B. R. Ambedkar
|Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar|
|1st Minister of Law and Justice|
15 August 1947 – September 1951
|Prime Minister||Jawaharlal Nehru|
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Charu Chandra Biswas|
|Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee|
29 August 1947 – 24 January 1950
|Prime Minister||Jawaharlal Nehru|
|Labour Member, Viceroy's Executive Council|
|Preceded by||Feroz Khan Noon|
|Succeeded by||Position abolished|
14 April 1891|
Mhow, Central Provinces, India (now in Madhya Pradesh)
|Died||6 December 1956
|Political party||Samata Sainik Dal, Independent Labour Party, Scheduled Castes Federation|
|Profession||Jurist, economist, social reformer|
|Awards||Bharat Ratna (posthumously)|
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (14 April 1891 – 6 December 1956), popularly known as Baba Saheb, was an Indian jurist, economist, politician and social reformer who inspired the Dalit Buddhist Movement and campaigned against social discrimination against Untouchables (Dalits), while also supporting the rights of women and labour. He was Independent India's first law minister and the principal architect of the Constitution of India.
Ambedkar was a prolific student, earning doctorates in economics from both Columbia University and the London School of Economics, and gained a reputation as a scholar for his research in law, economics and political science. In his early career he was an economist, professor, and lawyer. His later life was marked by his political activities; he became involved in campaigning and negotiations for India's independence, publishing journals, advocating political rights and social freedom for Dalits, and contributing significantly to the establishment of the state of India. In 1956 he converted to Buddhism, initiating mass conversions of Dalits.
In 1990, the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award, was posthumously conferred upon Ambedkar. Ambedkar's legacy includes numerous memorials and depictions in popular culture.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Education
- 3 Opposition to Aryan invasion theory
- 4 Opposition to untouchability
- 5 Protests
- 6 Poona Pact
- 7 Political career
- 8 Drafting India's Constitution
- 9 Economic planning
- 10 Second marriage
- 11 Conversion to Buddhism
- 12 Death
- 13 Legacy
- 14 In popular culture
- 15 Works
- 16 See also
- 17 References
- 18 Further reading
Ambedkar was born on 14 April 1891 in the town and military cantonment of Mhow in the Central Provinces (now in Madhya Pradesh). He was the 14th and last child of Ramji Maloji Sakpal, an army officer who held the rank of Subedar, and Bhimabai Murbadkar Sakpal. His family was of Marathi background from the town of Ambavade (Mandangad taluka) in Ratnagiri district of modern-day Maharashtra. Ambedkar was born into a poor low Mahar (dalit) caste, who were treated as untouchables and subjected to socio-economic discrimination. Ambedkar's ancestors had long worked for the army of the British East India Company, and his father served in the British Indian Army at the Mhow cantonment. Although they attended school, Ambedkar and other untouchable children were segregated and given little attention or help by teachers. They were not allowed to sit inside the class. When they needed to drink water, someone from a higher caste had to pour that water from a height as they were not allowed to touch either the water or the vessel that contained it. This task was usually performed for the young Ambedkar by the school peon, and if the peon was not available then he had to go without water; he described the situation later in his writings as "No peon, No Water". He was required to sit on a gunny sack which he had to take home with him.
Ramji Sakpal retired in 1894 and the family moved to Satara two years later. Shortly after their move, Ambedkar's mother died. The children were cared for by their paternal aunt and lived in difficult circumstances. Three sons – Balaram, Anandrao and Bhimrao – and two daughters – Manjula and Tulasa – of the Ambedkars survived them. Of his brothers and sisters, only Ambedkar passed his examinations and went to high school. His original surname Ambavadekar comes from his native village 'Ambavade' in Ratnagiri district. His teacher, Mahadev Ambedkar, who was fond of him, changed his surname from 'Ambavadekar' to his own surname 'Ambedkar' in school records.
In 1897, Ambedkar's family moved to Bombay where Ambedkar became the only untouchable enrolled at Elphinstone High School. In 1906, when he was about 15 years old, his marriage to a nine-year-old girl, Ramabai, was arranged.
Undergraduate studies at the University of Bombay
In 1907, he passed his matriculation examination and in the following year he entered Elphinstone College, which was affiliated to the University of Bombay, becoming the first untouchable to do so. This success evoked much celebration among untouchables and after a public ceremony, he was presented with a biography of the Buddha by Dada Keluskar, the author and a family friend.
By 1912, he obtained his degree in economics and political science from Bombay University, and prepared to take up employment with the Baroda state government. His wife, by then 15 years old, had just moved his young family and started work, when he had to quickly return to Mumbai to see his ailing father, who died on 2 February 1913.
Postgraduate studies at Columbia University
In 1913, Ambedkar moved to the United States at the age of 22. He had been awarded a Baroda State Scholarship of £11.50 (Sterling) per month for three years under a scheme established by Sayajirao Gaekwad III (Gaekwad of Baroda) that was designed to provide opportunities for postgraduate education at Columbia University in New York City. Soon after arriving there he settled in rooms at Livingston Hall with Naval Bhathena, a Parsi who was to be a lifelong friend. He passed his M.A. exam in June 1915, majoring in Economics, and other subjects of Sociology, History, Philosophy and Anthropology. He presented a thesis, Ancient Indian Commerce. Ambedkar was influenced by John Dewey and his work on democracy.
In 1916 he completed his second thesis, National Dividend of India-A Historic and Analytical Study for another M.A., and finally he received his PhD in Economics in 1927 for his third thesis, after he left for London. On 9 May, he read the paper Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development before a seminar conducted by the anthropologist Alexander Goldenweiser.
