Azov Battalion

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Azov Special Operations Unit
Підрозділ спеціального призначення «Азов»
AZOV logo.svg
Active5 May 2014 – present
Country Ukraine
BranchEmblem of the National Guard of Ukraine, 2017.svg National Guard of Ukraine
RoleGendarmerie, national security
Garrison/HQUrzuf, Donetsk Oblast, Ukraine. Other HQs and detachments in Kiev, Berdiansk and Mariupol
ColoursBlue and gold
Anniversaries5 May
Colonel of
the Regiment
Vadym Troyan
Andriy Biletsky, Vadym Troyan, Igor Tcherkass, Ihor Mosiychuk, Dmytro Linko
«Azov» volunteers

The Special Operations Detachment "Azov", often known as Azov Battalion, Azov Regiment, or Azov Detachment, (Ukrainian: Полк Азов) is a Ukrainian National Guard regiment,[1][2][3][4] based in Mariupol in the Azov Sea coastal region.[5] It saw its first combat experience recapturing Mariupol from pro-Russian separatists forces in June 2014.[3] Initially formed as a volunteer militia on 5 May 2014 during the 2014 Ukrainian crisis, on 12 November 2014, Azov was incorporated into the National Guard of Ukraine.[6] All regiment members were contract soldiers serving in the National Guard of Ukraine.[7]

Since its inception, the regiment lost 43 soldiers in the course of the War in Donbass.[8] In 2014, it gained notoriety after allegations emerged of torture and war crimes, as well as neo-Nazi sympathies and usage of associated symbols by the regiment itself, as seen in their logo featuring the Wolfsangel, one of the original symbols used by the 2nd SS Panzer Division Das Reich. Representatives of the Azov Battalion claim that the symbol is an abbreviation for the slogan Ідея Нації (Ukrainian for "National Idea") and deny connection with Nazism.[9] In 2014, a spokesman for the regiment claimed around 10-20% of the unit were neo-Nazis.[10] In 2018, a provision in an appropriations bill passed by the U.S. Congress blocked military aid to Azov on the grounds of its white supremacist ideology.[11] Members of the regiment come from 22 countries and are of various backgrounds including Jews.[12][13]

More than half of the regiment's members speak Russian and come from eastern Ukraine,[14] including cities of Donetsk and Luhansk.[15] The regiment's first commander was far-right nationalist Andriy Biletsky, who led the neo-Nazi Social-National Assembly and Patriot of Ukraine.[16][17] In its early days, Azov was the Ministry of Internal Affairs' special police company, led by Volodymyr Shpara, the leader of the Vasylkiv, Kiev, branch of Patriot of Ukraine and Right Sector.[18][19][20] Under the "Azov" umbrella were also created the non-governmental organization "Azov Civil Corps" and the political party National Corps.[21]


The Azov Battalion has its roots in a group of Ultras of FC Metalist Kharkiv named "Sect 82" (1982 is the year of the founding of the group).[22] "Sect 82" was (at least until September 2013) allied with FC Spartak Moscow Ultras.[22] Late February 2014, during the 2014 Ukrainian crisis when a separatist movement was active in Kharkiv, "Sect 82" occupied the Kharkiv Oblast regional administration building in Kharkiv and served as a local "self-defense"-force.[22] Soon, on the basis of "Sect 82" there was formed a volunteer militia called "Eastern Corps".[22]

A soldier of the Azov Battalion with a heavy machine gun.

On 13 April 2014 Minister of Internal Affairs Arsen Avakov[nb 1] issued a decree authorizing creating new paramilitary forces from civilians up to 12,000.[24] The Azov Battalion (using "Eastern Corps" as its backbone[22]) was formed on 5 May 2014 in Berdiansk[25] by a white nationalist.[26] Many members of Patriot of Ukraine joined the battalion.[22] Among the early patrons of the battalion were a member of the Verkhovna Rada Oleh Lyashko, and an ultra-nationalist Dmytro Korchynsky and businessman Serhiy Taruta and Avakov.[27][22] The battalion then received training near Kiev by instructors with experience in the Georgian Armed Forces.[22] The battalion started in Mariupol where it was involved in combat,[3] and was briefly relocated to Berdiansk.[28]

