Azerbaijani language

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Azərbaycan dili, آذربایجان دیلی‎, Азәрбајҹан дили[a]
Pronunciation [ɑzærbɑjˈd͡ʒɑn diˈli]
Native to
Region Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan), Caucasus
Ethnicity Azerbaijanis
Native speakers
26 million (2007)[1]
Official status
Official language in


Regulated by Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences
Language codes
ISO 639-1 az
ISO 639-2 aze
ISO 639-3 azeinclusive code
Individual codes:
azj – North Azerbaijani
azb – South Azerbaijani
slq – Salchuq
qxq – Qashqai
Glottolog azer1255  North Azeri–Salchuq[2]
sout2696  South Azeri–Qashqa'i[3]
Linguasphere part of 44-AAB-a
Map of Azerbaijani speakers.png
Location of Azerbaijani speakers in Transcaucasia
  regions where Azerbaijani is the language of the majority
  regions where Azerbaijani is the language of a significant minority
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Azerbaijani (/ˌæzərbˈɑːni/, /ˌɑː-/, /-ˈʒɑːni/) or Azeri (/æˈzɛəri/, /ɑːˈ-/ /əˈ-/), also referred to as Azeri Turkic[4] or Azeri Turkish,[5][6] is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan). The language has official status in the Republic of Azerbaijan and Dagestan (a federal subject of Russia) but it does not have official status in Iranian Azerbaijan, where the majority of Azerbaijanis live. It is also spoken to lesser varying degrees in Azerbaijani communities of Georgia and Turkey and by diaspora communities, primarily in Europe and North America.

Azerbaijani is a member of the Oghuz branch of the Turkic languages. It has two primary divisions, North Azerbaijani (spoken in the Republic of Azerbaijan and Russia, based on the Shirvani dialect) and South Azerbaijani (spoken in Iran, based on the Tabrizi dialect), and is closely related to Turkish, Qashqai, Turkmen and Crimean Tatar, sharing varying degrees of mutual intelligibility with each of those languages.[7]

Etymology and background[edit]

Historically the language was referred to locally as Türki[8] meaning "Turkic" or Azərbaycan Türkcəsi meaning "Azerbaijani Turkish" and scholars such as Vladimir Minorsky used this definition in their works, distinguishing it from İstanbul Türkçesi ("Istanbul Turkish"), the official language of Turkey. Modern literature in the Republic of Azerbaijan is based on the Shirvani dialect mainly, while in Iranian Azerbaijan region (historic Azerbaijan) it is based on the Tabrizi one.

Prior to the establishment of the pan-Turkist Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, who adopted the name of "Azerbaijan" for political reasons in 1918, the name of "Azerbaijan" was exclusively used to identify the adjacent region of contemporary northwestern Iran.[9][10][11] After the establishment of the Azerbaijan SSR,[12] on the order of Soviet leader Stalin, the "formal language" of the Azerbaijan SSR was "changed from Turkish to Azeri".[13]

History and evolution[edit]

Garden of Pleasures by Fuzûlî in Azerbaijani.[14]

Azerbaijani evolved from the Eastern branch of Oghuz Turkic ("Western Turkic")[15] which spread to the Caucasus, in Eastern Europe,[16][17] and northern Iran, in Western Asia, during the medieval Turkic migrations.[18] Persian and Arabic influenced the language, but Arabic words were mainly transmitted through the intermediary of literary Persian.[19] Azerbaijani is, perhaps after Uzbek, the Turkic language upon which Persian and other Iranian has exerted the strongest impact—mainly in phonology, syntax and vocabulary, less in morphology.[20]

Turkic language of Azerbaijan gradually supplanted the Iranian languages in what is now northern Iran, and a variety of languages of the Caucasus and Iranian languages spoken in the Caucasus, particularly Udi and Old Azeri. By the beginning of the 16th century, it had become the dominant language of the region, and was a spoken language in the court of the Safavids and Afsharids.

