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Beta-1,3-glucuronyltransferase 1
Protein B3GAT1 PDB 1v82.png
PDB rendering based on 1v82.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols B3GAT1 ; CD57; GLCATP; GLCUATP; HNK1; LEU7; NK-1; NK1
External IDs OMIM151290 MGI1924148 HomoloGene49551 ChEMBL: 4067 GeneCards: B3GAT1 Gene
EC number
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE B3GAT1 219521 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 27087 76898
Ensembl ENSG00000109956 ENSMUSG00000045994
UniProt Q9P2W7 Q6PIG8
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_018644 NM_029792
RefSeq (protein) NP_061114 NP_084068
Location (UCSC) Chr 11:
134.38 – 134.41 Mb
Chr 9:
26.73 – 26.76 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Galactosylgalactosylxylosylprotein 3-beta-glucuronosyltransferase 1 (B3GAT1), or CD57, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the B3GAT1 gene.[1] In immunology, the CD57 antigen (CD stands for cluster of differentiation) is also known as HNK1 (human natural killer-1) or LEU7. It is expressed as a carbohydrate epitope that contains a sulfoglucuronyl residue in several adhesion molecules of the nervous system.[2]

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the glucuronyltransferase gene family. These enzymes exhibit strict acceptor specificity, recognizing nonreducing terminal sugars and their anomeric linkages. This gene product functions as the key enzyme in a glucuronyl transfer reaction during the biosynthesis of the carbohydrate epitope HNK-1 (human natural killer-1, also known as CD57 and LEU7). Alternate transcriptional splice variants have been characterized.[1]


In anatomical pathology, CD57 (immunostaining) is similar to CD56 for use in differentiating neuroendocrine tumors from others.[3] Using immunohistochemistry, CD57 molecule can be demonstrated in around 10 to 20% of lymphocytes, as well as in some epithelial, neural, and chromaffin cells. Among lymphocytes, CD57 positive cells are typically either T cells or NK cells, and are most commonly found within the germinal centres of lymph nodes, tonsils, and the spleen.[4]

There is an increase in the number of circulating CD57 positive cells in the blood of patients who have recently undergone organ or tissue transplants, especially of the bone marrow, and in patients with HIV. Increased CD57+ counts have also been reported in rheumatoid arthritis and Felty's syndrome, among other conditions.[4]

Neoplastic CD57 positive cells are seen in conditions as varied as large granular lymphocytic leukaemia, small-cell carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma, and neural and carcinoid tumours. Although the antigen is particularly common in carcinoid tumours, it is found in such a wide range of other conditions that it is of less use in distinguishing these tumours from others than more specific markers such as chromogranin and NSE.[4]