On 10 June, the battalion dismissed deputy commander Yaroslav Honchar and distanced themselves from him after Honchar made criticizing statements about looting and debauchery in Azov battalion.[29] Igor Mosiychuk became deputy commander.[30]

In June 2014, Anton Herashchenko (an advisor to the Minister of Internal Affairs) said that it was planned that the Azov battalion would have a strength of 400 people, and the salary for volunteers would be 4,300 hryvnia ($360)[31] per month.[30] (Contract soldiers were paid 1,505 hryvnia per month.)[30]

On 11 August, Azov battalion, backed by Ukrainian paratroopers, captured Marinka from pro-Russian rebels and entered the suburbs of Donetsk clashing with Donetsk People's Republic fighters.[32]

In early September 2014, the Azov battalion was engaged in the Second Battle of Mariupol.[33] Regarding the ceasefire agreed on 5 September, Biletskiy stated "If it was a tactical move there is nothing wrong with it ... if it's an attempt to reach an agreement concerning Ukrainian soil with separatists then obviously it's a betrayal."[34]

In September 2014, the Azov battalion was expanded from a battalion to a regiment and enrolled into the National Guard of Ukraine.[25][35] At about this time it started receiving increased supplies of heavy arms.[35] The Azov battalion received funding from the Minister of Internal Affairs of Ukraine and other sources (believed to be Ukrainian oligarchs).[35] So whilst its volunteers were officially paid 6,000 hryvnia ($316) per month, they really received around 10,000 hryvnia ($526) per month.[35] The national socialist "Patriot of Ukraine" websites were shut down or put under restricted access.[35]

On 14 October, Azov Battalion servicemen took part in a march to commemorate the 72nd anniversary of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) in Kiev organised by the Right Sector.[36]

In the 26 October 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election Biletsky, the battalion's commander, won a constituency seat (as an independent candidate) in Kiev's Obolon Raion (Biletsky hails from Kharkiv) in the Ukrainian parliament.[37][38][39] In his constituency Biletsky won with 33.75% of the votes; runner up Vadym Stoylar followed with 17.17%.[40][41] In parliament Biletsky did not join any faction.[42] Member of the battalion Oleh Petrenko is also a MP for Petro Poroshenko Bloc after winning a constituency seat in Cherkasy in the same election.[43] In his constituency Petrenko won with 41.15% of the votes; runner up Valentyna Zhukovska followed with 23.65%.[40][44]

On 31 October 2014, deputy commander of the Azov Battalion Vadym Troyan was appointed head of Kiev Oblast (province) police (this police force has no jurisdiction over the city of Kiev).[45]

On 11 November 2014 the Azov Battalion was officially incorporated into the National Guard of Ukraine.[25]

As of late March 2015, despite a second ceasefire agreement (Minsk II), the Azov Battalion continued to prepare for war, with the group's leader seeing the ceasefire as "appeasement".[35] In March 2015 Interior Minister Arsen Avakov announced that the Azov Regiment would be among the first units to be trained by United States Army troops in their Operation Fearless Guardian training mission.[46][47] US training however was withdrawn on 12 June 2015, as US House of Representatives passed an amendment blocking any aid (including arms and training) to the battalion due to its Neo-Nazi background.[48] After the vote Congressman John Conyers thanked the House saying "I am grateful that the House of Representatives unanimously passed my amendments last night to ensure that our military does not train members of the repulsive neo-Nazi Azov Battalion, along with my measures to keep the dangerous and easily trafficked MANPADs out of these unstable regions."[47]

In August 2015, the Ukrainian government pulled all volunteer battalions, including the Azov Regiment, off the front lines around Mariupol, replacing them with regular military units.[49] The Azov Regiment was moved to a base in Urzuf, in the former seaside villa of deposed Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych, about 40 kilometers (25 miles) to the southwest of Mariupol.

Since 2015 Azov is organising summer camps where children and teenagers receive practice in civil defense and military tactics mixed with lectures on Ukrainian nationalism.[50][22]

On 27 April 2016, 300 troops and light-armored vehicles from the regiment were assigned to Odessa to safeguard public order after Mikheil Saakashvili wrote in social media about a rash of pro-Russian "titushki" attacks on civilians.[51]

Azov published a media release on its website on 20 November 2017 noting that, on 16 November, it had met with a foreign delegation of officers from the United States Armed Forces and Canadian Armed Forces.[52]

Leadership and organisation[edit]

Andriy Biletsky leads units of the battalion on a patrol near Mariupol in July 2014.

