Azerbaijani language

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"Azeri language" redirects here. For the extinct Iranian language of the same name, see Old Azeri language.
Azərbaycan dili, آذربایجان دیلی, Азәрбајҹан дили[a]
Pronunciation [ɑzærbɑjdʒɑn dili]
Native to
Ethnicity Azerbaijanis
Native speakers
26 million (2007)[1]
Official status
Official language in


Regulated by Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences
Language codes
ISO 639-1 az
ISO 639-2 aze
ISO 639-3 azeinclusive code
Individual codes:
azj – North Azerbaijani
azb – South Azerbaijani
slq – Salchuq
qxq – Qashqai
Glottolog azer1255  (North Azeri–Salchuq)[2]
sout2696  (South Azeri–Qashqa'i)[3]
Linguasphere part of 44-AAB-a
Idioma azerí.png
Location of Azerbaijani speakers in Transcaucasia
  regions where Azerbaijani is the language of the majority
  regions where Azerbaijani is the language of a significant minority
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Azerbaijani (/ˌæzərbˈɑːni/, /ˌɑː-/, /-ˈʒɑːni/) or Azeri (/æˈzɛəri/, /ɑːˈ-/ /əˈ-/), also referred to as Azerbaijani Turkish[4] or Azeri Turkish,[5][6] is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia. The language has official status in Azerbaijan and Dagestan (a federal subject of Russia) but not in Iranian Azerbaijan where the majority of Azeri speakers live. The language is also spoken to lesser varying degrees in Azerbaijani communities of Georgia, Iraq, and Turkey.

Azerbaijani is a member of the Oghuz branch of the Turkic languages. It has two primary divisions, North Azerbaijani (spoken in the Republic of Azerbaijan and Russia) and South Azerbaijani (spoken in Iran), and is closely related to Turkish, Qashqai, Turkmen and Crimean Tatar, sharing varying degrees of mutual intelligibility with each of those languages.[7]


Azerbaijanis refer to their language as Türki "Turkish" or Azərbaycan Türkcəsi "Azerbaijani Turkish" and scholars such as Vladimir Minorsky used this definition in their works, distinguishing it from İstanbul Türki ("İstanbul Turkish"), the official language of Turkey. In 1945-1946, when the Azerbaijan People's Government was in power in Iranian Azerbaijan, the language of Iranian Azerbaijan was officially announced by the parliament as Türk dili "Turkish". Varlıq, the most important literary Azerbaijani magazine published in Iran, uses the term Türki to refer to the language.

In 1992–1993, when the Azerbaijani Popular Front Party was in power in the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, the official language of Soviet Azerbaijan was officially announced by the parliament as Türk dili ("Turkish"). However, since 1994 the Soviet-era name of the language, Azərbaycan dili ("Azerbaijani"), has been reestablished and reflected in the constitution of Azerbaijan because of political reasons such as cutting the connection and Azerbaijan–Turkey relations.

History and evolution[edit]

Azerbaijani evolved from the Eastern branch of Oghuz Turkic ("Western Turkic")[8] which spread to the Caucasus, in Eastern Europe,[9][10] and northern Iran, in Western Asia, during the medieval Turkic migrations.[11] Persian and Arabic influenced the language, but Arabic words were mainly transmitted through the intermediary of literary Persian.[12]

Garden of Pleasures by Fuzûlî in Azerbaijani. Early 19th century. It bears Shaki khan's seal. Museum of History of Azerbaijan

Turkic language of Azerbaijan gradually supplanted the Iranian languages in what is now northern Iran, and a variety of languages of the Caucasus and Iranian languages spoken in the Caucasus, particularly Udi and Old Azeri. By the beginning of the 16th century, it had become the dominant language of the region, and was a spoken language in the court of the Safavids and Afsharids.

The historical development of Azerbaijani can be divided into two major periods: early (c. 16th to 18th century) and modern (18th century to present). Early Azerbaijani differs from its descendant in that it contained a much larger number of Persian, and Arabic loanwords, phrases and syntactic elements. Early writings in Azerbaijani also demonstrate linguistic interchangeability between Oghuz and Kypchak elements in many aspects (such as pronouns, case endings, participles, etc.). As Azerbaijani gradually moved from being merely a language of epic and lyric poetry to being also a language of journalism and scientific research, its literary version has become more or less unified and simplified with the loss of many archaic Turkic elements, stilted Iranisms and Ottomanisms, and other words, expressions, and rules that failed to gain popularity among the Azerbaijani masses.