The historical development of Azerbaijani can be divided into two major periods: early (c. 16th to 18th century) and modern (18th century to present). Early Azerbaijani differs from its descendant in that it contained a much larger number of Persian, and Arabic loanwords, phrases and syntactic elements. Early writings in Azerbaijani also demonstrate linguistic interchangeability between Oghuz and Kypchak elements in many aspects (such as pronouns, case endings, participles, etc.). As Azerbaijani gradually moved from being merely a language of epic and lyric poetry to being also a language of journalism and scientific research, its literary version has become more or less unified and simplified with the loss of many archaic Turkic elements, stilted Iranisms and Ottomanisms, and other words, expressions, and rules that failed to gain popularity among the Azerbaijani masses.

Between c. 1900 and 1930, there were several competing approaches to the unification of the national language in what is now the Azerbaijan Republic, popularized by the scholars such as Hasan bey Zardabi and Mammad agha Shahtakhtinski. Despite major differences, they all aimed primarily at making it easy for semi-literate masses to read and understand literature. They all criticized the overuse of Persian, Arabic, and European elements in both colloquial and literary language and called for a simpler and more popular style.

The Russian conquest of Transcaucasia in the 19th century split the language community across two states; the Soviet Union promoted development of the language, but set it back considerably with two successive script changes[21] – from the Persian to Latin and then to the Cyrillic script – while Iranian Azerbaijanis continued to use the Persian script as they always had. Despite the wide use of Azerbaijani in the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, it became the official language of Azerbaijan only in 1956.[22] After independence, the Azerbaijan Republic decided to switch back to the Latin script.


Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar, Iranian Azerbaijani poet, who wrote in Azerbaijani and Persian.

The first examples of Azerbaijani literature date to the late 1200s following the Mongol conquest and were written in Arabic script.[23][unreliable source?] In the 1300s Kadi Burhan al-Din, Hesenoghlu, and Imadaddin Nasimi helped to establish Azerbaiijani as a language through poetry and other literary works.[23] The ruler and poet Ismail I wrote under the pen name Khatā'ī (which means "sinner" in Persian) during the fifteenth century[24][25] During the 16th century, the poet, writer and thinker Fuzûlî wrote mainly in Azerbaijani but also translated his poems into Arabic and Persian.[24]

In 1875 Akinchi (Əkinçi / اکينچی‎ ) ("The Ploughman") became the first Azerbaijani newspaper to be published in the Russian Empire. It was started by Hasan bey Zardabi, a journalist and education advocate.[23] Starting in the 1830s several newspapers were published in Iran during the reign of the Azerbaijani speaking Qajar dynasty but it is unknown whether any of these newspapers were written in Azerbaijani.

Following the rule of the Qajar dynasty Iran was ruled by Reza Shah who banned the publication of texts in Azerbaijani.[citation needed] Modern literature in the Republic of Azerbaijan is based on the Shirvani dialect mainly, while in Iranian Azerbaijan it is based on the Tabrizi dialect.

Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar is an important figure in Azerbaijani poetry. His most important work is Heydar Babaya Salam and it is considered to be a pinnacle of Azerbaijani literature and gained popularity in the Turkic-speaking world. It was translated into more than 30 languages.[26]

In the mid-19th century Azerbaijani literature was taught at schools in Baku, Ganja, Shaki, Tbilisi, and Yerevan. Since 1845, it has also been taught in the Saint Petersburg State University in Russia. Today Azerbaijani language and literature programs are offered in the United States at several universities, including: Indiana University, UCLA, University of Michigan, University of Texas at Austin, and University of Wisconsin–Madison.[27]

Lingua franca[edit]

Azerbaijani-language road sign.

