Microsoft Azure

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Azure Services Platform)

Microsoft Azure
Developer(s)Microsoft
Initial releaseOctober 27, 2008; 15 years ago (2008-10-27)[1]
Operating systemLinux, Microsoft Windows, macOS, iOS, Android
TypeWeb service, cloud computing
LicenseProprietary for platform, MIT License for client SDKs
Websiteazure.microsoft.com Edit this at Wikidata

Microsoft Azure, often referred to as Azure (/ˈæʒər, ˈeɪʒər/ AZH-ər, AY-zhər, UK also /ˈæzjʊər, ˈeɪzjʊər/ AZ-ure, AY-zure),[2][3][4] is a cloud computing platform run by Microsoft. It offers access, management, and the development of applications and services through global data centers. It also provides a range of capabilities, including software as a service (SaaS), platform as a service (PaaS), and infrastructure as a service (IaaS). Microsoft Azure supports many programming languages, tools, and frameworks, including Microsoft-specific and third-party software and systems.

Azure was first introduced at the Professional Developers Conference (PDC) in October 2008 under the codename "Project Red Dog."[5] It was officially launched as Windows Azure in February 2010 and later renamed Microsoft Azure on March 25, 2014.[6][7]

Services[edit]

Microsoft Azure uses large-scale virtualization at Microsoft data centers worldwide and offers more than 600 services.[8]

Computer services[edit]

  • Virtual machines, infrastructure as a service (IaaS) allowing users to launch general-purpose Microsoft Windows and Linux virtual machines, software as a service (SaaS) as well as preconfigured machine images for popular software packages.[9]
  • App services, platform as a service (PaaS) environment letting developers easily publish and manage websites.
  • Websites, Azure Web Sites allows developers to build sites using ASP.NET, PHP, Node.js, Java, or Python and can be deployed using FTP, Git, Mercurial, Team Foundation Server or uploaded through the user portal. This feature was announced in preview form in June 2012 at the Meet Microsoft Azure event.[12] Customers can create websites in PHP, ASP.NET, Node.js, or Python, or select from several open-source applications from a gallery to deploy. This comprises one aspect of the platform as a service (PaaS) offerings for the Microsoft Azure Platform. It was renamed Web Apps in April 2015.[7][13]
  • WebJobs are applications that can be deployed to an App Service environment to implement background processing that can be invoked on a schedule, on-demand, or run continuously. The Blob, Table and Queue services can be used to communicate between WebApps, XYZ, iOS Software and WebJobs and to provide state.[5]
  • Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS) allows you to quickly deploy a production-ready kubernetes cluster in Azure. Azure is responsible for managing the control plane and customers get the flexibility to choose/scale the data plane (kubernetes worker nodes).[14]
  • In July 2023, the general availability for Watermarking support on Azure Virtual Desktop was announced; an optional protection feature to Screen Capture that acts as a deterrent for data leakage.[15]

Identity[edit]

  • Entra ID connect is used to synchronize on-premises directories and enable SSO (Single Sign On).[16]
  • Entra ID B2C allows the use of consumer identity and access management in the cloud.
  • Entra Domain Services is used to join Azure virtual machines to a domain without domain controllers.
  • Azure information protection can be used to protect sensitive information.
  • Entra ID External Identities are a set of capabilities which allow organizations to collaborate with external users including customers and partners.[17]
  • On July 11, 2023, Microsoft announced the renaming of Azure AD to Microsoft Entra ID.[18] The name change took place four days later.

Mobile services[edit]

  • Mobile Engagement collects real-time analytics that highlight users’ behavior. It also provides push notifications to mobile devices.[19]
  • HockeyApp can be used to develop, distribute, and beta-test mobile apps.[20]

Storage services[edit]

  • Storage Services provides REST and SDK APIs for storing and accessing data on the cloud.
  • Table Service lets programs store structured text in partitioned collections of entities that are accessed by the partition key and primary key. Azure Table Service is a NoSQL non-relational database.
  • Blob Service allows programs to store unstructured text and binary data as object storage blobs that can be accessed by an HTTP(S) path. Blob service also provides security mechanisms to control access to data.
  • Queue Service lets programs communicate asynchronously by message using queues.
  • File Service allows storing and access of data on the cloud using the REST APIs or the SMB protocol.[21]

Communication services[edit]

  • Azure Communication Services offers an SDK for creating web and mobile communications applications that include SMS, video calling, VOIP and PSTN calling, and web based chat.