Between c. 1900 and 1930, there were several competing approaches to the unification of the national language in Azerbaijan popularized by the scholars, such as Hasan bey Zardabi and Mammad agha Shahtakhtinski. Despite major differences, they all aimed primarily at making it easy for semi-literate masses to read and understand literature. They all criticized the overuse of Persian, Arabic, and Russian elements in both colloquial and literary language and called for a simpler and more popular style.

The Russian conquest of Transcaucasia in the 19th century split the language community across two states; the Soviet Union promoted development of the language, but set it back considerably with two successive script changes[13] – from the Persian to Latin and then to the Cyrillic script – while Iranian Azerbaijanis continued to use the Persian as they always had. Despite the wide use of Azerbaijani in the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, it became the official language of Azerbaijan only in 1956.[14] After independence, Azerbaijan republic decided to switch back to the Latin script similar to Turkey.


Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar, Iranian Azerbaijani poet, who wrote in Azerbaijani and Persian.

The first examples of Azerbaijani literature date to the late 1200s following the Mongol conquest and were written in Arabic script.[15] In the 1300s Kadi Burhan al-Din, Hesenoghlu, and Imadaddin Nasimi helped to establish Azeri as a language through poetry and other literary works.[16] The ruler and poet Ismail I wrote under the pen name Khatā'ī (which means "sinner" in Persian) during the fifteenth century[17][18] During the 16th century, the poet, writer and thinker Fuzûlî wrote mainly in Azeri but also translated his poems into Arabic and Persian. [19]

In 1875 Akinchi (Əkinçi / اکينچی ) ("The Ploughman") became the first Azeri newspaper to be published in the Russian Empire. It was started by Hasan bey Zardabi, a journalist and education advocate.[20] Starting in the 1830s several newspapers were published in Iran during the reign of the Azeri speaking Qajar dynasty but it is unknown whether any of these newspapers were written in Azeri.

Following the rule of the Qajar dynasty Iran was ruled by Reza Shah who banned the publication of texts in Azeri. Modern literature in the Republic of Azerbaijan is based on the Shirvani dialect mainly, while in Iranian Azerbaijan it is based on the Tabrizi dialect.

Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar is an important figure in Azerbaijani poetry. His most important work is Heydar Babaya Salam and it is considered to be a pinnacle of Azerbaijani literature and gained popularity in the Turkic-speaking world. It was translated into more than 30 languages.[21]

In the mid-19th century Azerbaijani literature was taught at schools in Baku, Ganja, Shaki, Tbilisi, and Yerevan. Since 1845, it has also been taught in the Saint Petersburg State University in Russia. Today Azeri language and literature programs are offered in the United States at several universities, including: Indiana University, UCLA, University of Texas at Austin, and University of Wisconsin–Madison.[22]

Lingua franca[edit]

Azerbaijani-language road sign.

Azerbaijani served as a lingua franca throughout most parts of Transcaucasia except the Black Sea coast, in southern Dagestan,[23][24][25] the Eastern Anatolia Region and Iranian Azerbaijan from the 16th to the early 20th centuries,[26][27] alongside the cultural, administrative, court literature, and most importantly official language of all these regions, namely Persian.[28] From the early 16th century up to the course of the 19th century, these regions and territories were all ruled by the Iranian Safavids, Afsharids and Qajars until the cession of Transcaucasia proper and Dagestan by Qajar Iran to the Russian Empire per the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan and the 1828 Treaty of Turkmenchay. Per the 1829 Caucasus School Statute, Azerbaijani was to be taught in all district schools of Ganja, Shusha, Nukha (present-day Shaki), Shamakhi, Quba, Baku, Derbent, Yerevan, Nakhchivan, Akhaltsikhe, and Lankaran. Beginning in 1834, it was introduced as a language of study in Kutaisi instead of Armenian. In 1853, Azerbaijani became a compulsory language for students of all backgrounds in all of Transcaucasia with the exception of the Tiflis Governorate.[29]


Azerbaijani is one of the Oghuz languages within the Turkic language family. Azerbaijani is sometimes classified as two languages or dialects, Northern and Southern Azerbaijani. Although there is a very high degree of mutual intelligibility between them, there are also morphological and phonological differences. Four varieties have been accorded ISO 639-3 codes: North Azerbaijani, South Azerbaijani, Salchuq, and Qashqai. Glottolog, based on Johanson (2006) and Pakendorf (2007), classifies North Azeri with Salchuq in one branch of the Oghuz languages and South Azeri with Qashqai in another.

