Intimate parts in Islam
The intimate parts of the human body must, according to Islam, be covered by clothing. Exposing the intimate parts of the body is unlawful in Islam as the Quran instructs the covering of genitals, and for adult females the breasts. Exposing them is regarded as sin. Precisely which body parts must be covered varies between different schools of Islamic thought. The Quran admonishes Muslim women to dress modestly and cover their breasts and genitals. The Quran explicitly states that "O wives of the Prophet, you are not like anyone among women" (Quran 33: 32) and as such has separate rules specifically for the wives of the Prophet. 'Awrah may be exposed for emergencies such as surgery.
In Arabic, the term 'awrah or 'awrat (Arabic: عورة) derives from the root ‘a-w-r which means "defectiveness", "imperfection", "blemish" or "weakness". However, the most common English translation is "nakedness".
In Persian and Kurdish (Persian: عورت) as well as Urdu, the word 'awrat derived from the Arabic 'awrah, had been used widely to mean "woman". Consulting Mohammad Moin's dictionary of Persian, 'awrah leads to two significations:
- Young woman
Other derivatives range in meaning from blind in one eye, false or artificial, among others. Traditionally the word 'awrat, alongside the word za'ifeh (which derives from Arabic ḍa'īf (Arabic: ضعيف), meaning weak) has been associated with femininity and women who lived under the protection of a man. In modern-day Iran, using the two words ( 'awrah and za'ifah) to refer to women is uncommon and is considered sexist language. Instead, the words zan and xânom are used. In Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, the word za'if is still used in the Tajik dialect of Persian and its subdialects.
In Turkish, avrat is one of the ways to say 'woman', but is used more in the rural area and may also mean 'wife', especially the way the husband calls his wife.
In the Quran
The below verse is about privacy as the Quranic text states:
"... and let those among you who have not yet come to the age of puberty ask your permission (before they come to your presence) on three occasions; before the morning prayer, and while you put off your clothes for the noonday (rest), and after the late-night prayer. (These) three times are of privacy for you, other than these times there is no sin on you or on them to move about, attending (helping) each other."
Another passage in the Quran that uses the term 'awrah, is in Surah Al-Ahzab where it concerns fleeing from battle.
It states: "A group of them ask the Prophet for leave, saying, "Our houses are 'awrah", even though their houses are not awrah. Their intent is to flee the battle. "
In this case, the term 'awrah means "vulnerable".
The text states:
"O ye children of Adam! We have bestowed dress upon you to cover your nakedness...".
"O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters, and the believing women, to draw their cloaks (veils) over their bodies. That will be better that they should be known (as respectable woman) so as not to be annoyed. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful." -Al-Ahzab:59 (Qur'an)
The Quran admonishes Muslim women to dress modestly and cover their breasts and genitals. The Quran explicitly states that "O wives of the Prophet, you are not like anyone among women" (Quran 33: 32) and as such has separate rules specifically for the wives of the Prophet. The Qur'an tells the male believers (Muslims) to talk to the wives of the Prophet Muhammad from behind a hijab (curtain). [Quran 33:53] However, many people often mistake that for rules for all Muslim women. The Quran has no requirement that women cover their faces with a veil. Though the Qur'an does not explicitly mention the word hijab, the clearest verse on the requirement of the hijab is surah 24:30–31, asking women to draw their khimār (head scarves) over their bosoms.
And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty; that they should not display their beauty and ornaments except what (must ordinarily) appear thereof; that they should draw their khimār over their breasts and not display their beauty except to their husband, their fathers, their husband's fathers, their sons, their husbands' sons, their brothers or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their women, or the slaves whom their right hands possess, or male servants free of physical needs, or small children who have no sense of the shame of sex; and that they should not strike their feet in order to draw attention to their hidden ornaments. (Quran 24:31)
In the following verse, the wives of the Prophet and believing women are asked to draw their jilbab (outer garments) over them (when they go out), as a measure to distinguish themselves from others (as Muslim women), so that they are not harassed. Surah 33:59 reads:
Those who harass believing men and believing women undeservedly, bear (on themselves) a calumny and a grievous sin. O Prophet! Enjoin your wives, your daughters, and the wives of true believers that they should cast their outer garments over their persons (when abroad): That is most convenient, that they may be distinguished and not be harassed. [...] (Quran 33:58–59)
In the Hadith
Awrah refers to anything which can be easily harmed just like a bare or exposed place. Therefore it becomes clear that the body of a woman is referred to as vulnerable because it is like a house which contains no walls and can be easily harmed and must be covered with the appropriate clothing.
Differences between men and women
In Sunni interpretations, the 'awrah of a man refers to the part of the body from the navel to the knees. The Maliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali schools of thought observe that the navel is included but not the knees whereas the Hanafi school considers the knees included but not the navel.
Women's 'awrah is a more complicated issue and it changes according to the situation.
- In ritual prayer: a woman should cover her entire body excluding her face and her hands to the wrist. (The Hanafis solely differ on this matter, as they consider that feet, including the ankles, also can be excluded). She should also cover part of her forehead and the area under the chin. A woman should cover her hair and body while performing the ritual prayer, whether she is praying in presence of her husband or she is praying alone in her chamber, as the basis for covering in prayer is different from the basis for covering in front of people.