Data management[edit]

Messaging[edit]

The Microsoft Azure Service Bus allows applications running on Azure premises or off-premises devices to communicate with Azure. This helps to build scalable and reliable applications in a service-oriented architecture (SOA). The Azure service bus supports four different types of communication mechanisms:[28][29]

  • Event Hubs, which provide event and telemetry ingress to the cloud at a massive scale, with low latency and high reliability. For example, an event hub can be used to track data from cell phones such as coordinating with a GPS in real time.[30]
  • Queues, which allow one-directional communication. A sender application would send the message to the service bus queue, and a receiver would read from the queue. Though there can be multiple readers for the queue only one would process a single message.
  • Topics, which provide one-directional communication using a subscriber pattern. It is similar to a queue, however, each subscriber will receive a copy of the message sent to a Topic. Optionally the subscriber can filter out messages based on specific criteria defined by the subscriber.
  • Relays, which provide bi-directional communication. Unlike queues and topics, a relay doesn't store in-flight messages in its memory. Instead, it just passes them on to the destination application.

Media services[edit]

A PaaS offering that can be used for encoding, content protection, streaming, or analytics.[31]

CDN[edit]

Azure has a worldwide content delivery network (CDN) designed to efficiently deliver audio, video, applications, images, and other static files. It improves the performance of websites by caching static files closer to users based on their geographic location. Users can manage the network using a REST-based HTTP API.[32]

Azure has 118 point of presence locations, across 100 cities, worldwide (also known as Edge locations) as of January 2023.[33]

Developer[edit]

Managements[edit]

  • With Azure Automation, users can easily automate repetitive and time-consuming tasks, often prone to cloud or enterprise setting errors. They can accomplish it using runbooks or desired state configurations for process automation.[36]
  • Microsoft SMA

Azure AI[edit]

Azure Blockchain Workbench[edit]

Through Azure[39] Blockchain Workbench, Microsoft is providing the required infrastructure to set up a consortium network in multiple topologies using a variety of consensus mechanisms. Microsoft provides integration from these blockchain platforms to other Microsoft services to streamline the development of distributed applications. Microsoft supports many general-purpose blockchains including Ethereum and Hyperledger Fabric and purpose-built blockchains like Corda.

Function[edit]

Azure functions are used in serverless computing architectures where subscribers can execute code as an event driven Function-as-a-Service (FaaS) without managing the underlying server resources.[40] Customers using Azure functions are billed based on per-second resource consumption and executions.[41]

Internet of Things (IoT)[edit]

  • Azure IoT Hub lets you connect, monitor, and manage billions of IoT assets. On February 4, 2016, Microsoft announced the General Availability of the Azure IoT Hub service.[42]
  • Azure IoT Edge is a fully managed service built on IoT Hub that allows for cloud intelligence deployed locally on IoT edge devices.
  • Azure IoT Central is a fully managed SaaS app that makes it easy to connect, monitor, and manage IoT assets at scale.[43] On December 5, 2017, Microsoft announced the Public Preview of Azure IoT Central; its Azure IoT SaaS service.[44]
  • On October 4, 2017, Microsoft began shipping GA versions of the official Microsoft Azure IoT Developer Kit (DevKit) board; manufactured by MXChip.[45]
  • On April 16, 2018, Microsoft announced the launch of the Azure Sphere, an end-to-end IoT product that focuses on microcontroller-based devices and uses Linux.[46]
  • On May 7, 2018, Microsoft announced the launch of Azure Maps, an enterprise mapping platform.
  • On June 27, 2018, Microsoft launched Azure IoT Edge, used to run Azure services and artificial intelligence on IoT devices.[47]
  • On November 20, 2018, Microsoft launched the Open Enclave SDK for cross-platform systems such as ARM TrustZone and Intel SGX.[48]

Azure Stack HCI[edit]

Azure Stack HCI is a hyper-converged infrastructure (HCI) product that uses validated hardware to run virtualized workloads on-premises to consolidate aging infrastructure and connect to Azure for cloud services.[49]

