Ayran

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Ayran
Fresh ayran.jpg
Fresh susurluk ayranı with a head of froth
Alternative names Laban, Doogh
Type Dairy product
Course Beverage
Place of origin Turkic Central Asia
Creator Turkic people
Serving temperature Cold
Main ingredients Yogurt, water, salt
Cookbook: Ayran  Media: Ayran
This article is about the beverage. For the railroad station in Turkey, see Bahçe, Osmaniye.

Ayran is a cold yogurt beverage mixed with salt.[1] In addition to Turkey, where it is considered a national drink, ayran can be found in neighboring regions including former parts of the Ottoman Empire, being part of the cuisine in Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Iran, and Arab countries.[note 1]

Its primary ingredients are water and yogurt, and ayran has been variously described as "diluted yogurt"[3] and "a most refreshing drink made by mixing yogurt with iced water".[4]

Ayran is served chilled and often as an accompaniment to grilled meat or rice[5] especially during summer.[6]

Similar beverages include the Iranian doogh,[7] but yogurt drinks are popular beyond the Middle East region—ayran has been likened by some to the South Asian lassi.[8]

History[edit]

Ayran is a traditional Turkish drink and was consumed by nomadic Turks prior to 1000 CE.[3] Some think[who?] ayran was first developed thousands of years ago by the Göktürks, who would dilute bitter yogurt with water in an attempt to improve its flavor[citation needed].

Some Turkish language dictionaries state the word derives from Old Turkish for buttermilk.[9] A c. 1000 CE Turkish dictionary, Dīwān ul-Lughat al-Turk, defines ayran as a "drink made out of milk."[9]

Contemporary ayran[edit]

Ayran is ubiquitous in Turkey and offered at almost all places that serve drinks, including fast food restaurants, such as McDonald's and Burger King.[10]

The town of Susurluk is well known in Turkey for its ayran, which characteristically has a foamy head and creamy taste.[11][12]

National drink status[edit]

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, a Turkish politician who has held the posts of President and Prime Minister, has promoted ayran as a national drink.[13] Speaking at a 2013 WHO Global Alcohol Policy Conference held in İstanbul, Erdoğan contrasted ayran with rakı, which he claimed was a recent introduction to Turkey despite the alcoholic beverage's long history in the region. He further claimed that in the early years of the modern Turkish republic (c. 1920–50), alcoholic beverages were "part of the radical top-down modernization program embarked upon by the elites."[13]

Still, sales of ayran in Turkey may lag behind other non-alcoholic beverages.[14] According to a 2015 joint statement from the Soft Drink Producers Association, the Sparkling Water Producers Association, and the Milk Producers and Exporters Union of Turkey, ayran consumption during the Ramadan holidays has declined every year for the years 2010 to 2015.[14]

In 2015, the Ministry of Customs and Trade imposed a 220,000 fine (approx. $70,000) on state-owned food and beverage manufacturer Çaykur for “insulting ayran” in one of their advertisement for iced tea, in which the protagonist raps that ayran makes him sleepy,[15] and halted advertisements of the iced tea product.[15]

Similar beverages[edit]

  • Chal, fermented camel's-milk
  • Chalap, beverage consisting of fermented milk, salt, and carbonated water
  • Doogh, yogurt-based beverage
  • Kefir, fermented milk drink made with yeast grains
  • Kumis, fermented mare's milk drink[3]
  • Lassi, yogurt-based drink from the Indian Subcontinent
  • Qatiq, fermented-milk beverage

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Ayran is present in the Balkans, some CIS countries, and the Middle East. Countries and regions where ayran has been reported include: Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, the Balkans, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, and the North Caucasus.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ A. Y. Tamime (ed.) (2008). Fermented Milks. John Wiley & Sons. p. 124. ISBN 9781405172387. 
  2. ^ For popularity in Armenia, Iran, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan see Yildiz Fatih (2010). Development and Manufacture of Yogurt and Other Functional Dairy Products. CRC Press. p. 10. ISBN 9781420082081.  For the Balkans, see Leslie Strnadel, Patrick Erdley (2012). Bulgaria (Other Places Travel Guide). Other Places Publishing. p. 58. ISBN 9780982261996. 
  3. ^ a b c Halici, Nevin (27 April 2013). "Turkish Delights". Gastronomica: The Journal of Critical Food Studies. University of California Press. 1 (1): 92–93. 
  4. ^ Lake Van and Turkish Kurdistan: A Botanical Journey P. H. Davis The Geographical Journal, Vol. 122, No. 2 (Jun., 1956), pp. 156-165 Published by: The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) Article DOI: 10.2307/1790844
  5. ^ "Turkish Buttermilk". www.kultur.gov.tr. Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Turkey. Retrieved 5 October 2013. 
  6. ^ Gina Husamettin. "Ayran – Turkish national beverage". balkon3.com. Retrieved 5 October 2013. 
  7. ^ Yildiz Fatih (2010). Development and Manufacture of Yogurt and Other Functional Dairy Products. CRC Press. p. 10. ISBN 9781420082081. 
  8. ^ Heyhoe, Kate. The ABC's of Larousse Gastronomique : ayran
  9. ^ a b "Ayran". Etimoloji Turkce (in Turkish). Tehlif Hakları. Retrieved 31 August 2014. 
  10. ^ For ayran at Turkish McDonalds, see "İçecekler: Ayran (250 ml)". McDonalds Turkey. Anadolu Restoran İşletmeleri Ltd. Şti. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  11. ^ "Fame of foamy ayran goes beyond borders". Hürriyet Daily News. Hürriyet - Doğan Yayın Holding. Retrieved 7 January 2014. 
  12. ^ "City Guide > Balıkesir > Don't Leave Without". kultur.gov.tr. Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Turkey. Retrieved 5 October 2013. 
  13. ^ a b "PM says Turkey's national drink is ayran, not beer". Zaman. 27 April 2013. 
  14. ^ a b "Turks turn away from 'national drink' despite Erdoğan". Zaman. 22 June 2015. 
  15. ^ a b Çelikkan, Erdinç (9 November 2015). "State-owned tea firm fined 220,000 liras for 'insulting ayran' in ads". Hürriyet.