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Ayurveda—intertwined with mythology and religion—traces the origin of traditional Indian medicine to the legendary Dhanvantari, who received his knowledge from Brahma—the Hindu God of creation.
Hundreds of vegetable drugs are used in Ayurvedic medicine—including cardamom and cinnamon, both of which are believed to stimulate digestive enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules in the Human body.[1]
Several philosophers In India combined religion and traditional medicine—notable examples being that of Buddhism and Ayurveda. Shown in the image is the philosopher Nagarjuna—known chiefly for his doctrine of the Madhyamika (middle path)—who wrote medical works The Hundred Prescriptions and The Precious Collection, among others.[2]
Research suggests that Terminalia arjuna is useful in alleviating the pain of angina pectoris and in treating heart failure and coronary artery disease. Terminalia may also be useful in treating hypercholesterolemia[3]
File:Seven chakras.jpg
The seven chakras (Devanāgarī: चक्र) and the Mahābhūta (Devanāgarī: महाभुत्) in Tantric tradition. Yoga and Tantra have influenced traditional Ayurvedic medicine.
Azadirachta indica—believed to have immunopotentiating abilities and used often as an anti-infective—has been found to enhance the production of IL-2 and increase immunity in human volunteers by boosting lymphocyte and T-cell count in three weeks.[4]
Cataract in Human Eye—magnified view seen on examination with a slit lamp. Cataract surgery was known to the physician Sushruta.[5] In India, cataract surgery was performed with a special tool called the Jabamukhi Salaka, a curved needle used to loosen the lens and push the cataract out of the field of vision.[5] The eye would later be soaked with warm butter and then bandaged.[5]
Black pepper and long pepper are combined with ginger to form the traditional trikatu mixture in Ayurveda. This mixture increases appetite, promotes the secretion of digestive juices, and cures certain gastric disorders—particularly Achlorhydria and Hypochlorhydria.[6]
The mantra ॐ मणि पद्मे हूँ written on rocks. Chanting mantras has been a feature of Ayurveda since the Atharvaveda—a largely religious text—was compiled.[7]
Oils—such as sesame and sunflower oil—are extensively used in Ayurvedic medicine. Studies show that both these oils contain substantial amount of linoleate in triglyceride form. Oils rich in linoleic acid may have antineoplastic properties.[8]
Chemical structure of curcumin used in Ayurvedic medicine. Shown here in its keto form.

Ayurveda (Devanāgarī: आयुर्वॆद, the 'science of life') is a system of traditional medicine native to India,[9] and practiced in other parts of the world as a form of alternative medicine.[10] In Sanskrit, the word Ayurveda comprises of the words āyus, meaning 'life' and veda, meaning 'science'.[9] Evolving throughout its history, Ayurveda remains an influential system of medicine in South Asia.[11][12] The earliest literature of Ayurveda appeared during the Vedic period in India.[10] The Sushruta Samhita and the Charaka Samhita were influential works on traditional medicine during this era.[10] Ayurvedic practitioners also identified a number of medicinal preparations and surgical procedures for curing various ailments and diseases.[13]

Under scrutiny during recent times, Ayurveda has become an alternative form of medicine in the western world, where patents for its medicine have been contested by Western and Indian institutions.[14][15] Researchers have found that some Ayurvedic samples of medicine—made by modern method, adulterated raw material, and lack of workers trained in traditional medicine—contain toxic heavy metals.[16][17][18]


Ayurveda believes in 'five great elements' (Devanāgarī: पन्छतत्व‌; earth, water, fire, air and space) forming the universe, including the human body.[9] Blood, flesh, fat, bone, marrow, chyle, and semen are the seven primary constituent elements (Devanāgarī: सप्तधातु) of the body.[19] Ayurveda stresses a balance of three substances: wind/spirit/air, phlegm, and bile, each representing divine forces.[19] The doctrine of these three Dosas (Devanāgarī: त्रिदॊश्)—vata (wind/spirit/air), pitta (bile) and kapha (phlegm)—is important.[20] Traditional beliefs hold that humans posses a unique constellation of Dosas.[20] In Ayurveda, the human body has 20 Guna (Devanāgarī: गुन, meaning quality).[21] Surgery and surgical instruments are employed.[21] It is believed that building a healthy metabolic system, attaining good digestion, and proper excretion leads to vitality.[21] Ayurveda also focuses on exercise, yoga, meditation, and massage.[22]

