Azerbaijani nationalism was relatively slow to develop under the communists. "Rather than imagining themselves as part of a continuous national tradition, like the Georgians and Armenians, the Muslims of Transcaucasia saw themselves as part of the larger Muslim world, the umma." 
|“||This culture was dominated by the Islamic conception of Holy War or ghaza. By God's command, the ghaza had to be fought against the infidels' dominions, dar al-harb (the abode of war), ceaselessly and relentlessly until they submitted. According to the Shari'a, the property of the infidels, captured in these raids, could be kept as booty, their country could be destroyed, and the population taken into captivity or killed.||”|
Irredentist claims by Azerbaijani nationalists would mainly seek to incorporate large sections of Iran within a proposed enlarged territory known as Whole Azerbaijan. Iran hosts a larger number of ethnic Azerbaijanis than the independent nation of Azerbaijan. Azerbaijani consciousness is also central to wider cooperation with ethnically affiliated populations through Pan-Turkism. 
During the Soviet era, Armenians and Azerbaijanis coexisted peacefully. When the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh broke out, however, this changed radically. The initial Armenian claims to Nagorno-Karabakh, in Azerbaijan, yielding from Armenian nationalism were laid in late 1987.
From 1998, Armenia began accusing Azerbaijan of embarking on a campaign of destroying a cemetery of finely carved Armenian khachkars in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. On May 30, 2006, Azerbaijan barred the European Parliament from inspecting and examining the ancient burial site. Charles Tannock, British Conservative Party foreign affairs spokesman in the European parliament, stated, "This is very similar to the Buddha statues destroyed by the Taliban. They have concreted the area over and turned it into a military camp. If they have nothing to hide then we should be allowed to inspect the terrain." Hannes Swoboda, an Austrian Socialist MEP and member of the committee barred from examining the site, said he hopes a visit can be arranged in the autumn. He stated that "if they do not allow us to go, we have a clear hint that something bad has happened. If something is hidden we want to ask why. It can only be because some of the allegations are true." He also warned: "One of the major elements of any country that wants to come close to Europe is that the cultural heritage of neighbors is respected."
A key advocate of Azerbaijani nationalism is Farida Mammadova, who has made anti-Armenian statements. In response to desecration of Azerbaijani holy sanctuary Agadede south of Yerevan in 2005, Mammadova said that "it is known, that on whole planet exactly the Armenian people is distinguished by the absence of spiritual and other human values. And it is them who are used to appropriate the cultures of other nations while living in another state".
According to Thomas de Waal, Mammadova has grasped the Albanian theory after studying the history of Caucasian Albania and used it to push the Armenians out of Caucasus altogether. She has placed Caucasian Albania on the territory of modern Republic of Armenia: all the territories, churches and monasteries in Republic of Armenia have appeared Albanian. Mamaedova had visited the Gandzasar monastery in 1975 and read the inscription on facade "I Hasan-Jalal, built this church for my people of Aghvank..." referring to an ancient name of Albania.
- Whole Azerbaijan
- Shusha pogrom
- Khojaly Massacre
- Turkish nationalism
- Armenian nationalism
- The Forsaken People: Case Studies of the Internally Displaced - Page 257 by Roberta Cohen, Francis Mading Deng
- Energy and Security in the Caucasus - Page 14 by Emmanuel Karagiannis
- Halil Inalcik, "The Emergence of the Ottomans," Cambridge History of Islam
- Fishman, Joshua; Garcia, Ofelia (2011). Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity: The Success-Failure Continuum in Language and Ethnic Identity Efforts. 2. Oxford University Press. p. 269. ISBN 978-0-19-539245-6.
It is commonly acknowledged that pan-Turkism, the movement aiming at the political and/or cultural unification of all Turkic peoples, emerged among Turkic intellectuals of Russia as a liberal-cultural movement in the 1880s.
- De Waal, Thomas (2003). Black garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan through peace and war. New York: New York University Press. pp. 15–20. ISBN 0-8147-1944-9. Retrieved July 19, 2010.
- "Фарида Мамедова: "Разрушив захоронение "Агадеде", армяне в очередной раз пытаются посягнуть на историю Азербайджана"" [Farida Mamedova: "Having destroyed the Agadede sanctuary, Armenians are again trying to lay claims on Azerbaijani history]. Day.az. January 6, 2006. Archived from the original on November 17, 2009. Retrieved 2010-07-19.
- De Waal, Thomas (2003). Black garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan through peace and war. New York: New York University Press. p. 154. ISBN 0-8147-1944-9. Retrieved July 19, 2010.