Awin–Pa and Kamula was established by Suter & Usher.[3]

Reconstruction[edit]

Proto-Kamula–Elevala
Reconstruction ofKamula–Elevala languages
Reconstructed
ancestors

Phonology[edit]

Usher (2020) reconstructs the consonant and vowel inventories as follows:[1]

*m *n
*p (or *h) *t *s *k
*b (or *p) *d *g
*s
*w *j
*i *u
*e *o
*a

There is also the diphthong *ai.

Pronouns[edit]

Usher (2020) reconstructs the Awin–Pa pronouns as:[1]

sg du pl
1 *nɔ *ni, *ki
2 *go *gi
3 *jɔ

In the 1du, Awin has /ki/ and Pare /ni/, /niki/, /nigi/. The Kamula singular forms are quite similar (na, wa, je), but it does not have the dual.

Vocabulary[edit]

Some Proto-Kamula-Elevala lexical reconstructions by Usher (2020) are:[1]

gloss Proto-Kamula-Elevala
head *ke̝ba
ear *m[ɔ/o̝]d[ɔ/o̝]
eye *kinɔ
nose *kine̝
tusk/tooth *bate̝
tongue/flame *taⁱ
knee/leg *tama
bone *ke̝dɔ
louse *awV
dog *ti
pig *m₂aⁱnæ
bird *te̝ja
egg/fruit/seed *m[ɔ/o̝]k[ɔ/o̝]
tree *je̝
man *k[ɔ/o̝]b[a/ɔ]
sun/day *gani
stone *ike̝
name *pi
eat/drink *de̝-
one *tV[n/d]o̝


Below are all of the lexical reconstructions of Proto-Kamula-Elevala from Suter and Usher (2017):[2]

gloss Proto-Kamula-Elevala
house *aja
mushroom *ap(ɔ,o)
hear *dade-
where? *dai
sago *daja
eat, drink *de-
burn, cook *du-
middle *dunu
brother *ei
sun, day *gani
belly, bowels *gene
leech *gimada
hold *hamV-
upright *hane
name *hi
light (in weight) *hodoka
stand, stay *hV-
sago thatch *jeme
hit *jV-
bone *kedɔ
man *kopo
now, today *kwa-
thigh *madina
shoulder *makæ
know *maN(æ,a)-
teeth, mouth *mat(e,i)
kindle *mi-
son, child *mi
body *mot(e,i)
joint *mu
tusk *patæ
skin disease *peseni
die *po-
tie, wrap *podi
pierce, burst *poko-
heart, pity *pɔdɔw(e,a)
be soft *pɔpɔtæ-
close eyes *pudi-
sit *pV-
speech *sa
rafter *saka
paddle *sode
tongue *tai
afternoon *tamide
make, do *ti-
embers *tine
bow (for arrows) *tɔ
upstream *t(ɔ,o)t(ɔ,o)
thorn *tu
banana *tuma
go *tV-
one *tVdo
illicit *u
scar *ud(e,i)
urine *ute
grub *wæja
left (hand) *weke

Proto-Elevala[edit]

Proto-Elevala reconstructions from Suter and Usher (2017):[2]

gloss Proto-Elevala
hand, arm *a
lie down *æ-
sand *daNi
give *dæ-
flea *dideme
meat *dinæ
testicles *dipɔ
crocodile *dope
sap, juice *dɔdæ
fingernail *d(ɔ,a)kæ
see *dV-
sugarcane *ga
beak *ga
sing *gi-
gums *gine
younger brother *gɔmɔde
cut *gu
stick *gum(ɔ,a)
count *hiakV-
breath *hine
do, make *hɔmV-
carry on head *i-
stone *ike
song *jɔkæ
set on fire *kamV-
leg *kate
beetle *kiame
thunder *kima(ti)
nose *kine
face *kiNɔ-namæ58
white *kɔnV-kaina59
coconut *kɔpɔkæ
pig *mainæ
head *mini
below *moka
fish *mone
stem *moNæ
what? *na
cane mail shirt *napo
charcoal *o
drum *pi
heavy *piena
buttocks *po
smell *pɔmæ
bride price *puNe
goanna *sɔNɔmæ
yesterday *te
sago thatch *temæ
rattan *tike
ground, earth *tɔ
wild *tɔna