The concept of Panchakarma (Devanāgarī: पन्छ्कर्म‌) is believed to eliminate toxic elements from the body.[23] Eight disciplines of Ayurveda treatment, called Ashtanga (Devanāgarī: अश्ताग्), are given below:[24]


Buddhism may have been an influence on the development of many of Ayurveda's central ideas—particularly its fascination with balance, known in Buddhism as Madhyamika (Devanāgarī: मद्यमिका).[26] Balance is emphasized and suppressing natural urges is seen to be unhealthy and doing so may almost certainly lead to illness.[26] To stay within the limits of reasonable balance and measure is stressed upon.[26] Ayurveda emphasizes on moderation in food intake, sleep, sexual intercourse, and the intake of medicine.[26]

Ayurveda incorporates an entire system of dietary recommendations.[9] Chopra (2003)—on the subject of Ayurveda dietetics—writes:[27]

Ayurvedic dietetics comprise a host of recommendations, ranging from preparation and consumption of food, to healthy routines for day and night, sexual life, and rules for ethical conduct. In contrast to contemporary practitioners of New Age Ayurveda, older Ayurvedic authors tended to be religiously neutral. Even Buddhist authors refrained from trying to convert the patient to follow their particular religious ways.

For diagnosis the patient is to be questioned and all five senses are to be employed.[28] The Charaka Samhita recommends a tenfold examination of the patient.[28] The qualities to be judged are: constitution, abnormality, essence, stability, body measurements, diet suitability, psychic strength, digestive capacity, physical fitness and age.[28] Hearing is used to observe the condition of breathing and speech.[19] The study of the vital pressure points of marma is of special importance.[21]

Chopra (2003) identifies five influential criteria for diagnosis: 'origin of the disease, prodrominal (precursory) symptoms, typical symptoms of the fully developed disease, observing the effect of therapeutic procedures, and the pathological process.'[28]

Hygiene—also a component of religious virtue to many Indians—is a strong belief.[19] Hygienic living involves regular bathing, cleansing of teeth, skin care, and eye washing.[19] Occasional anointing of the body with oil is also prescribed.[19]

Ayurveda stresses on vegetable drugs.[19] Fats are used both for consumption and for external use.[19] Hundreds of vegetable drugs are employed, including cardamom and cinnamon.[19] Some animal products may also be used, for example milk, bones, and gallstones etc.[19] Minerals—including sulfur, arsenic, lead, copper sulfate, gold—are also consumed as prescribed.[19]

Alcohol is used as a narcotic for the patient undergoing operation in some cases.[19] The advent of Islam introduced opium as a narcotic.[24] Both oil and tar are used to stop bleeding.[19] Oils may be used in a number of ways including regular consumption as a part of food, anointing, smearing, head massage, and prescribed application to infected areas.[29]

The proper function of channels—tubes that exist within the body and transport fluids from one point to another—is seen as vital, and the lack of healthy channels may lead to disease and insanity.[30] Sushruta identifies that blockages of these channels may lead to rheumatism, epilepsy, paralysis, and convulsions as fluids and channels are diverted from their ideal locations.[30] Sweating is favored as a manner in which to open up the channels and dilute the Doshas causing the blockages and harming a patient—a number of ways to take steam bathing and other steam related cures are recommended so that these toxins are released.[30]


Ayurveda traces its origins to the Vedas—the Atharvaveda in particular—and is connected to religion and mythology.[31] The Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta appeared during the 1st millenium BCE.[13] Dwivedi & Dwivedi (2007)— on the work of the surgeon Sushruta—write:[13]

The main vehicle of the transmission of knowledge during that period was by oral method. The language used was Sanskrit — the vedic language of that period (2000-500 BC). The most authentic compilation of his teachings and work is presently available in a treatise called Sushruta Samhita. This contains 184 chapters and description of 1120 illnesses, 700 medicinal plants, 64 preparations from mineral sources and 57 preparations based on animal sources.