Azure Orbital[edit]

Launched in September 2020, Azure Orbital lets private industries and government agencies process satellite data quickly by connecting directly to cloud computing networks. Mobile cloud computing ground stations are also available to provide connectivity to remote locations without ground infrastructure. Third-party satellite systems, like SpaceX's Starlink and SES' O3b constellation, can be employed.[50][51]

SES plans to use Microsoft's data centers to provide cloud connectivity to remote areas through its next-generation O3b mPOWER MEO satellites alongside Microsoft's data centers.[52] The company will deploy satellite control and uplink ground stations to achieve this. SES launched the first two O3b mPOWER satellites in December 2022; nine more are scheduled between 2023 and 2024. The service should begin in Q3 2023.[53]

According to Microsoft, using satellites to connect to cloud data centers may provide faster speeds than complex fiber routes. For online media, entertainment, or gaming activities, connecting from home to the cloud can involve longer routes with multiple hops. Through their experiments with Xbox Cloud, Microsoft has discovered that satellite connection is faster than terrestrial networks in certain parts of the world (including specific locations in the USA).[54]

Regional expansion[edit]

As of 2018, Azure was available in 54 regions,[55] and Microsoft was the first primary cloud provider to establish facilities in Africa, with two regions in South Africa.[56] Azure geographies consist of multiple Azure Regions, like "North Europe" (located in Dublin, Ireland) and "West Europe" (located in Amsterdam, Netherlands).

Middle East cloud data centers[edit]

On June 19, 2019, Microsoft announced the launch of two new cloud regions in the United Arab Emirates – Microsoft's first in the Middle East.[57] Microsoft's management stated that these new data centers would empower customers and partners to embrace the benefits of the Fourth Industrial Revolution and achieve more using cloud technologies.

Research partnerships[edit]

Microsoft has partners that sell its products. In August 2018, Toyota Tsusho began a partnership with Microsoft to create fish farming tools using the Microsoft Azure application suite for IoT technologies related to water management. Developed in part by researchers from Kindai University, the water pump mechanisms use artificial intelligence to count the number of fish on a conveyor belt, analyze the number of fish, and deduce the effectiveness of water flow from the data the fish provide. The specific computer programs used in the process fall under the Azure Machine Learning and the Azure IoT Hub platforms.[58]

Design[edit]

Microsoft Azure utilizes a specialized operating system with the same name to power its "fabric layer". This cluster is hosted at Microsoft's data centers and is responsible for managing computing and storage resources and allocating them to applications running on the Microsoft Azure platform. It's a "cloud layer" built upon various Windows Server systems, including the customized Microsoft Azure Hypervisor, which is based on Windows Server 2008 and enables the virtualization of services.[59]

The Microsoft Azure Fabric Controller maintains the scalability and dependability of services and environments in the data center. It prevents failure in server malfunction and manages users' web applications, including memory allocation and load balancing.[59]

Azure provides an API built on REST, HTTP, and XML that allows a developer to interact with the services offered by Microsoft Azure. Microsoft also provides a client-side managed class library that encapsulates the functions of interacting with the services. It also integrates with Microsoft Visual Studio, Git, and Eclipse.[60][61][62]

Users can manage Azure services in multiple ways, one of which is through the Web-based Azure Portal, which became generally available in December 2015.[63] Apart from accessing services via API, users can browse active resources, adjust settings, launch new resources, and view primary monitoring data of functional virtual machines and services using the portal.

Deployment models[edit]

Regarding cloud resources, Microsoft Azure offers two deployment models: the "classic" model and the Azure Resource Manager.[64] In the classic model, each resource, like a virtual machine or SQL database, had to be managed separately. But in 2014,[64] Azure introduced the Azure Resource Manager, which allows users to group related services. This update makes it easier and more efficient to deploy, manage, and monitor resources that work closely together.[65] The classic model will eventually be phased out.