Postgraduate studies at the London School of Economics
In October 1916, he enrolled for the Bar course at Gray's Inn, and at the same time enrolled at the London School of Economics where he started working on a doctoral thesis. In June 1917, he returned to India because his scholarship from Baroda ended. His book collection was dispatched on different ship from the one he was on, and that ship was torpedoed and sunk by a German submarine. He got permission to return to London to submit his thesis within four years. He returned at the first opportunity, and completed a master's degree in 1921. His thesis was on the "The problem of the rupee: Its origin and its solution". In 1923, he completed a D.Sc. in Economics, and the same year he was called to the Bar by Gray's Inn. His third and fourth Doctorates (LL.D, Columbia, 1952 and D.Litt., Osmania, 1953) were conferred honoris causa.
Opposition to Aryan invasion theory
According to Arvind Sharma, Ambedkar noticed certain flaws in the Aryan invasion theory that were later acknowledged by western scholarship. For example, scholars now acknowledge anās in Rig Veda 5.29.10 refers to speech rather than the shape of the nose. Ambedkar anticipated this modern view by stating:
The term Anasa occurs in Rig Veda V.29.10. What does the word mean? There are two interpretations. One is by Prof. Max Muller. The other is by Sayanacharya. According to Prof. Max Muller, it means 'one without nose' or 'one with a flat nose' and has as such been relied upon as a piece of evidence in support of the view that the Aryans were a separate race from the Dasyus. Sayanacharya says that it means 'mouthless,' i.e., devoid of good speech. This difference of meaning is due to difference in the correct reading of the word Anasa. Sayanacharya reads it as an-asa while Prof. Max Muller reads it as a-nasa. As read by Prof. Max Muller, it means 'without nose.' Question is : which of the two readings is the correct one? There is no reason to hold that Sayana's reading is wrong. On the other hand there is everything to suggest that it is right. In the first place, it does not make non-sense of the word. Secondly, as there is no other place where the Dasyus are described as noseless, there is no reason why the word should be read in such a manner as to give it an altogether new sense. It is only fair to read it as a synonym of Mridhravak. There is therefore no evidence in support of the conclusion that the Dasyus belonged to a different race.
Ambedkar disputed various hypotheses of the Aryan homeland being outside India, and concluded the Aryan homeland was India itself. According to Ambedkar, the Rig Veda says Aryans, Dāsa and Dasyus were competing religious groups, not different peoples.
Opposition to untouchability
As Ambedkar was educated by the Princely State of Baroda, he was bound to serve it. He was appointed Military Secretary to the Gaikwad but had to quit in a short time. He described the incident in his autobiography, Waiting for a Visa. Thereafter, he tried to find ways to make a living for his growing family. He worked as a private tutor, as an accountant, and established an investment consulting business, but it failed when his clients learned that he was an untouchable. In 1918, he became Professor of Political Economy in the Sydenham College of Commerce and Economics in Mumbai. Although he was successful with the students, other professors objected to his sharing a drinking-water jug with them.
Ambedkar had been invited to testify before the Southborough Committee, which was preparing the Government of India Act 1919. At this hearing, Ambedkar argued for creating separate electorates and reservations for untouchables and other religious communities. In 1920, he began the publication of the weekly Mooknayak (Leader of the Silent) in Mumbai with the help of Shahu of Kolhapur i.e. Shahu IV (1874–1922).
Ambedkar went on to work as a legal professional. In 1926, he successfully defended three non-Brahmin leaders who had accused the Brahmin community of ruining India and were then subsequently sued for libel. Dhananjay Keer notes that "The victory was resounding, both socially and individually, for the clients and the Doctor".
While practising law in the Bombay High Court, he tried to promote education to untouchables and uplift them. His first organised attempt was his establishment of the central institution Bahishkrit Hitakarini Sabha, intended to promote education and socio-economic improvement, as well as the welfare of "outcastes", at the time referred to as depressed classes. For the defence of Dalit rights, he started many periodicals like Mook Nayak, Bahishkrit Bharat, and Equality Janta.
He was appointed to the Bombay Presidency Committee to work with the all-European Simon Commission in 1925. This commission had sparked great protests across India, and while its report was ignored by most Indians, Ambedkar himself wrote a separate set of recommendations for the future Constitution of India.
By 1927, Ambedkar had decided to launch active movements against untouchability. He began with public movements and marches to open up public drinking water resources. He also began a struggle for the right to enter Hindu temples. He led a satyagraha in Mahad to fight for the right of the untouchable community to draw water from the main water tank of the town. In a conference in late 1927, Ambedkar publicly condemned the classic Hindu text, the Manusmriti (Laws of Manu), for ideologically justifying caste discrimination and "untouchability", and he ceremonially burned copies of the ancient text. On 25 December 1927, he led thousands of followers to burn copies of Manusmrti. Thus annually 25 December is celebrated as Manusmriti Dahan Din (Manusmriti Burning Day) by Ambedkarites and Dalits.
In 1930, Ambedkar launched Kalaram Temple movement after three months of preparation. About 15,000 volunteers assembled at Kalaram Temple satygraha making one of the greatest processions of Nashik. The procession was headed by a military band, a batch of scouts, women and men walked in discipline, order and determination to see the god for the first time. When they reached to gate, the gates were closed by Brahmin authorities.
In 1932, British announced the formation of a separate electorate for "Depressed Classes" in the Communal Award. Gandhi fiercely opposed a separate electorate for untouchables, saying he feared that such an arrangement would divide the Hindu community. Gandhi protested by fasting while imprisoned in the Yerwada Central Jail of Poona. Following the fast, Congress politicians and activists such as Madan Mohan Malaviya and Palwankar Baloo organised joint meetings with Ambedkar and his supporters at Yerwada. On 25 September 1932, the agreement known as Poona Pact was signed between Ambedkar (on behalf of the depressed classes among Hindus) and Madan Mohan Malaviya (on behalf of the other Hindus). The agreement gave reserved seats for the depressed classes in the Provisional legislatures, within the general electorate. Due to the pact, the depressed class received 148 seats in the legislature, instead of the 71 as allocated in the Communal Award earlier proposed by the British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald. The text uses the term "Depressed Classes" to denote Untouchables among Hindus who were later called Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes under India Act 1935, and the later Indian Constitution of 1950.