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) encodes its two varieties, North Azerbaijani (spoken in Azerbaijan) and South Azerbaijani (spoken in Iranian Azerbaijan) as distinct languages.

According to the Linguasphere Observatory, all Oghuz languages form part of a single "outer language" of which North and South Azerbaijani are "inner languages".

Turkish, Azerbaijani, and Turkmen are Oghuz languages

North Azerbaijani[edit]

North Azerbaijani,[30] or North Azeri, is the official language of Azerbaijan. It is closely related to the modern day Istanbul Turkish, the official language of Turkey. It is also spoken in southern Dagestan, along the Caspian coast in the southern Caucasus Mountains and in scattered regions throughout Central Asia. There are some 7.3 million first language speakers and about eight million second-language speakers.

Knowledge of either of the two major Western Oghuz languages, Turkish or Azerbaijani in Europe

The Shirvan dialect is the basis of standard Azerbaijani. Since 1992, it has been officially written with a Latin script in Azerbaijan, but the older Cyrillic script was still widely used in the late 1990s.[31]

South Azerbaijani[edit]

South Azerbaijani[32] or South Azeri, is widely spoken in Iranian Azerbaijan and, to a lesser extent, in neighboring regions of Iraq and Turkey, with smaller communities in Syria. In Iran, the Persian word for Azerbaijani is borrowed as Torki "Turkish".[33] In Iran, it is spoken in East Azerbaijan and West Azerbaijan, Ardabil, Zanjan, and parts of Kurdistan, Hamadan, Markazi, Qazvin and Gilan. It is also widely spoken in Tehran and across Tehran Province, as Azerbaijanis form by far the largest minority in the city and the wider province,[34] comprising about 25%[35] to 1/3,[36][37] of its total population. The CIA World Factbook reports the percentage of South Azerbaijani speakers at around 16 percent of the Iranian population, or approximately 16.9 million people worldwide,[38] and ethnic Azerbaijanis form by far the second largest ethnic group in Iran, thus making the language also the second most spoken language in the nation.[39]

Azerbaijani vs Turkish[edit]

Reza Shah and Ataturk in Turkey.

Turkish (also known as Istanbul Turkish) and Azerbaijani (also known as Azeri Turkish) are about 85% to 90% mutually intelligible to those with no prior exposure. One example of it is when Reza Shah of Iran met with Mustafa Kemal Atatürk of Turkey and spoke Azerbaijani and Atatürk spoke Turkish in 1934.[40][41][42][43][44][45]

Most Azerbaijanis, however, are exposed to Turkish television, and, therefore, tend to be better able to understand Turkish. There are also numerous Turkish schools in Azerbaijan Republic that give Azerbaijanis more exposure to Turkish than the average Turkish has to Azerbaijani.

Here are some words with a different pronunciation in Azerbaijani and Turkish that mean the same in both languages:

Azerbaijani Turkish English
Əşq\Sevgi Aşk/Sevgi Love
Başmaq Başmak Shoes
Qardaş Kardeş Brother
Qaş Kaş Eyebrow
Qar Kar Snow
Daş Taş Stone



Consonant phonemes of Standard Azerbaijani
Labial Dental/
Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m
Stops p b t͡ʃ d͡ʒ c ɟ (k) ɡ
Fricatives f v ʃ ʒ x ɣ h
Approximants l j
Flap ɾ
  1. /t͡ʃ/ and /d͡ʒ/ are realised as [t͡s] and [d͡z] respectively in the areas around Tabriz and to the west, south and southwest of Tabriz (including Kirkuk in Iraq); in the Nakhchivan and Ayrum dialects, in Cəbrayil and some Caspian coastal dialects;[46]
  2. In most dialects of Azerbaijani, /c/ is realized as [ç] when it is found in the syllabic coda or is preceded by a voiceless consonant (as in çörək [t͡ʃøˈɾæç] – "bread"; səksən [sæçˈsæn] – "eighty").
  3. /k/ appears only in words borrowed from Russian or French (spelled, as with /c/, with a k).
  4. /w/ exists in the Kirkuk dialect as an allophone of /v/ in Arabic loanwords.
  5. In the Baku dialect, /ov/ may be realised as [oʊ], and /ev/ and /øv/ as [œy], e.g. /ɡovurˈmɑ/[ɡoʊrˈmɑ], /sevˈdɑ/[sœyˈdɑ], /dœvˈrɑn/[dœyˈrɑn], as well as with surnames ending in -ov/-ev (borrowed from Russian).[47]
  6. In colloquial speech, /x/ is usually pronounced as [χ]