History and timeline[edit]

Azure logo used from 2010 to 2012, under Windows Azure name

In 2005, Microsoft took over Groove Networks, and Bill Gates made Groove's founder Ray Ozzie one of his 5 direct reports as one of 3 chief technology officers. Ozzie met with Amitabh Srivastava, which let Srivastava change course. They convinced Dave Cutler to postpone his retirement and their teams developed a cloud operating system.[66][67][68]

  • October 2008 (PDC LA) – Announced the Windows Azure Platform.[69]
  • March 2009 – Announced SQL Azure Relational Database.
  • November 2009 – Updated Windows Azure CTP, Enabled full trust, PHP, Java, CDN CTP and more.
  • February 1, 2010 – Windows Azure Platform commercially available.[70]
  • June 2010 – Windows Azure Update, .NET Framework 4, OS Versioning, CDN, SQL Azure Update.[71]
  • October 2010 (PDC) – Platform enhancements, Windows Azure Connect, improved Dev / IT Pro Experience.
  • December 2011 – Traffic manager, SQL Azure reporting, HPC scheduler.
  • June 2012 – Websites, Virtual machines for Windows and Linux, Python SDK, new portal, locally redundant storage.
  • April 2014 – Windows Azure renamed Microsoft Azure,[7] ARM Portal introduced at Build 2014.
  • July 2014 – Azure Machine Learning public preview.[72]
  • November 2014 – Outage affecting major websites including MSN.com.[73]
  • September 2015 – Azure Cloud Switch introduced as a cross-platform Linux distribution. Currently known as SONiC[74]
  • December, 2015 – Azure ARM Portal (codename "Ibiza") released.[75]
  • March, 2016 – Azure Service Fabric is Generally Available (GA)[76]
  • November 15, 2016 - Azure Functions is Generally Available (GA)[77]
  • May 10, 2017 - Azure Cosmos DB is Generally Available (GA)[78]
  • May 7, 2018 - Azure Maps is Generally Available (GA)[79]
  • July 16, 2018 – Azure Service Fabric Mesh public preview[80]
  • September 24, 2018 – Microsoft Azure IoT Central is Generally Available (GA)[81]
  • October 10, 2018 – Microsoft joins the Linux-oriented group Open Invention Network.[82]
  • April 17, 2019 – Azure Front Door Service is now available.[83]
  • March 2020 – Microsoft said that there was a 775% increase in Microsoft Teams usage in Italy due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The company estimates there are now 44 million daily active users of Teams worldwide.[84]
  • January 17, 2023 - Azure OpenAI Service is Generally Available (GA)[85]

Privacy[edit]

According to the Patriot Act, Microsoft has acknowledged that the U.S. government can access data even if the hosting company is not American and the data is outside the U.S.[86] To address concerns related to privacy and security, Microsoft has established the Microsoft Azure Trust Center.[87] Microsoft Azure offers services that comply with multiple compliance programs, including ISO 27001:2005 and HIPAA. A comprehensive and up-to-date list of these services is available on the Microsoft Azure Trust Center Compliance page.[88] It's worth noting that Microsoft Azure has received JAB Provisional Authority to Operate (P-ATO) from the U.S. government under the Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program (FedRAMP) guidelines. This program provides a standardized approach to security assessment, authorization, and continuous monitoring for cloud services used by the federal government.[89]

Security[edit]

In July 2023, U.S. Senator Ron Wyden called on the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), the Justice Department, and the Federal Trade Commission to hold Microsoft accountable for what he described as "negligent cybersecurity practices." This came in the wake of an alleged cyberattack orchestrated by Chinese hackers, who exploited a vulnerability in Microsoft's software to compromise U.S. government email systems.[90] Similarly, Amit Yoran, the CEO of cybersecurity firm Tenable, Inc., lambasted Microsoft for what he termed "grossly irresponsible" actions, accusing the company of fostering a "culture of toxic obfuscation."[91]

Significant outages[edit]

The following is a list of Microsoft Azure outages and service disruptions.