Underwood & Rhodes (2008) hold that this early phase of traditional Indian medicine identified 'fever (takman), cough, consumption, diarrhea, dropsy, abscesses, seizures, tumours, and skin diseases (including leprosy).'[19] Treatment of complex ailments—including Angina pectoris, diabetes, hypertension, and stones—also ensued during this period.[32][13] Plastic surgery, cataract surgery, puncturing to release fluids in the abdomen, extraction of foreign elements, treatment of anal fistulas, treating fractures, amputations, cesarean sections, and stitching of wounds were known.[19] The use of herbs and surgical instruments became widespread.[19]

Other early works of Ayurveda include the Charaka Samhita, attributed to Charaka.[19] The earliest surviving excavated written material which contains the works of Sushruta is the Bower Manuscript—dated to the 4th century CE.[33] The Bower manuscript cites directly from Sushruta, and is of special interest to historians due to the presence of Indian medicine and its concepts in Central Asia.[34] Vagbhata—the son of a senior doctor by the name of Simhagupta—[35] also compiled his works on traditional medicine.[19] Early Ayurveda had a school of physicians and a school of surgeons.[10] Tradition holds that the text Agnivesh tantra—written by the legendary sage Agnivesh, a student of the mythological sage Bharadwaja—influenced the writings of Ayurveda.[36]

The Chinese pilgrim Fa Hsien (ca. 337 - 422 CE) wrote about the health care system of the Gupta empire (320 - 550 CE) and—in process—described the institutional approach of Indian medicine which is also visible in the works of Caraka, who mentions a clinic and how it should be equipped.[37] Madhava (700 CE), Sarngadhara (1300 CE), and Bhavamisra (1500 CE) compiled works on Indian medicine.[34] The medical works of both Sushruta and Charaka were translated into Arabic language during the Abbasid Caliphate (750 CE).[38] These Arabic works made their way into Europe via intermediaries.[39] In Italy the Branca family of Sicily and Gaspare Tagliacozzi (Bologna) became familiar with the techniques of Sushruta.[39]

British physicians traveled to India to see Rhinoplasty being performed by native methods.[40] Reports on Indian Rhinoplasty were published in the Gentleman's Magazine by 1794.[40] Joseph Constantine Carpue spent 20 years in India studying local plastic surgery methods.[40] Carpue was able to perform the first major surgery in the western world by 1815.[41] Instruments described in the Sushruta Samhita were further modified in the Western World.[41]

Current status

Within South Asia

In 1970, the Indian Medical Central Council Act was passed by the Parliament of India, which aims to standardize qualifications for Ayurveda and provide accredited institutions for its study and research.[42] In India, over 100 colleges offer degrees in traditional Ayurvedic medicine.[22] Indian Government supports research and teaching in Ayurveda through many channels—both at the national and state levels—and helps institutionalize traditional medicine so that it can be studied in major towns and cities.[43] The state-sponsored Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS) is the apex insitution for promotion of traditional medicine in India.[44] The studies conducted by this institution encompass clinical, drug, literary, and family welfare research.[44]

Many successful clinics are run by professionals who qualify from these institutes—both in the urban and the rural areas.[42] Mukherjee & Wahile cite World Health Organization statistics to demonstrate the popularity of traditional medicine, on which a significant number of the world's population depends for primary health care.[45] In Sri Lanka the number of traditional Ayurveda practitioners is greater than trained modern medicine professionals.[46] The manufacture and marketing of Ayurvedic medicine has been commercially successful for several pharmaceutical companies.[42]