Front Back
Unrounded Rounded Unrounded Rounded
Close i y ɯ u
Mid e ø o
Open æ ɑ

The vowels of the Azerbaijani language are, in their alphabetical order, a, e, ə, ı, i, o, ö, u, ü. There are no diphthongs in Azerbaijani when two vowels come together; when that occurs in some Arabic loanwords, each vowel retains its individual sound.

Writing systems[edit]

Main article: Azerbaijani alphabet

Before 1929, Azerbaijani was written only in the Persian version of the Arabic alphabet. In 1929–1938 a Latin alphabet was in use for North Azerbaijani (although it was different from the one used now), from 1938 to 1991 the Cyrillic script was used, and in 1991 the current Latin alphabet was introduced, although the transition to it has been rather slow. In Iran, Azerbaijani is still written in the Persian alphabet, and in Dagestan, in Cyrillic script.

The Azerbaijani alphabet is an abjad; that is, it does not represent vowels. Also, some consonants can be represented by more than one letter. The Cyrillic and Latin alphabets have no such flaws. The Azerbaijani Latin alphabet is based on the Turkish Latin alphabet because of their linguistic connections and mutual intelligibility. The letters Әə, Xx, and Qq are available only in Azerbaijani for sounds which do not exist as separate phonemes in Turkish.

Latin (Azerbaijan since 1991)

Cyrillic (1958 version, still official in Dagestan)

Perso-Arabic (Iran; Azerbaijan until 1922)




short as in 'along' or long as in 'army'.



pronounced like 'b' in 'bell'.



pronounced like 'J' in 'Japan'.




pronounced like 'ch' in 'chat'.



pronounced like 'd' in 'dog'; otherwise, like 'th' in 'the'.



pronounced like soft 'e' in 'Embassy'. This can be long as in 'bate'.




pronounced like 'a' in 'fat'. (This phoneme was represented by Ää in 1991–1992.) This is long as in 'bate' or 'cape'.



pronounced like 'f' in 'fold'.



pronounced at the back of throat like the French 'r'.




pronounced like hard 'g' in 'goal'.



ﺡ / ﻩ

pronounced like 'h' in 'hat'.




pronounced like 'i' in 'pit'. This can be 'ee' as in 'meet'.



pronounced like 'e' in 'butter'.




pronounced like 'j' (or 'zh') in 'déjà vu'.




pronounced like 'k' in 'kill', sometimes like 'q' in 'Qatar'.



pronounced like 'l' in 'Lauren'.



pronounced like 'm' in 'mom'.



pronounced like 'n' in 'noon'.



pronounced like 'o' in 'note'.



same as in German 'ö' and Turkish 'ö'.




pronounced like 'p' in ´police'.



pronounced like 'g' in 'goal'; sometimes like 'q' in 'Qatar'.



Roll your r's!



ﺙ / ﺱ / ﺹ

pronounced like 's' in 'sizzle'.



pronounced like 'sh' in 'shape'.



ﺕ / ﻁ

pronounced like 't' in 'tape'.



pronounced like 'u' in 'put'.



pronounced like Turkish 'ü'.



pronounced like 'v' in 'van'; otherwise, like 'w' in 'world'.



pronounced like Spanish 'j' (or Persian 'kh').




pronounced like 'y' in 'year'.



ﺫ / ﺯ / ﺽ / ﻅ

pronounced like 'z' in 'zebra', same as 's' in 'nose' or 'his'.

The Azerbaijani language, when written in the Latin or Cyrillic script, transcribes any foreign names into Azerbaijani spelling, e.g. Bush becomes Buş and Schröder becomes Şröder.