Date Cause Notes
2012-02-29 Incorrect code for calculating leap day dates[92]
2012-07-26 Misconfigured network device
2013-02-22 Expiry of an SSL certificate[93] Xbox Live, Xbox Music and Video also affected[94]
2013-10-30 Worldwide partial compute outage[95]
2014-11-18 Azure storage upgrade caused reduced capacity across several regions[96] Xbox Live, Windows Store, MSN, Search, Visual Studio Online among others were affected.[97]
2015-12-03 Active Directory issues
2016-09-15 Global DNS outage[98]
2017-03-15 Storage tier issues[99]
2017-10-03 Fire system glitch[100]
2018-06-20 Cooling system failure[101] North Europe region experienced 11 hours of downtime
2018-09-04 Cooling system failure due to inadequate surge protection (lightning strike)[102] Brought down numerous services in multiple regions for over 25 hours, with some services remaining affected until three days later
2019-05-02 DNS Migration Issue[103]
2021-03-15 OpenID Key removal[104] Authentication errors across multiple services using Azure Active Directory for up to 16 hours
2021-04-01 DNS issue impacting multiple Microsoft services [105] Worldwide DNS issues with Azure services
2023-06-09 DDoS attack on Azure Portal [106] An hacktivist group named Anonymous Sudan claimed to have done a DDoS attack on Azure portal, that caused an outage of the Azure Portal and some others Microsoft cloud services between ~15H UTC and ~17H30 UTC.

Certifications[edit]

A large variety of Azure certifications can be attained, each requiring one or multiple successfully completed examinations.

Certification levels range from beginner, intermediate to expert.

Examples of common certifications include:

  • Azure Fundamentals
  • Azure Data Fundamentals
  • Azure AI Engineer Associate
  • Azure AI Fundamentals
  • Azure Cosmos DB Developer Specialty
  • Azure Administrator Associate
  • Azure Data Engineer Associate
  • Azure Data Scientist Associate
  • Azure Database Administrator Associate
  • Azure Developer Associate
  • Azure Enterprise Data Analyst Associate
  • Azure Security Engineer Associate
  • Azure Security Operations Analyst Associate
  • Azure Identity and Access Administrator Associate
  • Azure Security, Compliance, and Identity Fundamentals
  • Azure Network Engineer Associate
  • Azure Windows Server Hybrid Administrator Associate
  • Azure Virtual Desktop Specialty
  • Azure for SAP Workloads Specialty
  • Azure Customer Data Platform Specialty
  • Azure Cybersecurity Architect Expert
  • Azure Solutions Architect Expert
  • Azure Power Platform Solution Architect Expert
  • Azure DevOps Engineer Expert

