Mourning of Muharram
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (May 2011)|
|Mourning of Muharram|
|Significance||Marks the death of Hussein ibn Ali (Shi'a Islam, Sunni Islam)|
|Observances||Mourn and derive messages from Hussein's Sacrifice (Shi'a Islam); Fasting (Sunni Islam)|
|2015 date||October 14|
|2016 date||October 2|
|2017 date||September 21|
|2018 date||September 11|
|A series of articles on|
|Husayn ibn Ali
|Husayn ibn Ali in Islamic calligraphy|
The Mourning of Muharram, Remembrance of Muharram, or Muharram Observances, is a set of rituals associated with Shia Islam, which takes place in Muharram, the first month of the Islamic calendar. Many of the events associated with the ritual take place in congregation halls known as Hussainia.
The event marks the anniversary of the Battle of Karbala when Imam Hussein ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad, was killed by the forces of the second Umayyad caliph Yazid I at Karbala. Family members, accompanying Hussein ibn Ali, were killed or subjected to humiliation. The commemoration of the event during yearly mourning season, from first of Muharram to twentieth of Safar with Ashura comprising the focal date, serves to define Shia communal identity. At present, Muharram Observances are carried out in countries with a sizable Shia population, including Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Pakistan, Lebanon, India, Bahrain, Syria, Nigeria, Tanzania, Saudi Arabia, Bangladesh, and Yemen.
The words Azadari (Persian: عزاداری) which mean mourning and lamentation; and Majalis-e Aza have been exclusively used in connection with the remembrance ceremonies for the martyrdom of Imam Hussain. Majalis-e Aza, also known as Aza-e Husayn, includes mourning congregations, lamentations, matam and all such actions which express the emotions of grief and above all, repulsion against what Yazid stood for.
Expression of grief with thumping of the chest by Shia Muslims is also known as Latmya, Latmaya or latmia in Arabic-Persian countries. In India and Pakistan it is called Matam or Matam-Dari/Sina Zannee (chest beating).
The term majalis has both a grammatical meaning and a meaning which relates to Aza-e-Husayn. In its technical sense, a majalis is a meeting, a session or a gathering.
According to Shia sources, The Azadari of Muharram was started by the family of Muhammad (the Ahl-ul-Bayt) after the death of his grandson Husayn ibn Ali at the Battle of Karbala in 680 AD. Following the battle of Karbala, Muhammad's granddaughter Zaynab bint Ali and sister of Imam Husayn, began mourning for the fallen and making speeches against Imam Husayn ibn Ali's opponents: Ibn Ziyad and Yazid I. News of Imam Husayn ibn Ali's death was also spread by Imam Zain-ul-Abideen, who succeeded Imam Husayn as the Shia Imam, via sermons and speeches throughout Iraq, Syria and Hejaz.
Zainab and Imam Zain-ul-Abideen informed the people that Yazid had martyred Imam Imam Husayn and seventy-two of his companions including his six-month-old son Ali Asghar, and that their women and children were taken as prisoners to Syria. When word of mourning reached Yazid he decided to release the captive women and children from the prison in Damascus, out of fear of public revolt against his rule. He sent for Imam Zain-ul-Abideen, informed him of the impending release and asked if he wished for anything further. Imam Zain-ul-Abideen said he would consult with Zainab. She asked Yazid to provide a place where the people could mourn for Imam Husayn and others of Muhammad's household. A house was provided, and here Zaynab bint Ali held the first Majlis-e Aza of Imam Husayn and started the Mourning of Muharram.
History of commemoration
Reliable evidence of public mourning rituals dates back to 963 CE: historian Ibn Kathir recounts how Mu'izz al-Dawla ordered his people to wail over Husayn ibn Ali. The mourning rituals evolved differently in different places, until the Safavid dynasty established a centralised Shiite state in the 16th century::118 the annual mourning ceremonies and ritual cursing of Husayn's enemies, acquired the status of a national institution. According to popular belief, Shiite rituals spread to South Asia starting at the end of the 14th century with the conquests of Tamerlane.:120 Observance has since spread to countries such as India, Pakistan, Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Afghanistan, Syria, Nigeria, Tanzania, Saudi Arabia, Bangladesh, Yemen, Bahrain, Azerbaijan and Lebanon.
Azadari in Lucknow
In Lucknow, India, the Muharram processions and rituals are known as Azadari. The processions, including the Chup Tazia, have been observed since the sixteenth century or earlier, when Lucknow was capital of the state of Awadh.