Notice that Azerbaijani has informal and formal ways of saying things. This is because there is more than one meaning to "you" in Turkic languages like Azerbaijani and Turkish (as well as in many other languages). The informal you is used when talking to close friends, relatives, animals or children. The formal you is used when talking to someone who is older than you or someone for whom you would like to show respect (a professor, for example). As in many Romance languages, personal pronouns can be omitted, and they are only added for emphasis. Azerbaijani is a very phonetic language, so pronunciation is very easy. Most words are pronounced exactly as they are spelled in modern Azeri alphabet.

Category English Azerbaijani (in Latin (Azerbaijani alphabet)
Basic expressions yes hə /hæ/
no yox /jox/
hello salam /sɑlɑm/
goodbye sağ ol /ˈsɑɣ ol/
sağ olun /ˈsɑɣ olun/ (formal)
good morning sabahınız xeyir /sɑbɑhɯ(nɯ)z xejiɾ/
good afternoon günortanız xeyir /ɟynoɾt(ɯn)ɯz xejiɾ/
good evening axşamın xeyir /ɑxʃɑmɯn xejiɾ/
axşamınız xeyir /ɑxʃɑmɯ(nɯ)z xejiɾ/
Colours black qara /gɑɾɑ/
blue göy /ɟœj/
cyan mavi /mɑːvi/
brown qəhvəyi/qonur
grey boz /boz/
green yaşıl /jaʃɯl/
orange narıncı /nɑɾɯnd͡ʒɯ/
pink çəhrayı
purple bənövşəyi
red qırmızı /gɯɾmɯzɯ/
white ağ /ɑɣ/
yellow sarı /sɑɾɯ/


Number Word
0 sıfır /ˈsɯfɯɾ/
1 bir /biɾ/
2 iki /ici/
3 üç /yt͡ʃ/
4 dörd /dœɾd/
5 beş /beʃ/
6 altı /ɑltɯ/
7 yeddi /jetti/
8 səkkiz /sæcciz/
9 doqquz /dokkuz/
10 on /on/

For numbers 11–19, the numbers literally mean "10 one, 10 two" and so on.

Number Word
20 iyirmi /ijiɾmi/
30 otuz /otuz/
40 qırx /gɯɾx/
50 əlli /ælli/

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Former Cyrillic spelling used in the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic.