The regiment's first commander was Andriy Biletsky. Biletsky stayed out of the public spotlight working on expanding Azov to battalion size. In summer 2014, he took the command of the unit. In August 2014, he was awarded a military decoration, "Order For Courage", by Ukrainian president Petro Poroshenko, and promoted to lieutenant colonel of in the Interior Ministry's police forces.[53] Because Biletsky was elected into the Ukrainian parliament in the 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election he left the battalion in October 2016 (Ukrainian elected officials can not be in the military (nor police)).[16][17]

A 16 July 2014 report placed the Azov Battalion's strength at 300.[2] An earlier report stated that on June 23 almost 600 volunteers, including women, took oaths to join the "Donbass" and "Azov" battalions.[54] The unit included 900 volunteers as of March 2015.[55]

The battalion was originally nicknamed the "Men in Black" or "Black Corps" (ukr.: "Chorny Korpus"), a counter to Russia's Little Green Men due to their use of all-black fatigues and masks when raiding pro-Russian checkpoints.

Current status[edit]

The Ukrainian military decided to turn all volunteer battalions into regular military units for internal policy reasons. The Ukrainian government has opted to deploy only volunteer units to the Donbass front.[56]

In January 2015 "Azov" Battalion was officially upgraded to Regiment and its structures took a definite shape. A mobilization center and a training facility was established in Kiev, in former industrial complex "ATEK" for selection and examination; and the personnel, composed by volunteers from all over Ukraine, has to pass through a screening and vetting process, quite similar to army's mobilization procedures.[57]

Recruits are then assigned to the combat units of the Regiments, or to support and supply units, where they undertake intensive combat drills training. Reconnaissance and EOD units are considered the élite of "Azov" and are manned by most experienced personnel (typically, former Ukrainian Army special forces or similar).[57]

Since 2015 the Battalion has been upgraded to Regimental status and "Azov" is now officially called "Special Operations Regiment", with combat duties focused on reconnaissance, counter-reconnaissance, EOD disposal, interdiction and special weapons operations.

The regiment, the only territorial defense unit of its size in the NGU, is organized into:

  • Regimental HQ
  • 1st Commando Battalion
  • 2nd Commando Battalion (under formation stage)
  • 5th Tank Battalion
  • Field Artillery Battery
  • Reconnaissance Company
  • Security Company
  • Engineer Company
  • Maintenance Company
  • Logistic Company
  • Signal Platoon
  • CBRN-defense Platoon
  • 4th (Training) Battalion
    • Regimental Depot Kyiv
    • Regimental Depot Mariupol
    • Regimental Depot Berdiansk

Foreign membership[edit]

According to The Daily Telegraph, the Azov Battalion's extremist politics and professional English social media pages have attracted foreign fighters,[32] including people from Brazil, Ireland, Italy, United Kingdom, France, America, Greece, Scandinavia,[2][32] Spain, Slovakia, Czech Republic and Russia.[2][58][59] About 50 Russian nationals are members of the Azov regiment.[60]

Around 20 Croatians joined the Azov Battalion in January 2015, ranging in age from 20 to 45.[61][62] After Croatia's foreign minister Vesna Pusić confirmed that there are Croatian volunteers in Ukraine, the Russian Foreign Ministry called Croatia to withdraw its citizens from armed conflict. Pusić replied that Croatia opposes any involvement of Croatian citizens in the war, and stated that they went on their private initiative and that Croatia is working on bringing them home.[63] Interior minister Ranko Ostojić said that Croatian volunteers are fighting on the side of the legitimate Ukrainian government and are not committing any kind of crime according to Croatian law.[64]

Swedish Azov volunteers Mikael Skillt and "Mikola".

According to French volunteers fighting for the insurgent side, the Azov Battalion has a French instructor named Gaston Besson who tried to recruit them over the internet[65] and also a former soldier of the French Foreign Legion named Thibault Dupire who fought in the regiment at the beginning of 2015.