In the 20th century, beginning in 1906, Azadari became a focus of communal tension in Lucknow. In 1977, after riots broke out for the fourth time since 1968, the government of Uttar Pradesh banned the Azadari processions. Shia leaders protested the ban, and many Shia Muslims courted arrest by defying the ban each year.
In 1997 a hunger strike was launched to protest the Azadari ban. In April three Shia youths committed self-immolation and died. A noted Shia scholar called for a peace march on 18 April 1997 that reportedly drew more than 200,000 Shias.
Late in the year, after months of arrests and clashes between police and protesters, the government granted limited permission for Shias in Lucknow to hold Azadari processions.
Types of mourning
|Shia Islam portal|
How the event is mourned differs between different branches of Shia and different ethnic groups. The event is also observed by many Sunnis, but to a lesser extent, and as a time of remembrance, rather than mourning. The Nizam of Hyderabad/Deccan Mir Osman Ali Khan, was not only a Sunni Muslim and the famous powerful ruler of Hyderabad Deccan State till 1948 but also great lover of Ahle Bait and promoter of Azadari.
Expressions of grief such as sine-zani (beating the chest), zangir-zani (beating oneself with chains), and tage-zani or qama-zani –also known as tatbir (hitting oneself with swords or knives)– emerged as common features of the proliferating mourning-processions (dasta-gardani) during Safavid rule. Mourning rituals also takes place in assemblies held in so-called Hussainiya or takia, as well as in mosques and private houses. In Iran, Husayn's funeral is reenacted by carrying a huge wooden structure (nakhl), which is usually carried by several hundred men.
In the Twelver three traditional schools (Usooli, Akhbari, and Shaykhi), mourners, both male and female, congregate (in separate sections) for sorrowful, poetic recitations performed in memory of the death of Husayn, lamenting and grieving to the tune of beating drums and chants of "Ya Husayn." Passion plays are also performed, reenacting the Battle of Karbala and the suffering and death of Husayn at the hands of Yazid. They offer condolences to Imam-e-Zamana also known as Imam al-Mahdi whom they believe will avenge the blood of Husayn and bring justice to the world.
Bektashis and Alevis also mourn, and they keep themselves from eating and drinking ("fasting") the first 10–12 days of Muharram. In this period, the Alevis wear black clothes, do not shave themselves and avoid any type of entertainment and pleasure. Originally, it was also forbidden to bathe and change clothes during this period, but today most Alevis do not follow this rule. This is called "Muharrem Matemi", "Yas-i Muharrem" or "Muharrem orucu". But because it is also called "fasting", many people falsely think that Alevis celebrate the Muharram. The definition of the "fast" in this connection is different from the normal type of "fasting". Bektashis also greet each other by saying "Ya Imam! Ya Husayn."
The only Ismaili group which mourns are the Mustaali, who mourn similarly to the majority of Twelvers. Although, Nizari Ismaili commemorate Muharram through the tradition of not celebrating marriages, birthdays, and other religious celebrations during this time to show respect to their other Muslim brothers who are mourning.
For the duration of the remembrance, it is customary for mosques to provide free meals (nazar) on certain nights of the month to all people. These meals are viewed as being special and holy, as they have been consecrated in the name of Imam Husayn, and thus partaking of them is considered an act of communion with Allah, Imam Husayn, and humanity.
In South Asia, a number of literary and musical genres, produced by both Shias and Sunnis, that have been inspired by the Battle of Karbala are performed during the month, such as marsiya, noha and soaz. This is meant to increase the peoples understanding of how the enemies fought The Battle of Karbala against Husayn and his followers. In Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica all ethnic and religious communities participate in the event, locally known as "Hosay" or "Hussay". In Indonesia, the event is known as Tabuik (Minangkabau language) or Tabut (Indonesian).
Pilgrimage to the shrine of Husayn
Many Shia go on a pilgrimage to the Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala, one of the holiest places for Shias apart from Mecca and Medina. Up to one million pilgrims visit the city annually to observe the anniversary of Imam Husayn ibn Ali's death. The shrine is located opposite that of Al-Abbas ibn Ali.
The Arabic term matam refers in general to any act or gesture of mourning; in Shia Islam the term designates acts of lamentation for the martyrs of Karbala. Many of the male and female participants congregate in public for ceremonial chest beating (matam) as a display of their devotion to Imam Husayn and in remembrance of his suffering. In some Shi'a societies, such as those in Bahrain, Pakistan, India, Afghanistan and Iraq, some male participants incorporate knives or razors swung upon chains into their matam. There are two basic forms of matam:
- matam using one's hands only, that is, sineh-zani or breast-beating
- matam with implements like chains, knives, swords and blades, that is, zanjeer-zani, qama-zani, etc.