In 1935, Ambedkar was appointed principal of the Government Law College, Bombay, a position he held for two years. He also served as the chairman of Governing body of Ramjas College,University of Delhi, after the death of its Founder Shri Rai Kedarnath. Settling in Bombay (today called Mumbai), Ambedkar oversaw the construction of a house, and stocked his personal library with more than 50,000 books. His wife Ramabai died after a long illness the same year. It had been her long-standing wish to go on a pilgrimage to Pandharpur, but Ambedkar had refused to let her go, telling her that he would create a new Pandharpur for her instead of Hinduism's Pandharpur which treated them as untouchables. At the Yeola Conversion Conference on 13 October in Nasik, Ambedkar announced his intention to convert to a different religion and exhorted his followers to leave Hinduism. He would repeat his message at many public meetings across India.
In 1936, Ambedkar founded the Independent Labour Party, which contested the 1937 Bombay election to the Central Legislative Assembly for the 13 reserved and 4 general seats, and secured 11 and 3 seats respectively.
Ambedkar published his book Annihilation of Caste on 15 May 1936. It strongly criticised Hindu orthodox religious leaders and the caste system in general, and included "a rebuke of Gandhi" on the subject. Later, in a 1955 BBC interview, he accused Gandhi of writing in opposition of the caste system in English language papers while writing in support of it in Gujarati language papers.
In his work Who Were the Shudras?, Ambedkar tried to explain the formation of untouchables. He saw Shudras and Ati Shudras who form the lowest caste in the ritual hierarchy of the caste system, as separate from Untouchables. Ambedkar oversaw the transformation of his political party into the Scheduled Castes Federation, although it performed poorly in the 1946 elections for Constituent Assembly of India. Later he was elected into the constituent assembly of Bengal where Muslim League was in power.
Ambedkar contested in the Bombay North first Indian General Election of 1952, but lost to his former assistant and Congress Party candidate Narayan Kajrolkar. Ambedkar became a member of Rajya Sabha, probably an appointed member. He tried to enter Lok Sabha again in the by-election of 1954 from Bhandara, but he placed third (the Congress Party won). By the time of the second general election in 1957, Ambedkar had died.
Ambedkar also criticised Islamic practice in South Asia. While justifying the Partition of India, he condemned child marriage and the mistreatment of women in Muslim society.
No words can adequately express the great and many evils of polygamy and concubinage, and especially as a source of misery to a Muslim woman. Take the caste system. Everybody infers that Islam must be free from slavery and caste. [...] [While slavery existed], much of its support was derived from Islam and Islamic countries. While the prescriptions by the Prophet regarding the just and humane treatment of slaves contained in the Koran are praiseworthy, there is nothing whatever in Islam that lends support to the abolition of this curse. But if slavery has gone, caste among Musalmans [Muslims] has remained.
Drafting India's Constitution
Upon India's independence on 15 August 1947, the new Congress-led government invited Ambedkar to serve as the nation's first Law Minister, which he accepted. On 29 August, he was appointed Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee, and was appointed by the Assembly to write India's new Constitution.
Granville Austin described the Indian Constitution drafted by Ambedkar as 'first and foremost a social document'. 'The majority of India's constitutional provisions are either directly arrived at furthering the aim of social revolution or attempt to foster this revolution by establishing conditions necessary for its achievement.'
The text prepared by Ambedkar provided constitutional guarantees and protections for a wide range of civil liberties for individual citizens, including freedom of religion, the abolition of untouchability, and the outlawing of all forms of discrimination. Ambedkar argued for extensive economic and social rights for women, and won the Assembly's support for introducing a system of reservations of jobs in the civil services, schools and colleges for members of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and Other Backward Class, a system akin to affirmative action. India's lawmakers hoped to eradicate the socio-economic inequalities and lack of opportunities for India's depressed classes through these measures. The Constitution was adopted on 26 November 1949 by the Constituent Assembly.
Opposition to Article 370
Ambedkar opposed Article 370 of the Constitution of India, which granted a special status to the State of Jammu and Kashmir, and which was included against his wishes. Balraj Madhok reportedly said, Ambedkar had clearly told Sk. Abdullah: "You wish India should protect your borders, she should build roads in your area, she should supply you food grains, and Kashmir should get equal status as India. But Government of India should have only limited powers and Indian people should have no rights in Kashmir. To give consent to this proposal, would be a treacherous thing against the interests of India and I, as the Law Minister of India, will never do it." Then Sk. Abdullah approached Nehru, who directed him to Gopal Swami Ayyangar, who in turn approached Sardar Patel, saying Nehru had promised Sk. Abdullah the special status. Patel got the Article passed while Nehru was on a foreign tour. On the day the article came up for discussion, Ambedkar did not reply to questions on it but did participate on other articles. All arguments were done by Krishna Swami Ayyangar.
Support to Uniform Civil Code
During the debates in the Constituent Assembly, Ambedkar demonstrated his will to reform Indian society by recommending the adoption of a Uniform Civil Code. Ambedkar resigned from the cabinet in 1951, when parliament stalled his draft of the Hindu Code Bill, which sought to enshrine gender equality in the laws of inheritance and marriage. Ambedkar independently contested an election in 1952 to the lower house of parliament, the Lok Sabha, but was defeated in the Bombay (North Central) constituency by a little-known Narayan Sadoba Kajrolkar, who polled 138,137 votes compared to Ambedkar's 123,576. He was appointed to the upper house, of parliament, the Rajya Sabha in March 1952 and would remain as member till death.