Azerbaijani served as a lingua franca throughout most parts of Transcaucasia except the Black Sea coast, in southern Dagestan,[28][29][30] the Eastern Anatolia Region and Iranian Azerbaijan from the 16th to the early 20th centuries,[31][32] alongside the cultural, administrative, court literature, and most importantly official language of all these regions, namely Persian.[33] From the early 16th century up to the course of the 19th century, these regions and territories were all ruled by the Iranian Safavids, Afsharids and Qajars until the cession of Transcaucasia proper and Dagestan by Qajar Iran to the Russian Empire per the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan and the 1828 Treaty of Turkmenchay. Per the 1829 Caucasus School Statute, Azerbaijani was to be taught in all district schools of Ganja, Shusha, Nukha (present-day Shaki), Shamakhi, Quba, Baku, Derbent, Yerevan, Nakhchivan, Akhaltsikhe, and Lankaran. Beginning in 1834, it was introduced as a language of study in Kutaisi instead of Armenian. In 1853, Azerbaijani became a compulsory language for students of all backgrounds in all of Transcaucasia with the exception of the Tiflis Governorate.[34]

North vs. South Azerbaijani[edit]

Turkish, Azerbaijani, and Turkmen are Oghuz languages

Azerbaijani is one of the Oghuz languages within the Turkic language family. Azerbaijani is classified by Ethnologue as a "macrolanguage and North Azerbaijani (spoken mainly in the Republic of Azerbaijan and Russia) and South Azerbaijani (spoken in Iran, Iraq and Syria) are each classified as separate languages with "significant differences in phonology, lexicon, morphology, syntax, and loanwords." The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) encodes North Azerbaijani and South Azerbaijani as distinct languages. Both languages also have dialects, with 21 North Azerbaijani dialects and 11 South Azerbaijani dialects.[35]

Although there is a very high degree of mutual intelligibility between both forms of Azerbaijani, there are also morphological and phonological differences. Four varieties have been accorded ISO 639-3 codes: North Azerbaijani, South Azerbaijani, Salchuq, and Qashqai. Glottolog, based on Johanson (2006) and Pakendorf (2007), classifies North Azerbaijani with Salchuq in one branch of the Oghuz languages and South Azerbaijani with Qashqai in another.[citation needed]

According to the Linguasphere Observatory, all Oghuz languages form part of a single "outer language" of which North and South Azerbaijani are "inner languages".[citation needed]

North Azerbaijani[edit]

Knowledge of either of the two major Western Oghuz languages, Turkish or Azerbaijani in Europe

North Azerbaijani,[36] or Northern Azerbaijani, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. It is closely related to the modern day Istanbul Turkish, the official language of Turkey. It is also spoken in southern Dagestan, along the Caspian coast in the southern Caucasus Mountains and in scattered regions throughout Central Asia. There are some 7.3 million first language speakers and about eight million second-language speakers.[when?]

The Shirvan dialect is the basis of standard Azerbaijani. Since 1992, it has been officially written with a Latin script in the Republic of Azerbaijan, but the older Cyrillic script was still widely used in the late 1990s.[37]

Ethnologue lists 21 North Azerbaijani dialects: Quba, Derbend, Baku, Shamakhi, Salyan, Lenkaran, Qazakh, Airym, Borcala, Terekeme, Qyzylbash, Nukha, Zaqatala (Mugaly), Qabala, Yerevan, Nakhchivan, Ordubad, Ganja, Shusha (Karabakh), Karapapak.[38]

South Azerbaijani[edit]

South Azerbaijani[39] or Iranian Turkic, is widely spoken in Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan) and, to a lesser extent, in neighboring regions of Iraq and Turkey, with smaller communities in Syria. In Iran, the Persian word for Azerbaijani Turkic is borrowed as Torki "Turkic".[40] In Iran, it is spoken in East Azerbaijan and West Azerbaijan, Ardabil, Zanjan, and parts of Kurdistan, Hamadan, Markazi, Qazvin and Gilan. It is also widely spoken in Tehran and across Tehran Province, as Turks form by far the largest minority in the city and the wider province,[41] comprising about 25%[42] to 1/3,[43][44] of its total population. The CIA World Factbook reports in 2010 the percentage of South Azerbaijani speakers at around 16 percent of the Iranian population, or approximately 13 million people worldwide,[45] and ethnic Turks form by far the second largest ethnic group in Iran, thus making the language also the second most spoken language in the nation.[46]

Dialects of South Azerbaijani include: Aynallu (Inallu, Inanlu), Qarapapaq, Tabrizi, Qashqai, Afshari (Afsar, Afshar), Shahsavani (Shahseven), Muqaddam, Baharlu (Kamesh), Nafar, Qaragözlü, Pishaqchi, Bayatlu, Qajar.[35]

Azerbaijani vs. Turkish[edit]

Reza Shah and Atatürk in Turkey.