Key people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Srivastava, Amitabh (October 27, 2008). "Introducing Windows Azure". msdn.com. Archived from the original on May 14, 2010. Retrieved April 3, 2021.
  2. ^ Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.
  3. ^ Jones, Daniel (2011). Roach, Peter; Setter, Jane; Esling, John (eds.). Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-15255-6.
  4. ^ "azure". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on February 4, 2020.
  5. ^ a b Abandy, Roosevelt (August 24, 2022). "The History of Microsoft Azure". Microsoft Tech Community.
  6. ^ Tharakan, Anya George and Dastin, Jeffery (October 20, 2016). "Microsoft shares hit high as cloud business flies above estimates". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved October 21, 2016.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ a b c "Upcoming Name Change for Windows Azure". Microsoft Azure. March 24, 2014. Archived from the original on July 26, 2018. Retrieved August 29, 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  8. ^ "Directory of Azure Cloud Services | Microsoft Azure". azure.microsoft.com. Retrieved May 9, 2023.
  9. ^ "How to monitor Microsoft Azure VMs". Datadog. August 13, 2015. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
  10. ^ Chiappetta, Marco. "Ampere Continues Blazing A Trail For Efficient, High-Performance Cloud Native Processors". Forbes. Retrieved January 26, 2023.
  11. ^ Vaughan-Nichols, Steven J. "Microsoft developer reveals Linux is now more used on Azure than Windows Server". ZDNet. Retrieved July 2, 2019.
  12. ^ "Meet Windows Azure event June 2012". Weblogs.asp.net. June 7, 2012. Retrieved June 27, 2013.
  13. ^ "Web App Service - Microsoft Azure". Microsoft.
  14. ^ "Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS)". Microsoft.
  15. ^ https://techcommunity.microsoft.com/t5/user/viewprofilepage/user-id/815458. "Azure Virtual Desktop Watermarking Support". TECHCOMMUNITY.MICROSOFT.COM. Retrieved August 2, 2023. {{cite web}}: |last= has generic name (help); External link in |last= (help)CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  16. ^ "Azure Identity and Access Management Solutions | Microsoft Azure". azure.microsoft.com. Retrieved May 9, 2023.
  17. ^ "External Identities documentation". docs.microsoft.com. Retrieved June 18, 2022.
  18. ^ Chik, Joy (July 11, 2023). "Microsoft Entra expands into Security Service Edge and Azure AD becomes Microsoft Entra ID". Microsoft Security Blog. Retrieved July 12, 2023.
  19. ^ "Mobile Engagement - Microsoft Azure". azure.microsoft.com. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
  20. ^ "HockeyApp - Microsoft Azure". azure.microsoft.com. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
  21. ^ "File Storage". Microsoft. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  22. ^ Hassell, Jonathan (September 3, 2014). "Microsoft's StorSimple: A first look at the 8000 series". Computerworld.
  23. ^ "Azure and CONNX". CONNX. Retrieved October 30, 2014.
  24. ^ "Azure Synapse Analytics | Microsoft Azure". azure.microsoft.com. Retrieved May 9, 2023.
  25. ^ "SQL Data Warehouse | Microsoft Azure". azure.microsoft.com. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
  26. ^ "Introduction to Azure Data Factory". microsoft.com. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
  27. ^ "HDInsight | Cloud Hadoop". Azure.microsoft.com. Retrieved July 22, 2014.
  28. ^ "Sanitization". docs.particular.net. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  29. ^ sethmanheim. "Overview of Azure Service Bus fundamentals". docs.microsoft.com. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  30. ^ "Event Hubs". azure.microsoft.com. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  31. ^ "Top 37 Cloud Platform as a Service (PaaS) Tools". Startup Stash. Retrieved August 1, 2023.
  32. ^ BryanLa. "Azure REST API Reference". docs.microsoft.com. Retrieved September 15, 2021.
  33. ^ "Azure CDN Coverage by Metro | Microsoft Azure". azure.microsoft.com. Retrieved January 20, 2023.
  34. ^ AaronMaxwell (March 1, 2023). "Monitor Azure App Service performance - Azure Monitor". learn.microsoft.com. Retrieved August 2, 2023.
  35. ^ chcomley (October 10, 2022). "What is Azure DevOps? - Azure DevOps". learn.microsoft.com. Retrieved August 2, 2023.
  36. ^ eamonoreilly. "Azure Automation Overview". azure.microsoft.com. Retrieved September 6, 2018.
  37. ^ "What is the Azure Face API?". Microsoft. July 2, 2019. Retrieved November 29, 2019.
    "Detect domain-specific content". Microsoft. February 7, 2019. Retrieved November 29, 2019.
    "Applying content tags to images". Microsoft. February 7, 2019. Retrieved November 29, 2019.