  1. ^ Azerbaijani at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    North Azerbaijani at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    South Azerbaijani at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Salchuq at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Qashqai at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "North Azeri–Salchuq". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "South Azeri–Qashqa'i". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  4. ^ Hasanli, Jamil (2014-12-18). Khrushchev's Thaw and National Identity in Soviet Azerbaijan, 1954–1959. Lexington Books. ISBN 9781498508148. 
  5. ^ Djavadi, Abbas (2010-07-19). "Iran's Ethnic Azeris And The Language Question". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 2016-01-24. 
  6. ^ "AZERBAIJAN viii. Azeri Turkish – Encyclopaedia Iranica". Retrieved 2016-01-24. 
  7. ^ Sinor, Denis (1969). Inner Asia. History-Civilization-Languages. A syllabus. Bloomington. pp. 71–96. ISBN 0-87750-081-9. 
  8. ^ "The Turkic Languages", Osman Fikri Sertkaya (2005) in Turks – A Journey of a Thousand Years, 600-1600, London ISBN 978-1-90397-356-1
  9. ^ Wright, Sue; Kelly, Helen (1998). Ethnicity in Eastern Europe: Questions of Migration, Language Rights and Education. Multilingual Matters Ltd. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-85359-243-0. 
  10. ^ Bratt Paulston, Christina; Peckham, Donald (1 October 1998). Linguistic Minorities in Central and Eastern Europe. Multilingual Matters Ltd. pp. 98–115. ISBN 978-1-85359-416-8. 
  11. ^ L. Johanson, "AZERBAIJAN ix. Iranian Elements in Azeri Turkish" in Encyclopædia Iranica [1].
  12. ^ John R. Perry, "Lexical Areas and Semantic Fields of Arabic" in Csató et al. (2005) Linguistic convergence and areal diffusion: case studies from Iranian, Semitic and Turkic, Routledge, p. 97: "It is generally understood that the bulk of the Arabic vocabulary in the central, contiguous Iranic, Turkic and Indic languages was originally borrowed into literary Persian between the ninth and thirteenth centuries CE ..."
  13. ^ "Alphabet Changes in Azerbaijan in the 20th Century". Azerbaijan International. Spring 2000. Retrieved 21 July 2013. 
  14. ^ Language Commission Suggested to Be Established in National Assembly. 25 January 2011.
  15. ^, American Association of Teachers of Turkic Languages
  16. ^, American Association of Teachers of Turkic Languages
  17. ^ G. Doerfer, "Azeri Turkish", Encyclopaedia Iranica, viii, Online Edition, p. 246.
  18. ^ Mark R.V. Southern. Mark R V Southern (2005) Contagious couplings: transmission of expressives in Yiddish echo phrases, Praeger, Westport, Conn. ISBN 978-0-31306-844-7
  19. ^ G. Doerfer, "Azeri Turkish", Encyclopaedia Iranica, viii, Online Edition, p. 246.
  20. ^, American Association of Teachers of Turkic Languages
  21. ^ "Greetings to Heydar Baba". Retrieved 2010-09-08. 
  22. ^, American Association of Teachers of Turkic Languages
  23. ^ Pieter Muysken, "Introduction: Conceptual and methodological issues in areal linguistics", in Pieter Muysken (2008) From Linguistic Areas to Areal Linguistics, p. 30-31 ISBN 90-272-3100-1 [2]
  24. ^ Viacheslav A. Chirikba, "The problem of the Caucasian Sprachbund" in Muysken, p. 74
  25. ^ Lenore A. Grenoble (2003) Language Policy in the Soviet Union, p. 131 ISBN 1-4020-1298-5 [3]
  26. ^ Nikolai Trubetzkoy (2000) Nasledie Chingiskhana, p. 478 Agraf, Moscow ISBN 978-5-77840-082-5 (Russian)
  27. ^ J. N. Postgate (2007) Languages of Iraq, p. 164, British School of Archaeology in Iraq ISBN 0-903472-21-X
  28. ^ Homa Katouzian (2003) Iranian history and politics, Routledge, pg 128: "Indeed, since the formation of the Ghaznavids state in the tenth century until the fall of Qajars at the beginning of the twentieth century, most parts of the Iranian cultural regions were ruled by Turkic-speaking dynasties most of the time. At the same time, the official language was Persian, the court literature was in Persian, and most of the chancellors, ministers, and mandarins were Persian speakers of the highest learning and ability"
  29. ^ "Date of the Official Instruction of Oriental Languages in Russia" by N.I.Veselovsky. 1880. in W.W. Grigorieff ed. (1880) Proceedings of the Third Session of the International Congress of Orientalists, Saint Petersburg (Russian)
  30. ^ "Azerbaijani, North – A language of Azerbaijan" Ethnologue, accessed 8 December 2008
  31. ^ Schönig (1998), pg. 248.
  32. ^ "Azerbaijani, South – A language of Iran" Ethnologue, accessed 8 December 2008
  33. ^ "Azerbaijani, South". Ethnologue. 1999-02-19. Retrieved 2013-07-13. 
  34. ^ "Azeris". World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous People. Retrieved 2013-07-05. 
  35. ^ "Tehran". Looklex Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 2013-07-04. 
  36. ^ "Iran-Azeris". Library of Congress Country Studies. December 1987. Retrieved 13 August 2013. 
  37. ^ International Business Publications (2005). Iran: Country Study Guide. International Business Publications. ISBN 978-0-7397-1476-8. 
  38. ^ "The World Factbook". Retrieved 2013-07-13. 
  39. ^ Shaffer, Brenda (2006). The Limits of Culture: Islam and Foreign Policy. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-19529-4. , p. 229
  40. ^ Yelda, Rami (2012). A Persian Odyssey: Iran Revisited. AuthorHouse. ISBN 978-1-4772-0291-3. , p. 33
  41. ^
  42. ^
  43. ^
  44. ^
  45. ^ Mafinezam, Alidad; Mehrabi, Aria (2008). Iran and Its Place Among Nations. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-275-99926-1. , p. 57
  46. ^ Persian Studies in North America by Mohammad Ali Jazayeri
  47. ^ Shiraliyev, Mammadagha. The Baku Dialect. Azerbaijan SSR Academy of Sciences Publ.: Baku, 1957; p. 41

External links[edit]