- In front of her husband: There is no restriction in Islam on what body parts a woman may show to her husband in private. The husband and wife can see any part of each other’s body especially during sexual intercourse.
- In privacy: It is recommended that a person cover his or her sexual organs even when alone in private. There are exceptions when there is need, such as when taking a shower or going to the toilet.
- Among other women: The 'awrah of a woman amongst other women is the same as the 'awrah of men (from her navel to her knees). 'Awrah in front of non-Muslim women is a point of debate. Some scholars say that women should cover all but the hands and face, while according to the most preferred opinion, a Muslim woman can reveal in front of a non-Muslim woman as much as she would in front of other Muslim women.
- It is from the shoulders (inclusive) down to the knees (inclusive). (Maliki and Hanbali opinion)
- It is from the stomach (inclusive) down to the knees (inclusive according to the Hanafis but not according to the Shafi'is). (Hanafi and Shafi'i opinion)
- It is from the navel (not inclusive) to the knees (inclusive). (Alternate Hanafi opinion)
- In front of male children: If the child understands what the 'awrah is, then it is not considered permissible for a woman to uncover her 'awrah in front of him.
- In front of non-mahram men: There is a difference of opinion on which body parts a woman should cover in front of men who are not her mahram. In the contemporary world, there is a general argument that the body of a free woman (except for her face and her hands) is 'awrah and therefore must be covered not only during prayer but also in public and in front of all non-mahram men. The Hanafis view the feet to be excluded from 'awrah as well; however, they must be covered in prayer.
Whether a woman was obligated to cover her face is more controversial. Most contemporary scholars agree that women's covering of the face was not mandated by the Quran or by the traditions of Muhammad. However, many classical jurists held that such covering was nonetheless strongly recommended, or even required in times of fitnah. Al-Razi, for example, held that by covering her face a married woman made clear that she was not available. Notably, a man is permitted and even encouraged to look at the face of a woman he is considering marrying, even in countries where he normally would not be allowed to.
In the contemporary world, Muslims insist that a woman's awrah in front of unrelated men is her entire body including her face and hands, which must be covered at all times in front of non-mahram men.
The practice of covering the face is common in several Muslim countries (such as Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Yemen, Oman) but not common in other countries (like Malaysia, Indonesia, present-day Iran, present-day Turkey and majority of south Asia). These differences reflect different interpretations and understanding of Sharia.
Relation with hijab
Some Muslim women, particularly those living in Europe or in South East Asia, wear the headscarf. The type most commonly worn in the West is a square scarf that covers the head and neck but leaves the face clear. Other styles also cover the hair, neck and shoulders completely, but the face and the hands are not covered, as they are not considered awrah for those Muslims who wear it.
Salafi women in countries such as Saudi Arabia and Yemen veil their faces by wearing the niqab because they believe the face of a woman is considered awrah . Some interpretations say that a veil is not compulsory in front of blind, asexual men.
According to most scholars, the woman’s voice is not awrah in principle, for according to the Hadith, women used to complain to the Prophet and ask him about Islamic matters. However, women are not allowed to speak in a soft or alluring voice.
In Islam, women may generally be allowed to sing, but they are not allowed to call the Adhan or pronounce the Talbiyah aloud in Hajj. As narrated by Aisha (the wife of Muhammad): "That once Abu Bakr came to her on the day of 'Id-ul-Fitr or 'Id ul Adha while the Prophet was with her and there were two girl singers with her, singing songs of the Ansar about the day of Buath. Abu Bakr said twice. "Musical instrument of Satan!" But the Prophet said, "Leave them Abu Bakr, for every nation has an 'Id' (i.e. festival) and this day is our 'Id."
Also, according to the tradition, in the ritual prayer, a woman should invite the attention of the Imam by clapping, instead of saying "Subhanallah" which is for men. There is a difference of opinion whether or not a woman can recite the Quran when in the presence of non-mahram men.
- Martin et al. (2003), Encyclopedia of Islam & the Muslim World, Macmillan Reference, ISBN 978-0028656038
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- Sura Al-Anbia 91, Sura Al-Muminun 3
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- The Hanbali school of thought also views the face as the awrah, though this view is rejected by Hanafis, Malikis and Shafi'is.
- Hsu, Shiu-Sian. "Modesty." Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an. Ed. Jane McAuliffe. Vol. 3. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers, 2003. 403-405. 6 vols.
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- According to this strictest opinion, the entirety of the woman is awrah. As Faqeeh Qadhi Ibn Al-Arabi said: "And all of the woman is awrah; her body, her voice, and it is not permissible for her to uncover that unless out of necessity, or need such as witnessing (in court), or a disease that is affecting her body…" [Ahkaam Al Qur'aan 3/1579]
- Aminah H. (March 7, 2009). "Is the female voice awrah?". Retrieved 2008-06-02.
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- Women's Awrah
- Is The Female Voice Awrah?
- Ruling on covering the face, with detailed evidence
- Niqab is not Fard