Ambedkar was the first Indian to pursue a doctorate in economics abroad. He argued that industrialisation and agricultural growth could enhance the Indian economy. He stressed investment in agriculture as the primary industry of India. According to Sharad Pawar, Ambedkar’s vision helped the government to achieve its food security goal. Ambedkar advocated national economic and social development, stressing education, public hygiene, community health, residential facilities as the basic amenities. His DSc thesis "The problem of the Rupee: Its origin and solution" (1923) examines the causes for the Rupee's fall in value. He proved the importance of price stability over exchange stability. He analysed the silver and gold exchange rates and their effect on the economy, and found the reasons for the failure of British India's public treasury. He calculated the loss of development caused by British rule.
In 1951, Ambedkar established the Finance Commission of India. He opposed income tax for low-income groups. He contributed in Land Revenue Tax and excise duty policies to stabilise the economy. He played an important role in land reform and the state economic development. According to him, the caste system divided labourors and impeded economic progress. He emphasised a free economy with a stable Rupee which India has adopted recently. He advocated birth control to develop the Indian economy, and this has been adopted by Indian government as national policy for family planning. He emphasised equal rights for women for economic development. He laid the foundation of industrial relations after Indian independence.
Reserve Bank of India
Ambedkar was trained as an economist, and was a professional economist until 1921, when he became a political leader. He wrote three scholarly books on economics:
- Administration and Finance of the East India Company
- The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India
- The Problem of the Rupee: Its Origin and Its Solution
Ambedkar's first wife Ramabai died in 1935 after a long illness. After completing the draft of India's constitution in the late 1940s, he suffered from lack of sleep, had neuropathic pain in his legs, and was taking insulin and homoeopathic medicines. He went to Bombay for treatment, and there met Dr. Sharada Kabir, a Brahmin, whom he married on 15 April 1948, at his home in New Delhi. Doctors recommended a companion who was a good cook and had medical knowledge to care for him. She adopted the name Savita Ambedkar and cared for him the rest of his life.
Conversion to Buddhism
Ambedkar considered converting to Sikhism, which encouraged opposition to oppression and so appealed to leaders of scheduled castes. But after meeting with Sikh leaders, he concluded that he might get "second-rate" Sikh status, as described by scholar Stephen P. Cohen.
Instead, he studied Buddhism all his life. Around 1950, he devoted his attention to Buddhism and travelled to Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) to attend a meeting of the World Fellowship of Buddhists. While dedicating a new Buddhist vihara near Pune, Ambedkar announced he was writing a book on Buddhism, and that when it was finished, he would formally convert to Buddhism. He twice visited Burma in 1954; the second time to attend the third conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists in Rangoon. In 1955, he founded the Bharatiya Bauddha Mahasabha, or the Buddhist Society of India. He completed his final work, The Buddha and His Dhamma, in 1956 which was published posthumously.
After meetings with the Sri Lankan Buddhist monk Hammalawa Saddhatissa, Ambedkar organised a formal public ceremony for himself and his supporters in Nagpur on 14 October 1956. Accepting the Three Refuges and Five Precepts from a Buddhist monk in the traditional manner, Ambedkar completed his own conversion, along with his wife. He then proceeded to convert some 500,000 of his supporters who were gathered around him. He prescribed the 22 Vows for these converts, after the Three Jewels and Five Precepts. He then travelled to Kathmandu, Nepal to attend the Fourth World Buddhist Conference. His work on The Buddha or Karl Marx and "Revolution and counter-revolution in ancient India" remained incomplete.
Since 1948, Ambedkar suffered from diabetes. He was bed-ridden from June to October in 1954 due to medication side-effects and poor eyesight. He had been increasingly embittered by political issues, which took a toll on his health. His health worsened during 1955. Three days after completing his final manuscript The Buddha and His Dhamma, Ambedkar died in his sleep on 6 December 1956 at his home in Delhi.
A Buddhist cremation was organised at Dadar Chowpatty beach on 7 December, attended by half a million grieving people. A conversion program was organised on 16 December 1956, so that cremation attendees were also converted to Buddhism at the same place.
Ambedkar was survived by his second wife, who died in 2003, and his son Yashwant (known as Bhaiyasaheb Ambedkar). Ambedkar's grandson, Ambedkar Prakash Yashwant, is the chief-adviser of the Buddhist Society of India, leads the Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangh and has served in both houses of the Indian Parliament.
A number of unfinished typescripts and handwritten drafts were found among Ambedkar's notes and papers and gradually made available. Among these were Waiting for a Visa, which probably dates from 1935–36 and is an autobiographical work, and the Untouchables, or the Children of India's Ghetto, which refers to the census of 1951.
A memorial for Ambedkar was established in his Delhi house at 26 Alipur Road. His birthdate is celebrated as a public holiday known as Ambedkar Jayanti or Bhim Jayanti. He was posthumously awarded India's highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna, in 1990.
On the anniversary of his birth and death, and on Dhamma Chakra Pravartan Din (14 October) at Nagpur, at least half a million people gather to pay homage to him at his memorial in Mumbai. Thousands of bookshops are set up, and books are sold. His message to his followers was "educate, organise, agitate!".
Ambedkar's legacy as a socio-political reformer, had a deep effect on modern India. In post-Independence India, his socio-political thought is respected across the political spectrum. His initiatives have influenced various spheres of life and transformed the way India today looks at socio-economic policies, education and affirmative action through socio-economic and legal incentives. His reputation as a scholar led to his appointment as free India's first law minister, and chairman of the committee for drafting the constitution. He passionately believed in individual freedom and criticised caste society. His accusations of Hinduism as being the foundation of the caste system made him controversial and unpopular among Hindus. His conversion to Buddhism sparked a revival in interest in Buddhist philosophy in India and abroad.