Historically, Azerbaijani and Turkish speakers have been able to communicate with relative ease. One example of this is when Reza Shah Pahlavi of Iran (who spoke Azerbaijani) met with Mustafa Kemal Atatürk of Turkey (who spoke Turkish) in 1934.[47][48][49][50][51][52]

Speakers of Turkish and Azerbaijani can communicate with each other but both languages have substantial variation and mutual intelligibility is enhanced when Azerbaijani speakers have been exposed to Turkish television (e.g. Turkish soap operas) or when Turkish speakers have been exposed to Azerbaijani pop music. Most Azerbaijanis, however, are exposed to Turkish television, and, therefore, they tend to be better able to understand Turkish than vice versa. There are also numerous Turkish schools in the Republic of Azerbaijan that give students more exposure to Turkish than the average Turkish-speaker has to Azerbaijani.

Here are some words with a different pronunciation in Azeri and Turkish that mean the same in both languages:

Azeri Turkish English
ayaqqabı ayakkabı shoes
qardaş kardeş brother
qaş kaş eyebrow
qar kar snow
daş taş stone



Consonant phonemes of Standard Azerbaijani
  Labial Dental/


Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal   m   n             
Stop p b t d t͡ʃ  d͡ʒ c ɟ (k) ɡ  
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ x ɣ h  
Approximant       l     j      
Flap       ɾ            
  1. /t͡ʃ/ and /d͡ʒ/ are realised as [t͡s] and [d͡z] respectively in the areas around Tabriz and to the west, south and southwest of Tabriz (including Kirkuk in Iraq); in the Nakhchivan and Ayrum dialects, in Cəbrayil and some Caspian coastal dialects;[53]
  2. In most dialects of Azerbaijani, /c/ is realized as [ç] when it is found in the syllabic coda or is preceded by a voiceless consonant (as in çörək [t͡ʃœˈɾæç] – "bread"; səksən [sæçˈsæn] – "eighty").
  3. /k/ appears only in words borrowed from Russian or French (spelled, as with /c/, with a k).
  4. /w/ exists in the Kirkuk dialect as an allophone of /v/ in Arabic loanwords.
  5. In the Baku dialect, /ov/ may be realised as [oʊ], and /ev/ and /œv/ as [œy], e.g. /ɡovurˈmɑ/[ɡoʊrˈmɑ], /sevˈdɑ/[sœyˈdɑ], /dœvˈrɑn/[dœyˈrɑn], as well as with surnames ending in -ov or -ev (borrowed from Russian).[54]
  6. In colloquial speech, /x/ is usually pronounced as [χ]


Azeri vowel chart, from Mokari & Werner (2016:?)
Front Back
Unrounded Rounded Unrounded Rounded
Close i y ɯ u
Mid e œ o
Open æ ɑ

The vowels of the Azerbaijani are, in alphabetical order, a /ɑ/, e /e/, ə /æ/, ı /ɯ/, i /i/, o /o/, ö /œ/, u /u/, ü /y/. There are no diphthongs in Azerbaijani when two vowels come together; when that occurs in some Arabic loanwords, each vowel retains its individual sound.