Vocabulary comparison[edit]

The following basic vocabulary words are from McElhanon & Voorhoeve (1970),[4] Shaw (1973),[5] and Shaw (1986),[6] as cited in the Trans-New Guinea database:[7]

gloss Pare Aekyom
head keba; kiba pɔƀe
hair osɛ; ouse tɛnɛ
ear mogamɛ; mogo; mɔgɔ kɛndɔkɛ
eye kere-mo; kinemo; kinemɔ krO-ŋɛ
nose kene; kine koe
tooth male; marɛ; pɛrɛ pʰɛtɛ
tongue tiː
leg tamakali
louse kiba ʔo; kiba ʔɔ; ɔ huɔlɛ
dog ti; til psane
pig mele
bird tie; tiye
egg moʔo; mɔʔɔ
blood sowo; sɔwɔ
bone ko; kɔ kro
skin sia; siga; siya kare
breast bu tutɛ
tree i̧; ĩ de; doe
man kobo
woman wigi
sun gẽnɛ̃; gine toe
moon abi
water mɔa; omɛ; ɔmɔɛ; ume waɛ
fire ne; nɛ de; doe
stone iebɔ; iyebo
road, path utigi tɛnɛ
name hi hi
eat da; denu; de-nu
one oteso; ɔtesɔ
two diyabo; diyabɔ

Evolution[edit]

Proposed Awin–Pa reflexes of proto-Trans-New Guinea (pTNG) etyma:[8]

Aekyom language:

  • kendoke ‘ear’ < *kand(e,i)k[V]
  • khatike ‘leg’ < *k(a,o)
  • ndok[V], kare ‘skin’ < *(ŋg,k)a(nd,t)apu
  • di ‘firewood, fire’ < *inda

Pa language:

  • keba ‘head’ < *kV(mb,p)(i,u)tu
  • ama ‘mother < *am(a,i)
  • di- ‘burn’ < *nj(a,e,i)

Loanwords[edit]

Kamula and Doso[edit]

Loanwords between Kamula and Doso:[2]

No. Kamula Doso Turumsa
1 'father' [a:] 'father' [a:] 'father'
2 'mother' ['wai] 'mother' ['wai] 'mother'
3 'older brother' ['bapa] 'older brother'
4 'older sister' ['nana] 'older sister'
5 'blood' ['omari] 'blood'
6 'stomach' [kù'ko] 'belly (outside)'
7 'wallaby' [ka'pia] 'wallaby' [kapia] 'wallaby'
8 'cassowary' [wa:taɾa] 'cassowary' [wa:taɾa] 'cassowary'
9 'cloud' ['waɾa] 'cloud'
10 'sand' ['asiɾa] 'sand'

Aekyom and Ok[edit]

Aekyom loanwords from Ok languages:[2]

No. Aekyom Mountain Ok Lowland Ok
1 [mon] 'rubbish' *mɔːn 'rubbish, compost'
2 [ɺoŋ] 'garden newly felled' *ɾaŋg 'garden' *joŋg 'garden'
3 [khno] 'canoe' *kono 'canoe'
4 [ambum(e)] 'turtle' *ambɔːm 'turtle species' *ambom 'turtle'
5 [khwiɺe] 'hornbill' *kaweːɾ 'Papuan hornbill' *kaweɾ 'hornbill'
6 [ubine] 'rhinoceros beetle' *umiːn 'rhinoceros beetle'
7 [mom] 'nephew, maternal' *mɔːm 'mother's brother' *mom 'mother's brother'
8 [ahwoe] 'grandmother' *ap(e,o)ːk 'grandmother' *apok 'grandmother'
9 [khendoke] 'outer ear' *kindɔːŋg 'inner ear' *kende 'ear'
10 [mgat-ɺam] 'in the mouth' *maŋgat 'mouth, chin' *maŋgot 'mouth'

Kamula and Aramia River[edit]

Kamula loanwords from Aramia River languages:[2]

No. Kamula Waruna Gogodala
1 'taro' [bibi] 'taro' [bibi] 'taro'
2 'yam' [waisa] 'yam'
3 'canoe' [gwawa] 'canoe' [gawa] 'canoe'
4 'paddle, oar' [keari] 'paddle' [keari] 'paddle'
5 'chicken' [kakaba] 'fowl'
6 'breadfruit' [kawaki] 'breadfruit'