Many public institutions are named in his honour, and the Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport in Nagpur, otherwise known as Sonegaon Airport. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar is also named in his honour. A large official portrait of Ambedkar is on display in the Indian Parliament building.
The Maharashtra government has acquired a house in London where Ambedkar lived during his days as a student in the 1920s. The house is expected to be converted into a museum-cum-memorial to Ambedkar.
Ambedkar was voted "the Greatest Indian" in 2012 by a poll organised by History TV18 and CNN IBN. Nearly 20 million votes were cast, making him the most popular Indian figure since the launch of the initiative. Due to his role in economics, Narendra Jadhav, a notable Indian economist, has said that Ambedkar was "the highest educated Indian economist of all times." Amartya Sen, said that Ambedkar is "father of my economics", and "he was highly controversial figure in his home country, though it was not the reality. His contribution in the field of economics is marvelous and will be remembered forever." Osho, a spiritual teacher, remarked "I have seen people who are born in the lowest category of Hindu law, the sudras, the untouchables, so intelligent: when India became independent, the man who made the constitution of India, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, was a sudra. There was no equal to his intelligence as far as law is concerned – he was a world-famous authority."  President Obama addressed the Indian parliament in 2010, and referred to Dalit leader Dr. B.R. Ambedkar as the great and revered Human Rights champion and main author of India’s constitution.
Ambedkar's political philosophy has given rise to a large number of political parties, publications and workers' unions that remain active across India, especially in Maharashtra. His promotion of Buddhism has rejuvenated interest in Buddhist philosophy among sections of population in India. Mass conversion ceremonies have been organised by human rights activists in modern times, emulating Ambedkar's Nagpur ceremony of 1956. Some Indian Buddhists regard him as a Bodhisattva, although he never claimed it himself. Outside India, during the late 1990s, some Hungarian Romani people drew parallels between their own situation and that of the downtrodden people in India. Inspired by Ambedkar, they started to convert to Buddhism.
In popular culture
Several movies, plays, and other works have been based on the life and thoughts of Ambedkar. Jabbar Patel directed the English-language film Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar in 2000 with Mammootty in the lead role. This biopic was sponsored by the National Film Development Corporation of India and the government's Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment. The film was released after a long and controversial gestation. David Blundell, professor of anthropology at UCLA and historical ethnographer, has established Arising Light – a series of films and events that are intended to stimulate interest and knowledge about the social conditions in India and the life of Ambedkar. In Samvidhaan, a TV mini-series on the making of the Constitution of India directed by Shyam Benegal, the pivotal role of B. R. Ambedkar was played by Sachin Khedekar. The play Ambedkar Aur Gandhi, directed by Arvind Gaur and written by Rajesh Kumar, tracks the two prominent personalities of its title.
Bhimayana: Experiences of Untouchability, published in 2011 by Navayana, is a graphic biography of Ambedkar. It was created by Pardhan-Gond artists Durgabai Vyam and Subhash Vyam, and writers Srividya Natarajan and S. Anand. The book depicts the experiences of untouchability faced by Ambedkar from childhood to adulthood. CNN named it one of the top 5 political comic books.
Google commemorated Ambedkar's 124th birthday through a homepage doodle on 14 April 2015. The doodle was featured in India, Argentina, Chile, Ireland, Peru, Poland, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
- Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development and 11 Other Essays
- Ambedkar in the Bombay Legislature, with the Simon Commission and at the Round Table Conferences, 1927–1939
- Philosophy of Hinduism; India and the Pre-requisites of Communism; Revolution and Counter-revolution; Buddha or Karl Marx
- Riddles in Hinduism
- Essays on Untouchables and Untouchability
- The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India
- The Untouchables Who Were They And Why They Became Untouchables ?
- The Annihilation of Caste (1936)
- Pakistan or the Partition of India
- What Congress and Gandhi have done to the Untouchables; Mr. Gandhi and the Emancipation of the Untouchables
- Ambedkar as member of the Governor General's Executive Council, 1942–46
- The Buddha and his Dhamma
- Unpublished Writings; Ancient Indian Commerce; Notes on laws; Waiting for a Visa ; Miscellaneous notes, etc.
- Ambedkar as the principal architect of the Constitution of India
- (2 parts) Dr. Ambedkar and The Hindu Code Bill
- Ambedkar as Free India's First Law Minister and Member of Opposition in Indian Parliament (1947–1956)
- The Pali Grammar
- Ambedkar and his Egalitarian Revolution – Struggle for Human Rights. Events starting from March 1927 to 17 November 1956 in the chronological order; Ambedkar and his Egalitarian Revolution – Socio-political and religious activities. Events starting from November 1929 to 8 May 1956 in the chronological order; Ambedkar and his Egalitarian Revolution – Speeches. (Events starting from 1 January to 20 November 1956 in the chronological order.)
- Ambedkar’s Speeches and writing in Marathi
- Ambedkar’s Photo Album and Correspondence
- Pritchett, Frances. "In the 1900s" (PHP). Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- Pritchett, Frances. "In the 1940s". Retrieved 13 June 2012.
- "Rescuing Ambedkar from pure Dalitism: He would've been India's best Prime Minister".
- Bryant, Edwin. The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. pp. 50-51.
- "Do we really respect Dr Ambedkar or is it mere lip service?".
- "Ambedkar in Modi's quiver, says Gandhis insulted father of Indian Constitution".
- "Home for Ambedkar 'house'".
- "The Constitution of India: Role of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar".
- "Archives released by LSE reveal BR Ambedkar's time as a scholar".
- Jaffrelot, Christophe (2005). Ambedkar and Untouchability: Fighting the Indian Caste System. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 2. ISBN 0-231-13602-1.
- Pritchett, Frances. "In the 1890s" (PHP). Archived from the original on 7 September 2006. Retrieved 2 August 2006.