The typical phonetic quality of Azeri vowels is as follows:

  • /i, u, æ/ are close to cardinal [i, u, a].[55]
  • /y/ is close near-front [].[55]
  • /œ/ and /ɯ/ differ from one another mainly by rounding. Their quality is more or less close-mid central [ɵ, ɘ].[55] Phonologically however, they are more distinct: /œ/ is phonologically a mid front rounded vowel, the front counterpart of /o/. /ɯ/ is phonologically a close back unrounded vowel, the back counterpart of /i/.
  • The other mid vowels /e, o/ are closer to close-mid [e, o] than open-mid [ɛ, ɔ].[55]
  • /ɑ/ is phonetically near-open back [ɑ̝].[55]

Writing systems[edit]

Before 1929, Azerbaijani was written only in the Persian version of the Arabic alphabet. In 1929–1938 a Latin alphabet was in use for North Azerbaijani (although it was different from the one used now), from 1938 to 1991 the Cyrillic script was used, and in 1991 the current Latin alphabet was introduced, although the transition to it has been rather slow.[56] For instance, until an Aliyev decree on the matter in 2001,[57] newspapers would routinely write headlines in the Latin script, leaving the stories in Cyrillic[58]; the transition also resulted in some misrendering of İ as Ì.[59]

In Iran, Azerbaijani is still written in the Persian alphabet, and in Dagestan, in Cyrillic script.

The Perso-Arabic Azerbaijani alphabet is an abjad; that is, it does not represent vowels. Also, some consonants can be represented by more than one letter. The Azerbaijani Latin alphabet is based on the Turkish Latin alphabet because of their linguistic connections and mutual intelligibility. The letters Әə, Xx, and Qq are available only in Azerbaijani for sounds which do not exist as separate phonemes in Turkish.

Old Latin
(1929-1938 version;
no longer in use;
replaced by 1991 version)
Official Latin
(Azerbaijan since 1991)
(1958 version,
still official in Dagestan)
Azerbaijan until 1929)
Aa Аа Аа آ / ـا /ɑ/
Bb Бб /b/
Çç Cc Ҹҹ /dʒ/
Cc Çç Чч چ /tʃ/
Dd Dd Дд /d/
Ee Ee Ее ئ /e/
Əə Əə Әә ا / َ / ە /æ/
Ff Ff Фф /f/
Gg Gg Ҝҝ گ /ɟ/
Ƣƣ Ğğ Ғғ /ɣ/
Hh Hh Һһ ﺡ / ﻩ /h/
Xx Xx Хх خ /x/
Ьь Ыы ی /ɯ/
Ii İi Ии ی /i/
Ƶ ƶ Jj Жж ژ /ʒ/
Kk Kk Кк ک /k/
Qq Qq Гг /g/
Ll Ll Лл /l/
Mm Mm Мм /m/
Nn Nn Нн /n/
N̡ n̡[60] ݣ / نگ /ŋ/
Oo Oo Оо وْ /o/
Өө Öö Өө ؤ /œ/
Pp Pp Пп پ /p/
Rr Rr Рр /r/
Ss Ss Сс ﺙ / ﺱ / ﺹ /s/
Şş Şş Шш /ʃ/
Tt Tt Тт ﺕ / ﻁ /t/
Uu Uu Уу ۇ /u/
Yy Üü Үү ۆ /y/
Vv Vv Вв /v/
Jj Yy Јј ی /j/
Zz Zz Зз ﺫ / ﺯ / ﺽ / ﻅ /z/
ʼ ʼ Ьь ع /ʔ/

Azerbaijani Turkic also uses a, e, i, o and u with the macron:

  • ā for /ɑː/
  • ē for /eː/
  • ī for /iː/
  • ō for /oː/
  • ū for /uː/

In the case of length distinction, these letters are used for Arabic and Persian borrowings from the Islamic period, most of which have been eliminated from the language. Native Turkic words have no vowel length distinction, and for them the macron is used solely to indicate palatalization.

The Azerbaijani Turkic, when written in the Latin or Cyrillic script, transcribes any foreign names into Azerbaijani spelling, e.g. Bush becomes Buş and Schröder becomes Şröder.