In late 2016, Brazilian investigators uncovered an alleged plot to recruit Brazilian far-right activists for the Azov Battalion.[66][67]

According to Minsk Ceasefire Agreements, foreign fighters are not allowed to serve in Ukraine's military:[68] since "Azov" Regiment was granted full military status, its foreign volunteers were compelled either to take Ukrainian citizenship, or to leave the Regiment.[citation needed] Despite the Minsk Ceasefire Agreements, the regiment still has foreign fighters,[69] including an ex-British army serviceman Chris Garrett, a Brazilian nationalist named "Frank Horrigan" and a 33-year-old former soldier in the Greek army and French Foreign Legion known by the nom-de-guerre of "The Greek".[69]

Human rights violations and war crimes[edit]

Reports published by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) have connected the Azov Battalion to war crimes such as mass looting, unlawful detention, and torture.[70][71] An OHCHR report from March 2016 stated that the organisation had "collected detailed information about the conduct of hostilities by Ukrainian armed forces and the Azov regiment in and around Shyrokyne (31km east of Mariupol), from the summer of 2014 to date. Mass looting of civilian homes was documented, as well as targeting of civilian areas between September 2014 and February 2015".[70] Another OHCHR report documented an instance of rape and torture, writing: "A man with a mental disability was subject to cruel treatment, rape and other forms of sexual violence by 8 to 10 members of the 'Azov' and 'Donbas' battalions in August–September 2014. The victim's health subsequently deteriorated and he was hospitalized in a psychiatric hospital."[71] A report from January 2015 stated that a Donetsk Republic supporter was detained and tortured with electricity and waterboarding, which resulted in his confessing spying for pro-Russian militants.[71]

Rodnovery, symbolism and neo-Nazism[edit]

Emblem featuring a Wolfsangel and Black Sun

Most soldiers of Azov are followers of a Ukrainian nationalist type of Rodnovery (Slavic Native Faith), wherefrom they derive some of their symbolism (such as a variation of the swastika symbol kolovrat). They have also established Rodnover shrines for their religious rites, including one in Mariupol dedicated to Perun.[72][73][74][unreliable source] German ZDF television showed images of Azov fighters wearing helmets with swastika symbols and "the SS runes of Hitler's infamous black-uniformed elite corps".[75] Due to the use of such symbols, Azov has been considered to have connections with neo-Nazism, with members wearing neo-Nazi and SS symbols and regalia and expressing Neo-Nazi views.[76][77]

In writing about the battalion's ideology, Richard Sakwa wrote that its founding member Andryi Biletsky, leader of the neo-Nazi Social-National Assembly (SNA) made statements about "historic mission" to lead "white races of the world in a final crusade for their survival ... a crusade against the Semite-led Untermenschen"; according to Sakwa, this ideology has its root in national integralism of 1920s and 30s.[78]

Ivan Katchanovski in an interview with Radio Sweden described the ideology of the battalion in the following words: "The SNA/PU [Patriot of Ukraine] advocates a neo-Nazi ideology along with ultranationalism and racism. The same applies to the SNA/PU commanders and members of the Azov battalion and many football ultras and others who serve in this formation. Biletsky is called the White Leader."[79]

The group's insignia features the Wolfsangel[80][81][82] and the Black Sun,[80][83][84] two Nazi-era symbols adopted by neo-Nazi groups. Members of the unit have stated that the inverted Wolfsangel has a different history in Ukraine and represents the Ukrainian words for "united nation"[77][45] or "national idea".[82] In addition to the Wolfsangel, Azov soldiers have also been observed using other aforementioned Nazi-associated symbols on their uniforms.[85] The Azov Battalion has dismissed accusations that their unit promotes fascist symbolism, stating that any association with Nazi symbolism is a result of Russian propaganda.[86]

Despite the accusations of being a far-right[nb 2] or neo-Nazi movement, Ukrainian ministerial advisor Anton Geraschenko has denied the association with Nazism, stating that the formation is merely a "party of Ukrainian patriots".[6][87][nb 3][nb 4] A spokesman for the unit has said this label applies to 10–20% of its recruits, and one commander attributed this ideology to misguided youth.[55]

In 2018, the U.S. House of Representatives passed a provision blocking any training of Azov members by American forces, citing its neo-Nazi background. In previous years, between 2014 and 2017, the U.S. House of Representatives passed amendments banning support of Azov, but due to pressure from the Pentagon, the amendments were quietly lifted.[89][90][91] This move has been protested by Simon Wiesenthal Center which stated that the move highlights danger of Holocaust distortion in Ukraine.[91] On 26 June 2015, the Canadian defence minister declared as well, that training by Canadian forces or support would not be provided to Azov.[92]