- "Mahar". Encyclopædia Britannica. britannica.com. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
- Ahuja, M. L. (2007). "Babasaheb Ambedkar". Eminent Indians : administrators and political thinkers. New Delhi: Rupa. pp. 1922–1923. ISBN 8129111071. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- Ambedkar, B. R. "Waiting for a Visa". Frances Pritchett, translator. Columbia.edu. Archived from the original on 24 June 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2010.
- KURIAN, SANGEETH. "Human rights education in schools". The Hindu.
- "Bhim, Eklavya". outlookindia.com. Archived from the original on 11 August 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2010.
- Pritchett, Frances. "In the 1910s" (PHP). Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- "Ambedkar teacher".
- "Bhimrao Ambedkar". columbia.edu.
- Kshīrasāgara, Rāmacandra (1 January 1994). "Dalit Movement in India and Its Leaders, 1857-1956". M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. Retrieved 2 November 2016 – via Google Books.
- Bryant, Edwin. The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. pp. 50.
- Sharma, Arvind (2005), "Dr. B. R. Ambedkar on the Aryan Invasion and the Emergence of the Caste System in India", J Am Acad Relig (September 2005) 73 (3): 849.
- Sharma, Arvind (2005), "Dr. B. R. Ambedkar on the Aryan Invasion and the Emergence of the Caste System in India", J Am Acad Relig (September 2005) 73 (3): 851.
- Sharma, Arvind (2005), "Dr. B. R. Ambedkar on the Aryan Invasion and the Emergence of the Caste System in India", J Am Acad Relig (September 2005) 73 (3): 854-5, 863.
- Ambedkar, Dr. B.R. "Waiting for a Visa". http://www.columbia.edu. Columbia University. Retrieved 15 April 2015. External link in
- Keer, Dhananjay (1971) . Dr. Ambedkar: Life and Mission. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan. pp. 37–38. ISBN 8171542379. OCLC 123913369.
- Harris, Ian (ed.). Buddhism and politics in twentieth-century Asia. Continuum International Group.
- Tejani, Shabnum (2008). "From Untouchable to Hindu Gandhi, Ambedkar and Depressed class question 1932". Indian secularism : a social and intellectual history, 1890-1950. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press. pp. 205–210. ISBN 0253220440. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- Jaffrelot, Christophe (2005). Dr Ambedkar and Untouchability: Analysing and Fighting Caste. London: C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 4. ISBN 1850654492.
- Keer, Dhananjay (1990) . "Man of The Hour". Dr. Ambedkar: life and mission (Third ed.). Mumbai: Popular Prakashan Private Limited. pp. 63–64. ISBN 81-7154-237-9. OCLC 123913369.
- "Dr. Ambedkar". National Campaign on Dalit Human Rights. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
- Benjamin, Joseph (June 2009). "B. R. Ambedkar: An Indefatigable Defender of Human Rights". Focus. Japan: Asia-Pacific Human Rights Information Center (HURIGHTS OSAKA). 56.
- Thorat, Sukhadeo; Kumar, Narender (2008). B. R. Ambedkar:perspectives on social exclusion and inclusive policies. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
- Ambedkar, B. R. (1979). Writings and Speeches. 1. Education Dept., Govt. of Maharashtra.
- "Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar". Maharashtra Navanirman Sena. Retrieved 26 December 2010.
- Kumar, Aishwary. "The Lies Of Manu". outlookindia.com.
- "Annihilating caste". frontline.in.
- Menon, Nivedita (25 December 2014). "Meanwhile, for Dalits and Ambedkarites in India, December 25th is Manusmriti Dahan Din, the day on which B R Ambedkar publicly and ceremoniously in 1927". Kafila. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- "11. Manusmriti Dahan Day celebrated as Indian Women's Liberation Day" (PDF).
- Keer, Dhananjay (1990). Dr. Ambedkar : life and mission (3rd ed.). Bombay: Popular Prakashan Private Limited. pp. 136–140. ISBN 8171542379.
- "Poona Pact - 1932". Britannica.com. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
- "AMBEDKAR VS GANDHI: A Part That Parted". OUTLOOK. 20 August 2012. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
- "Museum to showcase Poona Pact". The Times of India. 25 September 2007. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
Read 8th Paragraph
- Omvedt, Gail (2012). "A Part That Parted". Outlook India. The Outlook Group. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- "Introduction to the Constitution of India". google.com.
- "Gandhi's Epic Fast".
- Pritchett, Frances. "In the 1930s" (PHP). Archived from the original on 6 September 2006. Retrieved 2 August 2006.
- Jaffrelot, Christophe (2005). Dr Ambedkar and Untouchability: Analysing and Fighting Caste. London: C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. pp. 76–77. ISBN 1850654492.
- "May 15: It was 79 years ago today that Ambedkar's 'Annihilation Of Caste' was published".
- Mungekar, Bhalchandra (16–29 July 2011). "Annihilating caste". Frontline. 28 (11). Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- Deb, Siddhartha, "Arundhati Roy, the Not-So-Reluctant Renegade", New York Times Magazine, 5 March 2014. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
- "A for Ambedkar: As Gujarat's freedom march nears tryst, an assertive Dalit culture spreads".
- Jaffrelot, Christophe (2005). Dr Ambedkar and Untouchability: Analysing and Fighting Caste. London: C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 5. ISBN 1850654492.
- "Attention BJP: When the Muslim League rescued Ambedkar from the 'dustbin of history'". Firstpost. 15 April 2015. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
- Ambedkar, Bhimrao Ramji (1946). "Chapter X: Social Stagnation". Pakistan or the Partition of India. Bombay: Thackers Publishers. pp. 215–219. Retrieved 8 October 2009.
