Axininca language

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Native to Peru
Native speakers
4,000 (2000)[1]
  • Southern
    • Campa (Pre-Andine)
      • Axininca
Language codes
ISO 639-3 cpc
Glottolog ajyi1238[2]
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Axininca (also Axininca Campa,[3] Ajyíninka Apurucayali, Campa, Ashaninca, Ashéninca Apurucayali, Apurucayali Campa, Ajyéninka) is an Arawakan language spoken along the Apurucayali tributary of the Pachitea River in Peru.

It has figured quite prominently in linguistic theory involving phonology (especially prosody including its stress) and morphology.

Demographics and language policy[edit]

There is 20% literacy in Ajyíninka Apurucayali and 30% literacy in Spanish, there is much bilingualism.

It is an official language.

Genealogical relations[edit]

The language is not mutually comprehensible with related Ashéninka Campa varieties.



Bilabial Apical Postalveolar
Velar Placeless
Plosives aspirated
unaspirated p t k ʔ
Affricates aspirated tsʰ tʃʰ
unaspirated ts
Fricatives s ç h
Nasals m n ɲ N
Liquids r
Glides β j ɰ


  1. ^ Axininca at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ajyininka Apurucayali". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ The name Campa is offensive.


  • McCarthy, John. (1993). Prosodic morphology: Constraint interaction and satisfaction. (Online:
  • Payne, David. (1981). The phonology and morphology of Axininca Campa. Arlington, TX: Summer Institute of Linguistics. (Online:
  • Payne, David; Payne, Judith; & Santos, Jorge. (1982). Morfologia, fonologia, y fonetica del Asheninca del Apurucayali (Campa–Arawak Preandino). Yarinacoha, Peru: Ministry of Education, Summer Institute of Linguistics.