Azotobacter vinelandii

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Azotobacter vinelandii
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gammaproteobacteria
Order: Pseudomonadales
Family: Pseudomonadaceae
Genus: Azotobacter
Species: A. vinelandii
Binomial name
Azotobacter vinelandii

Azotobacter vinelandii is Gram-negative diazotroph that can fix nitrogen while grown aerobically.[2][3] It is a genetically tractable system that is used to study nitrogen fixation. These bacteria are easily cultured and grown.

A. vinelandii is a free-living N2 fixer known to produce many phytohormones and vitamins in soils. It produces fluorescent pyoverdine pigments.[4]

The nitrogenase holoenzyme of A. vinelandii has been characterised by X-ray crystallography in both ADP tetrafluoroaluminate-bound[5] and MgATP-bound[6] states. The enzyme possesses molybdenum iron-sulfido cluster cofactors (FeMoco) as active sites, each bearing two pseudocubic iron-sulfido structures.

Variable ploidy[edit]

A. vinelandii can contain up to 80 chromosome copies per cell.[7] However this is only seen in fast growing culture, whereas cultures grown in synthetic minimal media are not polyploid.[8]


  1. ^ William A. Noyes, ed. (1904). Review of American Chemical Research. 10. p. 75.
  2. ^ Young, Mark. "Why it is possible to reduce Nitrogen fertilizers by using Azotobacter sp". Retrieved 14 June 2018.
  3. ^ Requena N, Baca TM, Azcon R (1997). "Evolution of humic substances from unripe compost during incubation with lignolytic or cellulolytic microorganisms and effects on the lettuce growth promotion mediated by Azotobacter chroococcum". Biol Fertil Soils. 24: 59–65.
  4. ^ Menhart N, Thariath A, Viswanatha T (1991). "Characterization of the pyoverdines of Azotobacter vinelandii ATCC 12837 with regard to heterogeneity". Biology of Metals. 4 (4): 223–32. doi:10.1007/bf01141185.
  5. ^ Schindelin H, Kisker C, Schlessman JL, Howard JB, Rees DC (1997). "Structure of ADP x AIF4(-)-stabilized nitrogenase complex and its implications for signal transduction". Nature. 387: 370–376. doi:10.1038/387370a0.
  6. ^ Chiu H, Peters JW, Lanzilotta WN, Ryle MJ, Seefeldt LC, Howard JB, Rees DC (2001). "MgATP-Bound and nucleotide-free structures of a nitrogenase protein complex between the Leu 127 Delta-Fe-protein and the MoFe-protein". Biochemistry. 40: 641–650. doi:10.1021/bi001645e.
  7. ^ Nagpal P, Jafri S, Reddy MA, Das HK (1989). "Multiple chromosomes of Azotobacter vinelandii". J. Bacteriol. 171 (6): 3133–8. doi:10.1128/jb.171.6.3133-3138.1989. PMC 210026. PMID 2785985.
  8. ^ Maldonado R, Jiménez J, Casadesús J (1994). "Changes of ploidy during the Azotobacter vinelandii growth cycle". J. Bacteriol. 176 (13): 3911–9. doi:10.1128/jb.176.13.3911-3919.1994. PMC 205588. PMID 8021173.

External links[edit]