While Azov Battalion troops have denied that the organization has any neo-Nazi or white supremacist beliefs, journalists stated that "numerous swastika tattoos of different members and their tendency to go into battle with swastikas or SS insignias drawn on their helmets make it very difficult for other members of the group to plausibly deny any neo-Nazi affiliations".[87]

A Polish war correspondent managed in the summer of 2015 to gain access to one of Azov's bases located in former holiday resort Majak and Azov fighters also demonstrated to him Nazi tattoos as well as emblems on their uniforms.[93] In contrast, Foreign Policy journalists witnessed a teenage girl being publicly punished for drawing a swastika in her diary during one of Azov's 2016 summer camps.[50]

Despite being accused of being Anti-Semitic, some members of the Jewish community in Ukraine support and serve in the Azov Battalion. One of its most prominent members is Natan Khazin who was the leader of the Jewish Hundred during the Euromaidan.[94]

Civil Corps Azov[edit]

The Azov Battalion also has a non-military wing and non-governmental organization called "Civil Corps Azov" created "for political and social struggle".[95][21] In 2016 members of Civil Corps Azov founded a social center "Cossack House" in Kiev.[citation needed]

National Corps (political party)[edit]

In September 2016, the founder of the Azov Battalion, Andriy Biletsky, said that the Civil Corps Azov would be transformed into a political party.[25] In early October 2016, Biletsky stated that the new party would use neither names nor symbols of the Azov Battalion.[96] On 14 October 2016, this political party called National Corps held its first congress.[21][97] There delegates elected Biletsky to head the party for the next four years.[21] National Corps is based on the (political party) "Patriot Party" (which was named "Civic Movement Honest Business" before 2015,[98][21]) "Patriot Party" was already registered by the Ministry of Justice.[21]

The party advocates expanding the powers of the President of Ukraine by granting him authority to be the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Ukraine as well as the head of government.[21] National Corps favors restoring Ukraine's nuclear power status and nationalizing enterprises which were government owned when Ukraine became independent in 1991.[21] The party wants Ukraine to break all ties with Russia (diplomatic, trade and culture ties).[21] It is against Ukraine joining the European Union and against Ukraine joining NATO.[22] It wants to create the "Intermarium Union" with Baltic and Black Sea nations (to include Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Czech Republic, Slovakia, etcetera[22]).[21] The party advocates expanding the right to bear arms and initiate public discussion about restoring capital punishment in Ukraine for treason and the embezzlement of government funds by officials in excessive amounts.[21]

National Militia[edit]

In 2017 a group called the National Militia, closely linked to the Azov movement, was formed. Its stated aim is to assist law enforcement agencies, which is allowed under Ukrainian law, and it has conducted street patrols.[99][100] In March 2019 its membership was reportedly "in the low thousands".[101]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Arsen Avakov was the first Minister of Internal Affairs of Ukraine since the overthrow of the Yanukovich government.[23]
  2. ^ The BBC's Fergal Keane has described the unit as "a far-right Ukrainian militia".[33]
  3. ^ A ministerial adviser, Anton Geraschenko, has stated late 2014 "The Social-National Assembly is not a neo-Nazi organization," he said. "It is a party of Ukrainian patriots..."[2][88][80]
  4. ^ Early March 2015 spokesman for the Azov Brigade Andriy Diachenko told USA Today "only 10% to 20% of the group's members are Nazis. "I know Alex is a Nazi, but it's his personal ideology. It has nothing to do with the official ideology of the Azov".[55]