Kamula-Elevala and Awyu-Dumut[edit]

Potential cognates between Kamula-Elevala and Awyu-Dumut (Healey 1970[9]):[2]

Abbreviations
  • pAD = proto-Awyu-Dumut
  • pA = proto-Awyu
  • pD = proto-Dumut
  • pKE = proto-Kamula-Elevala
  • pK = proto-Kamula
  • pE = proto-Elevala
Awyu-Dumut (Healey 1970) Kamula-Elevala
pAD *dat- 'hear' pKE *dade- 'hear'
pAD *do- 'be cooked' pKE *du- 'burn, cook'
pAD *ɛdex- 'give' pE *dæ- 'give'
pAD *füp 'name' pKE *hi 'name'
pAD *göp 'you (sg.)' pE *go 'you (sg.)'
pAD *ket 'flower' Pa [ke] 'blossom'
pAD *mak 'shoulder' pKE *makæ 'shoulder'
pAD *nop 'I' pE *nɔ 'I'
pAD *or 'excreta, intestines' Kamula /o/ 'abdomen, belly'
pAD *xaiban 'head' Pa [keba] 'head'
pAD *xop 'male, man' pKE *kopo 'man'
pAD *yin 'tree, wood, fire' Pa [ẽ] 'tree'
pA *bu 'buttocks' pE *po 'buttocks'
pA *dübe, *dübi 'island' Aekyom [dupi] 'island'
pA *düb(-ro) 'heart' Kamula 'heart'
pA *makan, *mokan 'low, beneath' pE *moka 'below'
pA *midi(n) 'thigh' pKE *madina 'thigh'
pA *wün 'liver' Pa [wumɛ] 'liver'
pA *xui(-to) 'sky' Aekyom [khwoe] 'sky, heaven'
pD *ba- 'sit' pKE *pV- 'sit'
pD *kumöt 'thunder' pE *kima(ti) 'thunder'

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d New Guinea World, Digul River – Ok
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Suter, Edgar; Usher, Timothy (2017). "The Kamula-Elevala Language Family". Language & Linguistics in Melanesia. Port Moresby: Journal of the Linguistic Society of Papua New Guinea. 35. ISSN 0023-1959.
  3. ^ Edgar Suter & Timothy Usher (2017) "The Kamula–Elevala language family", Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 35: 106–131.
  4. ^ McElhanon, K.A. and Voorhoeve, C.L. The Trans-New Guinea Phylum: Explorations in deep-level genetic relationships. B-16, vi + 112 pages. Pacific Linguistics, The Australian National University, 1970. doi:10.15144/PL-B16
  5. ^ Shaw, R.D. "A Tentative Classification of the Languages of the Mt Bosavi Region". In Franklin, K. editor, The linguistic situation in the Gulf District and adjacent areas, Papua New Guinea. C-26:187-215. Pacific Linguistics, The Australian National University, 1973. doi:10.15144/PL-C26.187
  6. ^ Shaw, R.D. "The Bosavi language family". In Laycock, D., Seiler, W., Bruce, L., Chlenov, M., Shaw, R.D., Holzknecht, S., Scott, G., Nekitel, O., Wurm, S.A., Goldman, L. and Fingleton, J. editors, Papers in New Guinea Linguistics No. 24. A-70:45-76. Pacific Linguistics, The Australian National University, 1986. doi:10.15144/PL-A70.45
  7. ^ Greenhill, Simon (2016). "TransNewGuinea.org - database of the languages of New Guinea". Retrieved 2020-11-05.
  8. ^ Pawley, Andrew; Hammarström, Harald (2018). "The Trans New Guinea family". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 21–196. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  9. ^ Healey, Alan 1970. Proto-Awyu-Dumut phonology. In: Stephen A. Wurm and Donald C. Laycock (eds). Pacific Linguistic studies in honour of Arthur Capell. (PL C-13). Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. 997-1063.
  • Ross, Malcolm (2005). "Pronouns as a preliminary diagnostic for grouping Papuan languages". In Andrew Pawley; Robert Attenborough; Robin Hide; Jack Golson (eds.). Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 15–66. ISBN 0858835622. OCLC 67292782.

External links[edit]