    "Detecting image types with Computer Vision". Microsoft. March 10, 2019. Retrieved November 29, 2019.
  38. ^ Lardinois, Frederic (May 2, 2019). "Microsoft extends its Cognitive Services with personalization service, handwriting recognition APIs and more". TechCrunch. Retrieved November 29, 2019. the Computer Vision API can now understand more than 10,000 concepts, scenes and objects, together with 1 million celebrities
  39. ^ "Azure". Azure. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
  40. ^ "What is Microsoft Azure Functions? - Definition from WhatIs.com". SearchCloudComputing. Retrieved November 24, 2018.
  41. ^ "Azure Functions pricing". SearchCloudComputing. Retrieved June 18, 2022.
  42. ^ "Azure IoT Hub general availability overview". Microsoft. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
  43. ^ "IoT Central | Microsoft Azure". azure.microsoft.com. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
  44. ^ Foley, Mary Jo. "Microsoft delivers public preview of its new Azure IoT software as a service". ZDNet. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
  45. ^ timlt (June 27, 2023). "Connect an MXCHIP AZ3166 to Azure IoT Hub quickstart". learn.microsoft.com. Retrieved August 2, 2023.
  46. ^ "Microsoft built its own custom Linux kernel for its new IoT service – TechCrunch". techcrunch.com. April 16, 2018. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
  47. ^ Foley, Mary Jo. "Microsoft's Azure IoT Edge, now generally available, is key to Redmond's IoT strategy | ZDNet". ZDNet. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  48. ^ "Microsoft's edgy Open Enclave SDK goes cross platform". The Register.
  49. ^ JasonGerend (April 17, 2023). "Azure Stack HCI solution overview - Azure Stack HCI". learn.microsoft.com. Retrieved August 2, 2023.
  50. ^ Introducing Azure Orbital Microsoft. September 22, 2020. Accessed July 30, 2021
  51. ^ "Azure Space partners bring deep expertise to new venture". Source. Retrieved August 2, 2023.
  52. ^ "SES Becomes Microsoft Azure Orbital Founding Connectivity Partner" (Press release). SES. September 22, 2020. Retrieved July 30, 2021.
  53. ^ SpaceX launches first pair of O3b mPower satellites SpaceNews. 16 December 2022. Accessed 27 December 2022
  54. ^ Moving space into the cloud Space News. June 23, 2021. Accessed July 30, 2021
  55. ^ "Azure Regions | Microsoft Azure". azure.microsoft.com. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
  56. ^ Azure, Microsoft (March 6, 2019). "Microsoft opens first datacenters in Africa with general availability of Microsoft Azure | Azure Blog | Microsoft Azure". Azure Blog. Retrieved August 4, 2023.
  57. ^ "Microsoft Cloud datacenter regions now available in the UAE to help fuel the Middle East's future economic ambitions – Middle East & Africa News Center". news.microsoft.com. Retrieved March 10, 2022.
  58. ^ "Google goes bilingual, Facebook fleshes out translation and TensorFlow is dope - And, Microsoft is assisting fish farmers in Japan". The Register.
  59. ^ a b Petertaylor9999. "Enterprise Cloud Adoption: How does Azure work?". docs.microsoft.com. Retrieved October 29, 2018.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  60. ^ "Azure Repos – Git Repositories | Microsoft Azure". azure.microsoft.com. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
  61. ^ "Microsoft Azure Developer Tools | Microsoft Azure". azure.microsoft.com. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
  62. ^ rmcmurray. "Azure Toolkit for Eclipse". docs.microsoft.com. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
  63. ^ Welicki, Leon (December 2, 2015). "Announcing Azure Portal general availability". Microsoft. Retrieved December 23, 2015.
  64. ^ a b FitzMacken, Tom. "Azure Resource Manager vs. classic deployment". Microsoft. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
  65. ^ FitzMacken, Tom. "Azure Resource Manager overview". Microsoft. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
  66. ^ Ray Ozzie: Bill Gates' Fifth Guy, redmondmag, 2005-03-15.
  67. ^ Red Dog: Five questions with Microsoft mystery man Dave Cutler, ZDNet, 2009-02-25.
  68. ^ The engineer’s engineer: Computer industry luminaries salute Dave Cutler’s five-decade-long quest for quality, Microsoft News Center, 2016-04-15.
  69. ^ "Ray Ozzie announces Windows Azure". ZDNet. Retrieved October 28, 2008.
  70. ^ "Windows Azure General Availability". blogs.microsoft.com. February 1, 2010.
  71. ^ "SQL Azure SU3 is Now Live and Available in 6 Datacenters Worldwide". SQL Azure Team Blog. Microsoft. Archived from the original on June 20, 2013. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
  72. ^ "Microsoft Azure Machine Learning combines power of comprehensive machine learning with benefits of cloud". blogs.microsoft.com. June 16, 2014.