  1. ^ Margarete Klein (April 2015). "RUFS Briefing No. 27: Ukraine's volunteer battalions – advantages and challenges" (PDF). Swedish Defence Research Agency. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 June 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d e Newman, Dina (16 July 2014). "Ukraine conflict: 'White power' warrior from Sweden". BBC News. The Azov Battalion was formed and armed by Ukraine's interior ministry. A ministerial adviser, Anton Gerashchenko, [was asked] if the battalion had any neo-Nazi links through the Social National Assembly. 'The Social National Assembly is not a neo-Nazi organisation,' he said. 'It is a party of Ukrainian patriots...'
  3. ^ a b c Pancevski, Bojan (11 May 2014). "Kiev lets loose Men in Black". The Sunday Times. London. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  4. ^ Stallard, Katie (25 May 2014). "Ukraine Militia 'Ready To Take On Separatists'". Sky News. Archived from the original on 26 May 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  5. ^ "The separatists fired on a bus with fighters of the "AZOV" special police battalion". National Police of Ukraine. 7 May 2014. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  6. ^ a b Lazaredes, Nicholas (24 March 2015). "Ukraine crisis: Inside the Mariupol base of the controversial Azov battalion". ABC Online. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
  7. ^ Роз'яснення щодо статусу спецпідрозділу "Азов" [Clarification as to the status of Special Forces "Azov"]. (in Ukrainian). 23 April 2015. Archived from the original on 9 July 2015. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
  8. ^ Книга пам'яті полеглих за Україну [Book of Remembrance of the fallen for Ukraine]. (in Ukrainian).
  9. ^ РБК-Україна (22 June 2015), Комбат "Азова" заперечує зв'язок символіки батальйону з нацизмом. (in Ukrainian)
  10. ^ Pugliese, David (26 June 2015). "Ukrainian unit accused of Neo-Nazi links wants Canada's help". Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
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  12. ^ Peterson, Nolan (10 August 2015). "How a Swedish Sniper Found Redemption in the Ukraine War". Retrieved 11 April 2018. But the overwhelming majority of Azov soldiers say they're fighting for Ukraine's sovereignty and to repel what they call a "Russian invasion" of their homeland. Those with far-right convictions live and fight side-by-side soldiers from 22 countries and various backgrounds, including Arabs, Russians, and Americans—as well as Christians, Muslims, and Jews.
  13. ^ Червоненко, Виталий (14 May 2018). "Антисемитизм или манипуляция: усиливается ли притеснение евреев в Украине?". BBC. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
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  17. ^ a b (in Ukrainian) The former leader of "Azov" Beletsky declared only salary and $ 5,000, Ukrayinska Pravda (30 October 2016)
  18. ^ (in Ukrainian) Павєл Шеремет. Командир батальйону "Азов": Найстрашніша помилка влади - політичні переговори з сепаратистами, Українська правда (Ukrainian pravda), June 17, 2014.
  19. ^ (in Ukrainian) Володимир Шпара очолив «Правий сектор» в місті Васильків та Васильківському районі[dead link], The Right Sector press-service, March 26, 2014.
  20. ^ (in Russian) Командир батальона "Азов" Владимир Шпара: "Мы ришли не за властью, а защищать свою Родину" Archived 2014-07-01 at the Wayback Machine, June 12, 2014.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Volunteer battalion Azov members and former members create National Corps political party, Interfax-Ukraine (14 October 2016)
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k (in Ukrainian) "We are trying to come to power through elections, but we have all sorts of possibilities" - as "Azov" becomes party, Hromadske.TV (13 October 2016)
  23. ^ Maidan nominates Yatseniuk for prime minister, Interfax-Ukraine (26 February 2014)
    Ukrainian parliament endorses new cabinet, Interfax-Ukraine (27 February 2014)
  24. ^ (in Russian) Для урегулирования ситуация на Юго-Востоке МВД создает спецподразделения по охране общественного порядка,, 15 April 2014.
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  27. ^ Nemtsova, Anna (27 May 2014). "War and Murder in Eastern Ukraine". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  28. ^ Azov Battalion announced signing of new warriors, TSN News, May 20, 2014.
  29. ^ ""Азов" відхрестився від критика АТО Ярослава Гончара". Channel 5. 10 June 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
  30. ^ a b c "Reinforcements for the Azov Battalion". 24 June 2014.
  31. ^ UAH to USD Chart, 23 Jul 2013 00:00 UTC - 22 Jul 2018 11:20 UTC This gives an exchange rate of $0.08409 per hryvnia (11.892 hryvnia = $1) for 25 June 2014.
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    This gives an exchange rate of 19.0000 hryvnia = $1.
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  42. ^ (in Ukrainian) profile, on the official website of the Ukrainian parliament
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  50. ^ a b Campfire Songs and Kalashnikovs, Foreign Policy (11 October 2016)
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