Outside India

Ayurveda practitioners require a license in another stream of health care in the United States of America.[22] Academic institutions related to traditional medicine in India have contributed to Ayurveda's international visibility.[47] Kurup (2003) comments on the role of Gujarat Ayurved University:[47]

The Gujarat Ayurved University has signed the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with nine Ayurvedic institutes functioning in Japan, Australia, the Netherlands, Italy, Argentina, and Germany to coordinate and facilitate the globalization of Ayurveda through academic collaboration. Earlier, Medical (Ayu) Institute of Russia had signed the MoU with the Government of India, in which Gujarat Aryurved University is also one of the implementing authorities.

Ayurveda gained recognition in the Western world as medical scholars researched and outlined its various postulates.[48] In the United States of America, the NIH NCCAM expends some of its $123 million budget on Ayurvedic medicine research. In addition, the National Institute of Ayurvedic Medicine, established by Dr. Scott Gerson, is an example of a research institute that has carried out research into Ayurvedic practices.[49] Gerson has published part of his work on the antifungal activities of certain Ayurvedic plants in academic journals.[50] The postulates and history of Ayurveda have also been outlined by foreign scholars—such as Dominik Wujastyk in the United Kingdom.[51]


In December 1993, the University of Mississippi Medical Center had a patent issued to them by United States Patent and Trademark Office on the use of turmeric for healing.[52] The patent was contested by India's industrial research organization, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (C.S.I.R), on the grounds that traditional Ayurvedic practitioners were already aware of the healing properties of the substance and have been for centuries, making this patent a case of bio-piracy.[53] The Government of India had become involved in promoting traditional medicine by 1997.[11] Sharma & Bodeker report on the the various government activities in relation with Ayurveda:[11]

In India the government became involved in traditional drug production when the Central Drug Research Institute patented two new drugs from ancient Ayurvedic formulas. One, a mixture of black pepper, long pepper, and ginger, allows for the dosage of the antibiotic rifampicin to be halved in the treatment of tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections. The other is a memory tonic produced from the traditional plant called brahmi. Overseas patenting of turmeric and products of the neem tree caused controversy in India and other nations. In August the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office canceled a U.S. patent on the wound-healing properties of turmeric when the Indian government proved that records had existed for this use for centuries.

Scientific evidence

As a traditional medicine, many Ayurveda products have not been tested in rigorous scientific studies and clinical trials.[16] The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine states that "most clinical trials of Ayurvedic approaches have been small, had problems with research designs, lacked appropriate control groups, or had other issues that affected how meaningful the results were."[14] In India, research in Ayurveda is largely undertaken by the statutory body of the Central Government, the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS), through a national network of research institutes.[54] However, an excerpt from Nanda (2006) reads: "clinical studies that would satisfy the liberal criteria of WHO [World Health Organisation] have been alarmingly few from India, in spite of patients crowding in Ayurvedic hospitals."[14]

Despite these misgivings, some ayurvedic products, mainly herbs used for phytotherapy, have been tested with promising results. Turmeric and its derivative curcumin appears to have beneficial properties.[55] Tinspora cordifolia has been tested.[56] Among the medhya rasayanas (intellect rejuvenation), two varieties of sage have been been tested; one improved word recall in young adults,[57] and another improved symptoms in Alzheimer's patients.[58] In some cases Ayurvedic medicine may provide clues to therapeutic compounds. For example, derivatives of snake venom have various therapeutic properties.[59] Many plants used as rasayana (rejuvenation) medications are potent antioxidants.[60] Neem appears to have beneficial pharmacological properties as well.[61]

A systematic review of Ayurveda treatments for rheumatoid arthritis concluded that there was insufficient evidence, as most of the trials were not done properly, and the one high-quality trial showed no benefits.[62] A review of Ayurveda and cardiovascular disease concluded that while the herbal evidence is not yet convincing, the spices are appropriate, some herbs are promising, and yoga is also a promising complementary treatment.[63]