Some samples include:


  • Of ("Ugh!")
  • Tez Ol ("Come on")
  • Tez olun qızlar mədrəsəyə ("Girls to school!", a slogan for an education campaign in Azerbaijan)

Invoking deity:

  • implicitly:
    • Aman ("Mercy")
    • Çox şükür ("Much thanks")
  • explicitly:
    • Allah Allah (pronounced as Allahallah) ("Goodness gracious")
    • Hay Allah; Vallah "By God [I swear it]".
    • Çox şükür allahım ("Much thanks my god")

Formal and informal[edit]

Azerbaijani has informal and formal ways of saying things. This is because there is more than one meaning to "you" in Turkic languages like Azerbaijani and Turkish (as well as in many other languages). The informal you is used when talking to close friends, relatives, animals or children. The formal you is used when talking to someone who is older than you or someone for whom you would like to show respect (a professor, for example).

As in many Romance languages, personal pronouns can be omitted, and they are only added for emphasis. Azerbaijani has a phonetic writing system, so pronunciation is easy: most words are pronounced exactly as they are spelled in the modern Azerbaijani alphabet.

Category English Azerbaijani (in Latin script)
Basic expressions yes /hæ/
no yox /jox/
hello salam /sɑlɑm/
goodbye sağ ol /ˈsɑɣ ol/
sağ olun /ˈsɑɣ olun/ (formal)
good morning sabahınız xeyır /sɑbɑhɯ(nɯ)z xejiɾ/
good afternoon günortanız xeyır /ɟynoɾt(ɯn)ɯz xejiɾ/
good evening axşamın xeyır /ɑxʃɑmɯn xejiɾ/
axşamınız xeyır /ɑxʃɑmɯ(nɯ)z xejiɾ/
Colours black qara /gɑɾɑ/
blue göy /ɟœj/
cyan mavi /mɑːvi/
brown qəhvəyi / qonur
grey boz /boz/
green yaşıl /jaʃɯl/
orange narıncı /nɑɾɯnd͡ʒɯ/
pink çəhrayı
purple bənövşəyi
red qırmızı /gɯɾmɯzɯ/
white /ɑɣ/
yellow sarı /sɑɾɯ/


Number Word
0 sıfır /ˈsɯfɯɾ/
1 bir /biɾ/
2 iki /ici/
3 üç /yt͡ʃ/
4 dörd /dœɾd/
5 beş /beʃ/
6 altı /ɑltɯ/
7 yeddı /jetti/
8 səkkiz /sæcciz/
9 doqquz /dokkuz/
10 on /on/

For numbers 11–19, the numbers literally mean "10 one, 10 two" and so on.

Number Word
20 iyirmi /iɟiɾmi/
30 otuz /otuz/
40 qırx /gɯɾx/
50 əlli /ælli/

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Former Cyrillic spelling used in the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic.


