Ayam Cemani

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Ayam Cemani
Cemani.jpg
Cemani hen
Country of originIndonesia
Traits
Weight
  • Male:
    2.0–2.5 kg (4.4–5.5 lb)
  • Female:
    1.5–2.0 kg (3.3–4.4 lb)
Skin colorBlack with a Turquoise glow on the rooster neck side and tail.
Egg colorTinted / Cream / Light Blue
Comb typeSingle
Classification
Cemani rooster

The Ayam Cemani is an uncommon breed of chicken from Indonesia. They have a dominant gene that causes hyperpigmentation (fibromelanosis), making the chicken mostly black, including feathers, beak, and internal organs. The Cemani is a very popular gamecock for cockfighting in Bali. This is due to the fact that their thighs have much more muscle compared to other chickens which leads to them being much faster. [1]

Etymology[edit]

Ayam means "chicken" in Indonesian, while cemani (originally a Javanese word) means "thoroughly black" (down to the bones).[2]

Origin[edit]

As a pure Indonesian breed, the breed originated from the island of Java, Indonesia, and have probably been used since the 12th century for religious and mystical purposes.[3]

The breed was first described by Dutch colonial settlers,[4] and first imported to Europe in 1998 by Dutch breeder Jan Steverink. Currently, this breed of chicken is kept in the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic. Ayam Cemani may have also been brought to Europe by Dutch seamen.

The Congolese-Belgian philanthropist Jean Kiala keeps the largest collection in Africa with 250 breeding pairs. These are preserved in a breeding program by the African Ornamental Breeders Association (AOBA) in Kenya and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.[5]

Description[edit]

Their beaks, tongues, combs and wattles appear black, and even their meat, bones, and organs are black or gray. Their blood is normally colored.[6][verification needed] [3] The birds' black color occurs as a result of excess pigmentation of the tissues, caused by a genetic condition known as fibromelanosis.[7] Fibromelanosis is also found in some other black or blue-skinned chicken breeds, such as the Silkie.[8][9] The roosters weigh 2.0–2.5 kg and the hens 1.5–2.0 kg. The hens lay cream-colored eggs, although they are poor setters and rarely hatch their own brood. Eggs weigh an average of 45 g.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lukasiewicz, Monika (23 August 2014). "Meat quality and the histological structure of breast and leg muscles in Ayam Cemani chickens, Ayam Cemani × Sussex hybrids and slow‐growing Hubbard JA 957 chickens". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 95: 1730–1735 – via SCI.
  2. ^ "Arti kata cemani - Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (KBBI) Online". kbbi.web.id. Retrieved 2020-07-08.
  3. ^ a b Solly, Meilan (September 19, 2019), These Chickens Have Jet Black Hearts, Beaks and Bones, retrieved May 18, 2020 CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  4. ^ Lukanov, H.; Genchev, A. (September 2013). "Fibromelanosis in domestic chickens" (PDF). Agricultural Sciences and Technology. 5 (3): 239–246.
  5. ^ https://ornamental-breeders.org/
  6. ^ "'Public Radio International's 'The World'". October 14, 2016.
  7. ^ Shinomiya, Ai; Kayashima, Yasunari; Kinoshita, Keiji; Mizutani, Makoto; Namikawa, Takao; Matsuda, Yoichi; Akiyama, Toyoko (February 2012). "Gene Duplication of endothelin 3 Is Closely Correlated with the Hyperpigmentation of the Internal Organs (Fibromelanosis) in Silky Chickens". Genetics. 190 (2): 627–638. doi:10.1534/genetics.111.136705. PMC 3276631. PMID 22135351.
  8. ^ Dorshorst, Ben; Molin, Anna-Maja; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Johansson, Anna M.; Strömstedt, Lina; Pham, Manh-Hung; Chen, Chih-Feng; Hallböök, Finn; Ashwell, Chris; Andersson, Leif (December 2011). "A Complex Genomic Rearrangement Involving the Endothelin 3 Locus Causes Dermal Hyperpigmentation in the Chicken". PLOS Genetics. 7 (12): e1002412. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002412. PMC 3245302. PMID 22216010. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  9. ^ Arora, G.; Mishra, S. K.; Nautiyal, B.; Pratap, S. O.; Gupta, A.; Beura, C. K.; Singh, D. P. (2011). "Genetics of hyperpigmentation associated with the Fibromelanosis gene (Fm) and analysis of growth and meat quality traits in crosses of native Indian Kadaknath chickens and non-indigenous breeds". British Poultry Science. 52 (6): 675–685. doi:10.1080/00071668.2011.635637.