|Alternative names||Laban, Doogh, katık, qeshk|
|Place of origin||Turkic Central Asia|
|Main ingredients||Yogurt, water, salt|
|Cookbook: Ayran Media: Ayran|
Ayran is a cold yogurt beverage mixed with salt. In addition to Turkey, where it is considered a national drink, ayran can be found in neighboring nations and regions including Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Iran, and Arab countries.[note 1]
Ayran is a traditional Turkish drink and was consumed by nomadic Turks prior to 1000 CE. Some think ayran was first developed thousands of years ago by the Göktürks, who would dilute bitter yogurt with water in an attempt to improve its flavor.
Some Turkish language dictionaries state the word derives from Old Turkish for buttermilk. A c. 1000 CE Turkish dictionary, Dīwān ul-Lughat al-Turk, defines ayran as a "drink made out of milk."
National drink status
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, a Turkish politician who has held the posts of President and Prime Minister, has promoted ayran as a national drink. Speaking at a 2013 WHO Global Alcohol Policy Conference held in İstanbul, Erdoğan contrasted ayran with alcohol, which he suggested was a recent introduction to Turkey. Stating that in the early years of the modern Turkish republic (c. 1920-1950), alcoholic beverages were "part of the radical top-down modernization program embarked upon by the elites," Erdoğan expressed regret that alcohol was widely promoted during this period even in school textbooks.
Still, sales of ayran in Turkey may lag behind other non-alcoholic beverages. According to a 2015 joint statement from the Soft Drink Producers Association, the Sparkling Water Producers Association, and the Milk Producers and Exporters Union of Turkey, ayran consumption during the holy month of Ramadan has declined every year for the years 2010-15.
In 2015, Turkey’s Customs and Trade Ministry imposed a 220,000 Turkish Lira fine (approx. $70,000) to state-owned Çaykur manufacturers for “insulting ayran” in one of their advertisement for iced tea, in which the protagonist raps that ayran makes him sleepy, and halted advertisements of Çaykur's competing, ice-tea product.
- Chal, fermented camel's-milk
- Chalap, beverage consisting of fermented milk, salt, and carbonated water
- Doogh, yogurt-based beverage
- Kefir, fermented milk drink made with yeast grains
- Kumis, fermented mare's milk drink
- Lassi, yogurt-based drink from the Indian Subcontinent
- Qatiq, fermented-milk beverage
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ayran.|
- A. Y. Tamime (ed.) (2008). Fermented Milks. John Wiley & Sons. p. 124. ISBN 9781405172387.
- For popularity in Armenia, Iran, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan see Yildiz Fatih (2010). Development and Manufacture of Yogurt and Other Functional Dairy Products. CRC Press. p. 10. ISBN 9781420082081. For the Balkans, see Leslie Strnadel, Patrick Erdley (2012). Bulgaria (Other Places Travel Guide). Other Places Publishing. p. 58. ISBN 9780982261996.
- For use in Afghanistan by Kirghiz, see Nazif Shahrani, M. (2013). The Kirghiz and Wakhi of Afghanistan. 9780295803784: University of Washington Press. pp. 92–93.
- For Lebanon, see A. Y. Tamime (ed.) (2008). Fermented Milks. John Wiley & Sons. p. 96. ISBN 9781405172387.
- For presence in the North Caucasus, see Smih, Sebastian (2006). Allah's Mountains: The Battle for Chechnya. Tauris Parke Paperbacks. p. 25. ISBN 9781850439790.
- Halici, Nevin (27 April 2013). "Turkish Delights". Gastronomica: The Journal of Critical Food Studies (University of California Press) 1 (1): 92–93.
- Lake Van and Turkish Kurdistan: A Botanical Journey P. H. Davis The Geographical Journal, Vol. 122, No. 2 (Jun., 1956), pp. 156-165 Published by: The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) Article DOI: 10.2307/1790844
- "Turkish Buttermilk". www.kultur.gov.tr. Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Turkey. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
- Gina Husamettin. "Ayran – Turkish national beverage". balkon3.com. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
- Yildiz Fatih (2010). Development and Manufacture of Yogurt and Other Functional Dairy Products. CRC Press. p. 10. ISBN 9781420082081.
- Heyhoe, Kate. The ABC's of Larousse Gastronomique : ayran
- Yildiz Fatih (2010). Development and Manufacture of Yogurt and Other Functional Dairy Products. CRC Press. pp. 123 & 125. ISBN 9781420082081.
- "Ayran". Etimoloji Turkce (in Turkish). Tehlif Hakları. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- For ayran at Turkish McDonalds, see "İçecekler: Ayran (250 ml)". McDonalds Turkey. Anadolu Restoran İşletmeleri Ltd. Şti. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- For ayran at Turkish Burger King, see "İçim Ayran - Burger King Sultan Menü". Burger King Turkey. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- "Fame of foamy ayran goes beyond borders". Hürriyet Daily News. Hürriyet - Doğan Yayın Holding. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
- "City Guide > Balıkesir > Don't Leave Without". kultur.gov.tr. Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Turkey. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
- "PM says Turkey’s national drink is ayran, not beer". Zaman. 27 April 2013.
- "Turks turn away from ‘national drink’ despite Erdoğan". Zaman. 22 June 2015.
- Çelikkan, Erdinç (9 November 2015). "State-owned tea firm fined 220,000 liras for ‘insulting ayran’ in ads". Hürriyet.