- "Some Facts of Constituent Assembly". Parliament of India. National Informatics Centre. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
On 29 August 1947, the Constituent Assembly set up an Drafting Committee under the Chairmanship of B. R. Ambedkar to prepare a Draft Constitution for India
- Austin, Granville (1999), The Indian Constitution: Cornerstone of a Nation, Oxford University Press
- "Constituent Assembly Debates Clause wise Discussion on the Draft Constitution 15th November 1948 to 8th January 1949". Retrieved 12 January 2012.
- Sheth, D. L. (Nov 1987). "Reservations Policy Revisited". Economic and Political Weekly. 22: 1957–1962. JSTOR 4377730.
- "Constitution of India". Ministry of Law and Justice of India. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
- amanadas, Dr. K. "Kashmir Problem From Ambedkarite Perspective". ambedkar.org. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- Sehgal, Narender (1994). "Chapter 26: Article 370". Converted Kashmir: Memorial of Mistakes. Delhi: Utpal Publications. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- Tilak. "Why Ambedkar refused to draft Article 370". Indymedia India. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Ambedkar with UCC". Outlook India. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
- "Ambedkar And The Uniform Civil Code".
- "Ambedkar favoured common civil code".
- Chandrababu, B. S; Thilagavathi, L (2009). Woman, Her History and Her Struggle for Emancipation. Chennai: Bharathi Puthakalayam. pp. 297–298. ISBN 8189909975.
- Dalmia, Vasudha; Sadana, Rashmi, eds. (2012). "The Politics of Caste Identity". The Cambridge Companion to Modern Indian Culture. Cambridge Companions to Culture (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 93. ISBN 0521516250.
- Guha, Ramachandra (2008). India After Gandhi: The History of the World's Largest Democracy. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-06-095858-9.
- "Statistical Report On General Elections, 1951 to The First Lok Sabha: List of Successful Candidates" (PDF). Election Commission of India. pp. 83, 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2014. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
- Sabha, Rajya. "Alphabetical List of All Members of Rajya Sabha Since 1952". Rajya Sabha Secretariat.
Serial Number 69 in the list
- IEA. "DR. B.R. AMBEDKAR'S ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL THOUGHTS AND THEIR CONTEMPORARY RELEVANCE". IEA NEWSLETTER The Indian Economic Association(IEA) (PDF). India: IEA publications. p. 10.
- Mishra, edited by S.N. (2010). Socio-economic and political vision of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. pp. 173–174. ISBN 818069674X.
- Sarode, Jayashri Purushottam (March 2013). "Impact of Dr. B.R. Ambdekar's thoughts on Indian Economy" (PDF). International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal. IV (42). Retrieved 15 October 2013.
- TNN (15 October 2013). "'Ambedkar had a vision for food self-sufficiency'". The Times of India. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
- Zelliot, Eleanor (1991). "Dr. Ambedkar and America". A talk at the Columbia University Ambedkar Centenary. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
- Ingle, M R (September 2010). "RELEVANCE OF DR. AMBEDKAR'S ECONOMIC PHILOSOPHY IN THE CURRENT SCENARIO" (PDF). International Research Journal. I (12). Retrieved 19 October 2013.
- (PDF) http://www.aygrt.net/publishArticles/651.pdf. Retrieved 28 November 2012. Missing or empty
- "Round Table India - THE PROBLEM OF THE RUPEE: ITS ORIGIN AND ITS SOLUTION (HISTORY OF INDIAN CURRENCY & BANKING)". Round Table India.
- "Ambedkar Lecture Series to Explore Influences on Indian Society". columbia.edu.
- Keer, Dhananjay (2005) . Dr. Ambedkar: life and mission. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan. pp. 403–404. ISBN 81-7154-237-9. Retrieved 13 June 2012.
- Cohen, Stephen P. (May 1969). "The Untouchable Soldier: Caste, Politics, and the Indian Army". The Journal of Asian Studies. 28 (3): 460. doi:10.2307/2943173. (subscription required)
- Sangharakshita (2006). "Milestone on the Road to conversion". Ambedkar and Buddhism (1st South Asian ed.). New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. p. 72. ISBN 8120830237. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- Pritchett, Frances. "In the 1950s" (PHP). Archived from the original on 20 June 2006. Retrieved 2 August 2006.
- Ganguly, Debjani; Docker, John, eds. (2007). Rethinking Gandhi and Nonviolent Relationality: Global Perspectives. Routledge studies in the modern history of Asia. 46. London: Routledge. p. 257. ISBN 0415437407. OCLC 123912708.
- Quack, Johannes (2011). Disenchanting India: Organized Rationalism and Criticism of Religion in India. Oxford University Press. p. 88. ISBN 0199812608. OCLC 704120510.
- Online edition of Sunday Observer – Features. Sundayobserver.lk. Retrieved on 12 August 2012.
- Sinha, Arunav. "Monk who witnessed Ambedkar's conversion to Buddhism".
- Buddha or Karl Marx – Editorial Note in the source publication: Babasaheb Ambedkar: Writings and Speeches, Vol. 3. Ambedkar.org. Retrieved on 12 August 2012.
- "Life of Babasaheb Ambedkar".
- Sangharakshita (2006) . "After Ambedkar". Ambedkar and Buddhism (First South Asian ed.). New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd. pp. 162–163. ISBN 81-208-3023-7.
- Smith, edited by Bardwell L. (1976). Religion and social conflict in South Asia. Leiden: Brill. p. 16. ISBN 9004045104.
- Kantowsky, Detlef (2003). Buddhists in India today:descriptions, pictures, and documents. Manohar Publishers & Distributors.
- "President, PM condole Savita Ambedkar's death". The Hindu. 30 May 2003.
- Kshīrasāgara, Rāmacandra (1994). Dalit movement in India and its leaders, 1857–1956. New Delhi: M D Publications pvt Ltd.
- "Biographical Sketch, Member of Parliament, 13th Lok Sabha". parliamentofindia.nic.in.
- "Baba Saheb".
