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Temporal range: Late Triassic, 235–231 Ma
Azendohsaurus laaroussii.jpg
A. laaroussi jaw with teeth
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Clade: Crocopoda
Clade: Allokotosauria
Family: Azendohsauridae
Genus: Azendohsaurus
Dutuit, 1972
Type species
Azendohsaurus laaroussi
Dutuit, 1972
  • A. laaroussi Dutuit, 1972
  • A. madagaskarensis Flynn et al., 2010

Azendohsaurus (meaning "Azendoh lizard") is a genus of extinct, herbivorous archosauromorph from the Late Triassic Period of Morocco. The type species (A. laaroussi) is known only from a partial jaw fragment (with some teeth) from Morocco. Azendohsaurus used to be regarded as a dinosaur, as either an ornithischian or a prosauropod.[1][2] New research (including new material discovered in Madagascar) suggests that Azendohsaurus is not a dinosaur at all, but a non-archosauriform archosauromorph that independently evolved many craniodental characters similar to herbivorous dinosaurs.[3]

The type specimen, A. laaroussi, was described by J. M. Dutuit in 1972. A second species, A. madagaskarensis, was described in 2010. A. laaroussi is known only from teeth and jaws, which have derived features of several dinosaur groups, such as a leaf-like shape and denticles.[3] However, A. madagaskarensis is known from more complete skeletal material, some of which show more basal archosauromorph characteristics. An additional specimen of A. madagaskarensis was described in 2015, and showed that Azendohsaurus was closely related to Trilophosaurus.[4] The discovery of Shringasaurus supports the fact that there is a monophyletic Azendohsauridae.[5]


  1. ^ Irmis, R.B.; Parker, W.G.; Nesbitt, S.J.; Liu, J. (2007). "Early ornithischian dinosaurs: the Triassic record" (PDF). Historical Biology. 19 (1): 3–22. doi:10.1080/08912960600719988. 
  2. ^ Flynn, J.; Nesbitt, S.; Parrish, M.; Ranivoharimanana, L.; Wyss, A. (2008). "A new species of basal archosauromorph from the Late Triassic of Madagascar". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 28 (Suppl. 3): 78A. doi:10.1080/02724634.2008.10010459. 
  3. ^ a b Flynn, J.J.; Nesbitt, S.J.; Parrish, J.M.; Ranivoharimanana, L.; Wyss, A.R. (2010). "A new species of Azendohsaurus (Diapsida: Archosauromorpha) from the Triassic Isalo Group of southwestern Madagascar: cranium and mandible". Palaeontology. 53 (3): 669–688. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2010.00954.x. 
  4. ^ Nesbitt, S.J.; Flynn, J.J.; Pritchard, A.C.; Parrish, M.J.; Ranivoharimanana, L.; Wyss, A.R. (2015). "Postcranial osteology of Azendohsaurus madagaskarensis (?Middle to Upper Triassic, Isalo Group, Madagascar) and its systematic position among stem archosaur reptiles". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History (398): 1–126. doi:10.5531/sd.sp.15. ISSN 0003-0090. 
  5. ^ Sengupta, S.; Ezcurra, M.D.; Bandyopadhyay, S. (2017). "A new horned and long-necked herbivorous stem-archosaur from the Middle Triassic of India". Scientific Reports. 7.