Matam in South Asia is the most significant and sensitive Shia identity marker.
One form of mourning is the theatrical re-enactment of the Battle of Karbala. In Iran this is called taziya or taziyeh. Theatrical groups that specialize in taziya are called taziya groups. Taziyas were popular through the Qajar dynasty until the early twentieth century, but the re-enactments slowly declined until they were mostly abandoned in the large cities by the early 1940s. Nonetheless, taziyas continued to exist in Iran on a smaller scale especially in more rural and traditional areas. Reza Shah, the first of the Pahlavi dynasty, had outlawed taziyas. Despite some attempts since 1979, Muharram processions and various forms of the rawza khani are still more common.
- Tatbeer or Qama Zani and Zanjeer zani
- Carpet Washing Ceremony
- Holy Week, a week-long festival of mourning for the death of Jesus observed by Roman Catholics.
- List of casualties in Husayn's army at the Battle of Karbala
- Martín, Richard C. (2004). Encyclopedia of Islam & the Muslim World. Macmillan Reference USA. p. 488.
- Melton, J. Gordon; Baumann, Martin (2010). Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and ... Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, LLC. p. 1122.
- M. And, "The Muharram Observances in Anatolian Turkey," in Chelkowski, ed., 1979, pp. 238-54
- "Latmiyat". definithing.com.
- Turkish Alevis are mourning on this day for the remembrance of the death of Huseyn bin Ali at Kerbala in Irak.
- Cornell, Vincent J. (2007). "The Passion of ‘Ashura in Shiite Islam". Voices of Islam: Voices of the Spirit. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-275-98734-3.
- Syed Hashim Razavi, Hyderabad, India. "The King Who Loved Azadari of Imam Husain". Imam Reza Net. Retrieved Feb 25, 2015.
- Don Rubin; Chua Soo Pong; Ravi Chaturvedi (2001). The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre: Asia/Pacific. Taylor & Francis. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-415-26087-9.
- Shankar, Guha (2003) Imagining India(ns): Cultural Performances and Diaspora Politics in Jamaica. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas, Austin pdf
- Bachyul Jb, Syofiardi (2006-03-01). "'Tabuik' festival: From a religious event to tourism". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 2007-01-27.
-  Archived September 30, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- Shīʻite Heritage: Essays on Classical and Modern Traditions By Lynda Clarke, Global Academic Publishing, 01-Jun-2001
- Mullahs on the Mainframe: Islam and Modernity among the Daudi Bohras By Jonah Blank, University of Chicago Press, 15-Apr-2001
- Pinault, David (15 Aug 1993). The Shiites. Palgrave Macmillan.
- Reliving Karbala: Martyrdom in South Asian Memory By Syed Akbar Hyder, Oxford University Press, 01-Sep-2008
- Sharing the Sacred: Practicing Pluralism in Muslim North India By Anna Bigelow, Oxford University Press, 28-Jan-2010
- Chelkowski, Peter (ed.) (1979) Taʻziyeh, ritual and drama in Iran New York University Press, New York, ISBN 0-8147-1375-0
- Martin, Richard C. (ed.) (2004) "Taziya" Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World Macmillan Reference USA, New York, p. 691 ISBN 0-02-865912-0
- Aghaie, Kamran S. (2004). The Martyrs of Karbala: Shii Symbols and Rituals in Modern Iran. Univ. of Washington Press.
- Aghaie, Kamran S. (2005). The Women of Karbala: Ritual Performance and Symbolic Discourses in Modern Shi'i Islam. Univ. of Texas Press.
- Beeman, William O. (2010). Iranian Performance Traditions. Mazda Press.
- Chelkowski, Peter J. (2010). Eternal Performance: Ta'ziyeh and Other Shiite Rituals. Seagull Books.
- Chelkowski, Peter J. (1979). Ta'ziyeh: Ritual and Drama in Iran. New York University Press & Soroush Press.
- Homayouni, Sadegh (2002). Ta'ziyeh in Iran. Navid Publishers.
- Malekpour, Jamshid (2004). The Islamic Drama. Routledge Press.
- Riggio, Milla Cozart (1994). "Ta'ziyeh in Exile: Transformations in a Persian Tradition". Comparative Drama 28: 115–140. Reprinted in European volume (1997)
- Riggio (1988). Ta'ziyeh: Ritual and Drama in Iran. Trinity College Press.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mourning of Muharram.|
- Is Mourning of Muharram permissible?
- Description of breast beating portion of Muharram mourning ceremonies
- Azadari is a Way of Life
- A Brief Introduction to Majalis and Azadari