- "Homage to Dr Ambedkar: When all roads led to Chaityabhoomi".
- Ganguly, Debanji (2005). "Buddha, bhakti and 'superstition': a post-secular reading of dalit conversion". Caste, Colonialism and Counter-Modernity: : notes on a postcolonial hermeneutics of caste. Oxon: Routledge. pp. 172–173. ISBN 0-415-34294-5.
- Joshi, Barbara R. (1986). Untouchable!: Voices of the Dalit Liberation Movement. Zed Books. pp. 11–14.
- Keer, D. (1990). Dr. Ambedkar: Life and Mission. Popular Prakashan. p. 61.
- Bayly, Susan (2001). Caste, Society and Politics in India from the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age. Cambridge University Press. p. 259.
- Naik, C.D (2003). "Buddhist Developments in East and West Since 1950: An Outline of World Buddhism and Ambedkarism Today in Nutshell". Thoughts and philosophy of Doctor B.R. Ambedkar (First ed.). New Delhi: Sarup & Sons. p. 12. ISBN 81-7625-418-5. OCLC 53950941.
- Maharashtra government buys BR Ambedkar's house in London, Hindustan Times, 27 August 2015.
- "The Greatest Indian after Independence: BR Ambedkar". IBNlive. 15 August 2012.
- "The Greatest Indian". historyindia.
- Planning Commission. "Member's Profile : Dr. Narendra Jadhav". Government of India. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- PISHAROTY, SANGEETA BAROOAH (26 May 2013). "Words that were". The Hindu. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- Face the People - FTP: Nobel laureate Amartya Sen on economic growth, Indian politics. YouTube. 22 July 2013.
- "Ambedkar my father in Economics: Dr Amartya Sen « Atrocity News". atrocitynews.com.
- "The Messiah Volume 2, pg 23" (PDF). oshorajneesh.com.
- "U.S. President Barack Obama on Dr. B.R. Ambedkar". Declaration of Empathy.
- "One lakh people convert to Buddhism". The Hindu. 28 May 2007.
- Michael (1999), p. 65, notes that "The concept of Ambedkar as a Bodhisattva or enlightened being who brings liberation to all backward classes is widespread among Buddhists." He also notes how Ambedkar's pictures are enshrined side-to-side in Buddhist Vihars and households in India|office = Labour Member in Viceroy's Executive Counciln Buddhist homes.
- "Magazine / Land & People: Ambedkar in Hungary". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 22 November 2009. Retrieved 17 July 2010.
- "Resurgence of an icon Babasaheb Ambedkar".
- Viswanathan, S (24 May 2010). "Ambedkar film: better late than never". The Hindu.
- Blundell, David (2006). "Arising Light: Making a Documentary Life History Motion Picture on Dr B. R. Ambedkar in India". Hsi Lai Journal of Humanistic Buddhism. 7. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- Ramnara (5 March 2014). "Samvidhaan: The Making of the Constitution of India (TV Mini-Series 2014)". IMDb.
- Anima, P. (17 July 2009). "A spirited adventure". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 14 August 2009.
- Calvi, Nuala (23 May 2011). "The top five political comic books". CNN. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- "DR. B.R. AMBEDKAR SAMAJIK PARIVARTAN STHAL". Department of Tourism, Government of UP, Uttar Pradesh. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- "Ambedkar Memorial, Lucknow/India" (PDF). Remmers India Pvt. Ltd. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- Gibbs, Jonathan (14 April 2015). Doodle "B. R. Ambedkar's 124th Birthday: Indian social reformer and politician honoured with a Google Doodle" Check
|url=value (help). The Independent. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
- "B R Ambedkar 124th birth anniversary: Google doodle changes in 7 countries as tribute". The Indian Express. 14 April 2015.
- "Google's BR Ambedkar birth anniversary doodle on 7 other countries apart from India". dna. 14 April 2015.
- "B.R. Ambedkar, a hero of India's independence movement, honoured by Google Doodle". Telegraph.co.uk. 14 April 2015.
- Ambedkar, B. R. (1979), Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, writings and speeches, Mumbai: Education Dept., Government of Maharashtra, OL 4080132M
- "Riddle in Hinduism". Ambedkar.org. Retrieved 17 July 2010.
- Michael, S.M. (1999). Untouchable, Dalits in Modern India. Lynne Rienner Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55587-697-5.
- Beltz, Johannes; Jondhale, S. (eds.). Reconstructing the World: B.R. Ambedkar and Buddhism in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
- Sangharakshita, Urgyen. Ambedkar and Buddhism. ISBN 0-904766-28-4. PDF
- Jaffrelot, Christophe (2004). Ambedkar and Untouchability. Analysing and Fighting Caste. New York: Columbia University Press.
- Omvedt, Gail. Ambedkar: Towards an Enlightened India. ISBN 0-670-04991-3.
- Gautam, C. (May 2000). Life of Babasaheb Ambedkar (Second ed.). London: Ambedkar Memorial Trust.
- Kuber, W. N. Dr. Ambedkar: A Critical Study. New Delhi: People's Publishing House.
- Bholay, Bhaskar Laxman (2001). Dr Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar: Anubhav Ani Athavani. Nagpur: Sahitya Akademi.
- Kasare, M. L. Economic Philosophy of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar. New Delhi: B. I. Publications.
- Ahir, D. C. The Legacy of Dr. Ambedkar. Delhi: B. R. Publishing. ISBN 81-7018-603-X.
- Ajnat, Surendra (1986). Ambedkar on Islam. Jalandhar: Buddhist Publ.
- Fernando, W. J. Basil (2000). Demoralisation and Hope: Creating the Social Foundation for Sustaining Democracy—A comparative study of N. F. S. Grundtvig (1783–1872) Denmark and B. R. Ambedkar (1881–1956) India. Hong Kong: AHRC Publication. ISBN 962-8314-08-4.