Mitra & Rangesh (2003) hold that cardamom and cinnamon are believed to stimulate digestive enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules in the Human body.[1] Research suggests that Terminalia arjuna is useful in alleviating the pain of angina pectoris and in treating heart failure and coronary artery disease.[3] Terminalia arjun may also be useful in treating hypercholesterolemia.[3] Azadirachta indica is believed to have immunopotentiating abilities and is used often as an anti-infective.[4] It has been found to enhance the production of IL-2 and increase immunity in human volunteers by boosting lymphocyte and T-cell count in three weeks.[4] Both black pepper and long pepper find application in Ayurvedic medicine in conjunction with ginger to form trikatu—a the traditional mixture.[6] Trikatu has been suggested to increase appetite, promote the secretion of digestive juices, and cure certain gastric disorders—particularly Achlorhydria and Hypochlorhydria.[6]

Safety Concerns

There is evidence that using some Ayurveda medicine, especially those involving herbs, metals, minerals, or other materials involves potentially serious risks, including toxicity.[64][10][65]

A study by Saper etc. published in 2004 in the Journal of the American Medical Association studied the chemistry of Ayurveda compounds and found significant levels of toxic heavy metals such as lead, mercury and arsenic in 20% of Ayurvedic preparations that were made in South Asia for sale around Boston and extrapolated the data to America.[66] The Journal found that, if taken according to the manufacturers' instructions, this 20% of remedies "could result in heavy metal intakes above published regulatory standards"[66] Similar studies have been performed in India, and have confirmed the presence of heavy metals. The main concern of metal toxicity from misuse of Ayurvedic medicines are well known.[65]

There is a technique of detoxification applied to heavy metals and toxic herbs called samskaras, which is similar to the Chinese pao zhi although the Ayurvedic technique is more complex and may involve prayers as well as physical pharmacy techniques.[67]

Following the study conducted by Saper etc. the Government of India ruled that Ayurvedic products must specify their metallic content directly on the labels of the product.[68] The harmful effects of Ayurveda are attributed in part to the adulterated raw material and lack of workers trained in traditional medicine.[18] In a letter to the Indian Academy of Sciences, Patwardhan Bhushan—director of the Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Pune—cites Saper etc. and states that contamination and carelessness during the modern manufacturing processes, quicker than the safer traditional methods of preparation, is to blame for the heavy level of toxicity in traditional medicine.[17] The flawed output has resulted in decline of Ayurveda in India as well as abroad.[18]