  73. ^ "Microsoft's Azure Cloud Goes Down - Again" (PDF). The Availability Digest. December 2014.
  74. ^ "What is the relationship between Azure Cloud Switch and SONiC?". Github.com. February 15, 2020.
  75. ^ "Announcing Azure Portal general availability". Azure.microsoft.com. December 2, 2015.
  76. ^ Fussell, Mark (March 31, 2016). "Azure Service Fabric is GA!". Microsoft. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
  77. ^ Azure, Microsoft (November 15, 2016). "Announcing general availability of Azure Functions". Microsoft Azure Blog. Retrieved January 9, 2024.
  78. ^ Shukla, Dharma (May 10, 2017). "Azure Cosmos DB: The industry's first globally-distributed, multi-model database service". Microsoft Azure Blog. Retrieved January 9, 2024.
  79. ^ "Azure Maps now Generally Available | Azure updates | Microsoft Azure". azure.microsoft.com. Retrieved July 21, 2023.
  80. ^ Daniel, Chacko (July 16, 2018). "Azure Service Fabric is now in public preview". Microsoft Azure. Microsoft. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
  81. ^ "Azure IoT Central is now available". Microsoft Azure. Microsoft. Retrieved September 24, 2018.
  82. ^ "Microsoft has signed up to the Open Invention Network. We repeat. Microsoft has signed up to the OIN". The Register.
  83. ^ "Azure Front Door Service is now available".
  84. ^ "Microsoft cloud services continuity". March 28, 2020. Retrieved March 28, 2020.
  85. ^ Boyd, Eric (January 17, 2023). "General availability of Azure OpenAI Service expands access to large, advanced AI models with added enterprise benefits". Microsoft Azure Blog. Retrieved January 9, 2024.
  86. ^ "The collapse of the US-EU Safe Harbor", October 20, 2015, Brad Smith, President and Chief Legal Officer, Microsoft.com
  87. ^ "Microsoft Azure Trust Center". Windowsazure.com. Retrieved June 27, 2013.
  88. ^ "Microsoft Azure Trust Center Compliance". Windowsazure.com. Retrieved June 27, 2013.
  89. ^ "FedRAMP Compliant Cloud Systems". cloud.cio.gov. Archived from the original on October 22, 2014. Retrieved October 15, 2014.
  90. ^ Starks, Tim (August 3, 2023). "Analysis | Congressional Scrutiny of Microsoft Hack Intensifies". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved September 18, 2023.
  91. ^ Goodin, Dan (August 2, 2023). "Microsoft Faces Harsh Criticism for "Grossly Irresponsible" Security Practices". Ars Technica. Retrieved September 18, 2023.
  92. ^ "Summary of Windows Azure Service Disruption on Feb 29th, 2012". Azure.microsoft.com. March 9, 2012. Retrieved July 12, 2017.
  93. ^ "Cloud Reliability". windowstricks.in. Archived from the original on July 26, 2011. Retrieved May 9, 2023.
  94. ^ Bishop, Bryan (February 22, 2013). "Xbox Live and Windows Azure suffering from extended outages". Theverge.com. Retrieved June 27, 2013.
  95. ^ "Microsoft's Windows Azure cloud hit by worldwide management interuption [sic]". www.pcworld.com. October 31, 2013. Retrieved November 3, 2013.
  96. ^ Zander, Jason. "Update on Azure Storage Service Interruption". Microsoft. Retrieved December 5, 2014.
  97. ^ Foley, Mary J. "Microsoft says Storage service performance update brought Azure down". ZD.NET. Retrieved December 5, 2014.
  98. ^ Foley, Mary Jo. "Global DNS outage hits Microsoft Azure customers - ZDNet". ZDNet. Retrieved September 6, 2018.
  99. ^ "Microsoft confirms Azure storage issues around the world (updated)". March 16, 2017. Retrieved September 6, 2018.
  100. ^ "Microsoft Says Azure Outage Caused by Accidental Fire-Suppression Gas Release". October 4, 2017. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  101. ^ "Microsoft Azure suffers major outage". June 20, 2018. Retrieved September 6, 2018.
  102. ^ Foley, Mary Jo. "Microsoft South Central U.S. datacenter outage takes down a number of cloud services - ZDNet". ZDNet. Retrieved September 6, 2018.
  103. ^ Krazit, Tom (May 2, 2019). "Microsoft Azure recovering from major networking-related outage that took out Office 365, Xbox Live, and other services". Build5Nines.com. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  104. ^ "March 16, 2021: Microsoft's latest cloud authentication outage: What went wrong". ZDNet.
  105. ^ "RCA - DNS issue impacting multiple Microsoft services (Tracking ID GVY5-TZZ)". Azure.
  106. ^ "DDoS attack on Azure Portal (Tracking ID QNPD-NC8)". Azure.
  107. ^ "The engineer's engineer: Computer industry luminaries salute Dave Cutler's five-decade-long quest for quality". Stories. April 15, 2016. Retrieved November 19, 2020.
  108. ^ "Mark Russinovich - Blog - Microsoft Azure". azure.microsoft.com.
  109. ^ "Jason Zander - Blog - Microsoft Azure". azure.microsoft.com.
  110. ^ "Julia White - Blog - Microsoft Azure". azure.microsoft.com.

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]