  1. ^ Azerbaijani at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    North Azerbaijani at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    South Azerbaijani at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Salchuq at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Qashqai at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "North Azeri–Salchuq". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "South Azeri–Qashqa'i". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  4. ^ Christiane Bulut. "Syntactic Traces of Turkic-Iranian Contiguity". In: Johanson, Lars and Bulut, Christiane (eds.). Turkic-Iranian Contact Areas. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 2006.
  5. ^ Djavadi, Abbas (2010-07-19). "Iran's Ethnic Azeris And The Language Question". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 2016-01-24. 
  6. ^ "AZERBAIJAN viii. Azeri Turkish – Encyclopaedia Iranica". Retrieved 2016-01-24. 
  7. ^ Sinor, Denis (1969). Inner Asia. History-Civilization-Languages. A syllabus. Bloomington. pp. 71–96. ISBN 0-87750-081-9. 
  8. ^ "Türk dili, yoxsa azərbaycan dili? (Turkish language or Azerbaijani language?)". BBC. 9 August 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2016. 
  9. ^ Atabaki, Touraj (2000). Azerbaijan: Ethnicity and the Struggle for Power in Iran. I.B.Tauris. p. 25. ISBN 9781860645549. 
  10. ^ Dekmejian, R. Hrair; Simonian, Hovann H. (2003). Troubled Waters: The Geopolitics of the Caspian Region. I.B. Tauris. p. 60. ISBN 978-1860649226. Until 1918, when the Musavat regime decided to name the newly independent state Azerbaijan, this designation had been used exclusively to identify the Iranian province of Azerbaijan. 
  11. ^ Rezvani, Babak (2014). Ethno-territorial conflict and coexistence in the caucasus, Central Asia and Fereydan: academisch proefschrift. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. p. 356. ISBN 978-9048519286. The region to the north of the river Araxes was not called Azerbaijan prior to 1918, unlike the region in northwestern Iran that has been called since so long ago. 
  12. ^ "AZERBAIJAN". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. III, Fasc. 2-3. 1987. pp. 205–257. 
  13. ^ "AZERBAIJAN". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. III, Fasc. 2-3. 1987. pp. 205–257. 
  14. ^ This is an illustrated copy of Hadikat al-Su'ada of Fuzuli who in his own words wrote it under the grace of an Ottoman official during the reign of the Ottoman sultan, Suleyman the Magnificent (1520-1566) in or before 1547. The text in Azeri Turkish concerns the hardships endured by Prophet Muhammad and his family, especially his grandsons' death in Karbala, Iraq where the author Fuzuli was from. The manuscript is copied in 19 lines of naskh on 167 folios. There are notes and description of miniatures in Turkish in a later hand.
  15. ^ "The Turkic Languages", Osman Fikri Sertkaya (2005) in Turks – A Journey of a Thousand Years, 600-1600, London ISBN 978-1-90397-356-1
  16. ^ Wright, Sue; Kelly, Helen (1998). Ethnicity in Eastern Europe: Questions of Migration, Language Rights and Education. Multilingual Matters Ltd. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-85359-243-0. 
  17. ^ Bratt Paulston, Christina; Peckham, Donald (1 October 1998). Linguistic Minorities in Central and Eastern Europe. Multilingual Matters Ltd. pp. 98–115. ISBN 978-1-85359-416-8. 
  18. ^ L. Johanson, "AZERBAIJAN ix. Iranian Elements in Azeri Turkish" in Encyclopædia Iranica [1].
  19. ^ John R. Perry, "Lexical Areas and Semantic Fields of Arabic" in Csató et al. (2005) Linguistic convergence and areal diffusion: case studies from Iranian, Semitic and Turkic, Routledge, p. 97: "It is generally understood that the bulk of the Arabic vocabulary in the central, contiguous Iranic, Turkic and Indic languages was originally borrowed into literary Persian between the ninth and thirteenth centuries CE ..."
  20. ^ "AZERBAIJAN ix. Iranian Elements in Azeri Turki – Encyclopaedia Iranica". 
  21. ^ "Alphabet Changes in Azerbaijan in the 20th Century". Azerbaijan International. Spring 2000. Retrieved 21 July 2013. 
  22. ^ Language Commission Suggested to Be Established in National Assembly. 25 January 2011.
  23. ^ a b c, American Association of Teachers of Turkic Languages
  24. ^ a b G. Doerfer, "Azeri Turkish", Encyclopaedia Iranica, viii, Online Edition, p. 246.
  25. ^ Mark R.V. Southern. Mark R V Southern (2005) Contagious couplings: transmission of expressives in Yiddish echo phrases, Praeger, Westport, Conn. ISBN 978-0-31306-844-7
  26. ^ "Greetings to Heydar Baba". Retrieved 2010-09-08. 
  27. ^, American Association of Teachers of Turkic Languages
  28. ^ Pieter Muysken, "Introduction: Conceptual and methodological issues in areal linguistics", in Pieter Muysken (2008) From Linguistic Areas to Areal Linguistics, p. 30-31 ISBN 90-272-3100-1 [2]
  29. ^ Viacheslav A. Chirikba, "The problem of the Caucasian Sprachbund" in Muysken, p. 74
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  • Mokari, Payam Ghaffarvand; Werner, Stefan (2016), Dziubalska-Kolaczyk, Katarzyna, ed., "An acoustic description of spectral and temporal characteristics of Azerbaijani vowels", Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics, 52 (3), doi:10.1515/psicl-2016-0019 

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