  1. ^ a b Mitra & Rangesh, page 363
  2. ^ Clifford, Terry (2003). Tibetan Buddhist Medicine and Psychiatry. 42. Motilal Banarsidass Publications. ISBN 8120817842.
  3. ^ a b c Miller A.L. (1998). "Botanical influences on cardiovascular disease". Altern Med Rev. 3 (6): 422–31. PMID 9855567.
  4. ^ a b c Mungantiwar, A.A. & Phadke, A.S. (2003) in "Immunomodulation: Therapeutic Strategy through Ayurveda", Scientific Basis for Ayurvedic Therapies edited by Mishra, L.C. 72. CRC Press: ISBN 084931366X.
  5. ^ a b c Finger, page 66
  6. ^ a b c Mitra & Rangesh, page 319
  7. ^ Kasulis, Thomas P.; Aimes, Roger T.; Dissanayake, Wimal (1993). Self as Body in Asian Theory and Practice. State University of New York Press. 104. ISBN 079141079X.
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  9. ^ a b c d Chopra, page 75
  10. ^ a b c d e f Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy. Ministry of Health & Family Welfare (Government of India).
  11. ^ a b c Sharma & Bodeker in Encyclopedia Britannica 2008
  12. ^ Chopra 2003
  13. ^ a b c d Dwivedi & Dwivedi (2007)
  14. ^ a b c Nanda, M. (2008). Ayurveda under the scanner . Frontline: Volume 23 - Issue 07: Apr. 08 - 21, 2006
  15. ^ Kurup (2003) and Mitra (2003)
  16. ^ a b Ellin, Abby (2008-09-17). "Skin Deep: Ancient, but how safe?". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-09-19. A report in the Aug. 27 issue of The Journal of the American Medical Association found that nearly 21 percent of 193 ayurvedic herbal supplements bought online, produced in both India and the United States, contained lead, mercury or arsenic. Almost all of the products were sold through American Web sites. “Some manufacturers advertised that they test for metals, and their products still had them,” said Dr. Robert B. Saper, assistant professor at the Boston University School of Medicine and lead author of the study. The average consumer, he said, “has no way of determining which supplement is free of contaminants and which isn’t.” CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) mirror
  17. ^ a b Bhushan etc. in Heavy metals and Ayurveda in Current Science, Vol. 88, No. 10, 25 May 2005. Indian Academy of Sciences.
  18. ^ a b c Dubey, N. K.; Kumar, R., and Tripathi, P. in Global promotion of herbal medicine: India’s opportunity, Current Science, Vol. 86, No. 1, 37-41, 10 January 2004. Indian Academy of Sciences.
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  20. ^ a b Chopra, page 77
  21. ^ a b c d Chopra, page 76
  22. ^ a b c MSN Encarta (2008). Ayurveda
  23. ^ Sharma, A.K. (2003) in "Panchkarma Therapy in Ayurvedic Medicine", Scientific Basis for Ayurvedic Therapies edited by Mishra, L.C. 43. CRC Press: ISBN 084931366X.
  24. ^ a b Chopra, page 80
  25. ^ Wujastyk, page XXI
  26. ^ a b c d Wujastyk, page XVIII
  27. ^ Chopra, page 78
  28. ^ a b c d Chopra, page 79
  29. ^ Wujastyk, page XX
  30. ^ a b c Wujastyk, pages XIX-XX
  31. ^ Indian medicine has a long history. Its earliest concepts are set out in the sacred writings called the Vedas, especially in the metrical passages of the Atharvaveda, which may possibly date as far back as the 2nd millennium BC. According to a later writer, the system of medicine called Āyurveda was received by a certain Dhanvantari from Brahma, and Dhanvantari was deified as the god of medicine. In later times his status was gradually reduced, until he was credited with having been an earthly king who died of snakebite. — Underwood & Rhodes (2008)
  32. ^ Lock etc., page 836
  33. ^ Kutumbian, pages XXXII-XXXIII
  34. ^ a b Wujastyk, page XXVI
  35. ^ Wujastyk, page 224
  36. ^ Vināyaka Jayānanda Ṭhākara. (1989). Methodology of Research in Ayurveda, p. 7. Gujarat Ayurved University.
  37. ^ Wujastyk, pages XV-XVI
  38. ^ Lock etc., page 607
  39. ^ a b Lock etc., page 607
  40. ^ a b c Lock etc., page 651
  41. ^ a b Lock etc., page 652
  42. ^ a b c Wujastyk, page XXII
  43. ^ Wujastyk, page XVI
  44. ^ a b Kurup, page 7
  45. ^ Mukherjee P.K., Wahile A. in Integrated approaches towards drug development from Ayurveda and other Indian system of medicines, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2006 Jan 3;103(1):25-35.
  46. ^ Health and welfare (from Sri Lanka). Encyclopedia Britannica (2008).
  47. ^ a b Kurup 2003 Cite error: The named reference "Kurup6" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  48. ^ Ninivaggi, Frank John (2007). Ayurveda: A Comprehensive Guide to Traditional Indian Medicine for the West. Praeger Press: ISBN 0313348375.
  49. ^ National Institute of Ayurvedic Medicine (United States)
  50. ^ Gerson, S. & Green, L.H. in Preliminary Evaluation Of Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts of Morinda citrifolia Linn., Abstr. Am. Soc. Microbiol. A-66:13 May 2002
  51. ^ Dr Dominik Wujastyk, University College London. Accessed on September, 2008
  52. ^ US Patent No. 5,401,504
  53. ^ Johnston, Barbara & Webb, Ginger (1997). "Turmeric Patent Overturned in Legal Victory". HerbalGram. Fall 1997 (41): 11.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  54. ^ "Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (Government of India)".
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  57. ^ Tildesley N.T., Kennedy D.O., Perry E.K.; et al. (2003). "Salvia lavandulaefolia (Spanish sage) enhances memory in healthy young volunteers". Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 75 (3): 669–74. PMID 12895685. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help); Explicit use of et al. in: |author= (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  58. ^ Akhondzadeh S., Noroozian M., Mohammadi M., Ohadinia S., Jamshidi A.H., Khani M. (2003). "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial". J Clin Pharm Ther. 28 (1): 53–9. PMID 12605619. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  59. ^ Koh D.C., Armugam A., Jeyaseelan K. (2006). "Snake venom components and their applications in biomedicine". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 63 (24): 3030–41. doi:10.1007/s00018-006-6315-0. PMID 17103111. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  60. ^ Govindarajan R., Vijayakumar M., Pushpangadan P. (2005). "Antioxidant approach to disease management and the role of 'Rasayana' herbs of Ayurveda". J Ethnopharmacol. 99 (2): 165–78. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.02.035. PMID 15894123. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  61. ^ Subapriya R., Nagini S. (2005). "Medicinal properties of neem leaves: a review". Curr Med Chem Anticancer Agents. 5 (2): 149–6. PMID 15777222. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  62. ^ Park J., Ernst E. (2005). "Ayurvedic medicine for rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review". Semin. Arthritis Rheum. 34 (5): 705–13. doi:10.1016/j.semarthrit.2004.11.005. PMID 15846585. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  63. ^ Mamtani R., Mamtani R. (2005). "Ayurveda and yoga in cardiovascular diseases". Cardiol Rev. 13 (3): 155–62. PMID 15834238.
  64. ^ Ayurvedic Medicine: An Introduction (2005). National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine
  65. ^ a b Indian Express (2005). The Ayurveda Wars
  66. ^ a b Saper R.B., Kales S.N., Paquin J.; et al. (2004). "Heavy metal content of Ayurveda herbal medicine products". JAMA. 292 (23): 2868–73. doi:10.1001/jama.292.23.2868. PMID 15598918. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help); Explicit use of et al. in: |author= (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  67. ^ Alan Keith Tillotson (2001) in The One Earth Herbal Sourcebook: Everything You Need to Know About Chinese, Western, and Ayurvedic Herbal Treatments