  1. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: B3GAT1 beta-1,3-glucuronyltransferase 1 (glucuronosyltransferase P)". 
  2. ^ Mitsumoto Y, Oka S, Sakuma H, Inazawa J, Kawasaki T (2000). "Cloning and chromosomal mapping of human glucuronyltransferase involved in biosynthesis of the HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope". Genomics 65 (2): 166–73. doi:10.1006/geno.2000.6152. PMID 10783264. 
  3. ^ Dabbs, D. editor, Diagnostic Immunohistochemistry, 3rd ed, 2010, Ch 11, pp. 345-346.
  4. ^ a b c Leong, Anthony S-Y; Cooper, Kumarason; Leong, F Joel W-M (2003). Manual of Diagnostic Cytology (2 ed.). Greenwich Medical Media, Ltd. pp. 131–134. ISBN 1-84110-100-1. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY; et al. (1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction". Anal. Biochem. 236 (1): 107–13. doi:10.1006/abio.1996.0138. PMID 8619474. 
  • Yu W, Andersson B, Worley KC; et al. (1997). "Large-scale concatenation cDNA sequencing". Genome Res. 7 (4): 353–8. doi:10.1101/gr.7.4.353. PMC 139146. PMID 9110174. 
  • Tone Y, Kitagawa H, Imiya K; et al. (1999). "Characterization of recombinant human glucuronyltransferase I involved in the biosynthesis of the glycosaminoglycan-protein linkage region of proteoglycans". FEBS Lett. 459 (3): 415–20. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(99)01287-9. PMID 10526176. 
  • Mitsumoto Y, Oka S, Sakuma H; et al. (2000). "Cloning and chromosomal mapping of human glucuronyltransferase involved in biosynthesis of the HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope". Genomics 65 (2): 166–73. doi:10.1006/geno.2000.6152. PMID 10783264. 
  • Pedersen LC, Tsuchida K, Kitagawa H; et al. (2000). "Heparan/chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis. Structure and mechanism of human glucuronyltransferase I". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (44): 34580–5. doi:10.1074/jbc.M007399200. PMID 10946001. 
  • Cebo C, Durier V, Lagant P; et al. (2002). "Function and molecular modeling of the interaction between human interleukin 6 and its HNK-1 oligosaccharide ligands". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (14): 12246–52. doi:10.1074/jbc.M106816200. PMID 11788581. 
  • Ouzzine M, Gulberti S, Levoin N; et al. (2002). "The donor substrate specificity of the human beta 1,3-glucuronosyltransferase I toward UDP-glucuronic acid is determined by two crucial histidine and arginine residues". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (28): 25439–45. doi:10.1074/jbc.M201912200. PMID 11986319. 
  • Brenchley JM, Karandikar NJ, Betts MR; et al. (2003). "Expression of CD57 defines replicative senescence and antigen-induced apoptotic death of CD8+ T cells". Blood 101 (7): 2711–20. doi:10.1182/blood-2002-07-2103. PMID 12433688. 
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH; et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMC 139241. PMID 12477932. 
  • Jirásek T, Hozák P, Mandys V (2003). "Different patterns of chromogranin A and Leu-7 (CD57) expression in gastrointestinal carcinoids: immunohistochemical and confocal laser scanning microscopy study". Neoplasma 50 (1): 1–7. PMID 12687271. 
  • Jeffries AR, Mungall AJ, Dawson E; et al. (2004). "beta-1,3-Glucuronyltransferase-1 gene implicated as a candidate for a schizophrenia-like psychosis through molecular analysis of a balanced translocation". Mol. Psychiatry 8 (7): 654–63. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4001382. PMID 12874601. 
  • Chochi K, Ichikura T, Majima T; et al. (2004). "The increase of CD57+ T cells in the peripheral blood and their impaired immune functions in patients with advanced gastric cancer". Oncol. Rep. 10 (5): 1443–8. doi:10.3892/or.10.5.1443. PMID 12883721. 
  • Kakuda S, Shiba T, Ishiguro M; et al. (2004). "Structural basis for acceptor substrate recognition of a human glucuronyltransferase, GlcAT-P, an enzyme critical in the biosynthesis of the carbohydrate epitope HNK-1". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (21): 22693–703. doi:10.1074/jbc.M400622200. PMID 14993226. 
  • Matsubara K, Yura K, Hirata T; et al. (2005). "Acute lymphoblastic leukemia with coexpression of CD56 and CD57: case report". Pediatric hematology and oncology 21 (7): 677–82. doi:10.1080/08880010490501105. PMID 15626024. 
  • Ibegbu CC, Xu YX, Harris W; et al. (2005). "Expression of killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 on antigen-specific human CD8+ T lymphocytes during active, latent, and resolved infection and its relation with CD57". J. Immunol. 174 (10): 6088–94. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.174.10.6088. PMID 15879103. 
  • Assouti M, Vynios DH, Anagnostides ST; et al. (2006). "Collagen type IX and HNK-1 epitope in tears of patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1762 (1): 54–8. doi:10.1016/j.bbadis.2005.09.005. PMID 16257185. 
  • Barré L, Venkatesan N, Magdalou J; et al. (2006). "Evidence of calcium-dependent pathway in the regulation of human beta1,3-glucuronosyltransferase-1 (GlcAT-I) gene expression: a key enzyme in proteoglycan synthesis". FASEB J. 20 (10): 1692–4. doi:10.1096/fj.05-5073fje. PMID 16807373. 
  • Sada-Ovalle I, Torre-Bouscoulet L, Valdez-Vázquez R; et al. (2007). "Characterization of a cytotoxic CD57+ T cell subset from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis". Clin. Immunol. 121 (3): 314–23. doi:10.1016/j.clim.2006.08.011. PMID 17035093. 

External links[edit]