    Crude aconite is an extremely lethal substance. However, the science of Ayurveda looks upon aconite as a therapeutic entity. Crude aconite is always processed i.e. it undergoes 'samskaras' before being utilised in the Ayurvedic formulations. This study was undertaken in mice, to ascertain whether 'processed' aconite is less toxic as compared to the crude or unprocessed one. It was seen that crude aconite was significantly toxic to mice (100% mortality at a dose of 2.6 mg/mouse) whereas the fully processed aconite was absolutely non-toxic (no mortality at a dose even 8 times as high as that of crude aconite). Further, all the steps in the processing were essential for complete detoxification. - Thorat S, Dahanukar S (1991). "Can we dispense with Ayurvedic samskaras?". J Postgrad Med. 37 (3): 157–9. PMID 1784028. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)

  68. ^ Valiathan, M. S. in Ayurveda: Putting the house in order, Current Science, Vol. 90, No. 1, 5-6, 10 January 2006. Indian Academy of Sciences.


  • Chopra, A.S. (2003) in "Ayurveda", Medicine Across Cultures, edited by Selin, Helaine & Shapiro, H. 75-83. Kluwer Academic Publishers. United States of America: ISBN 1-4020-1166-0.
  • Dwivedi, Girish & Dwivedi, Shridhar (2007). History of Medicine: Sushruta – the Clinician – Teacher par Excellence. National Informatics Centre (Government of India).
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See also