Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League

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Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League
বাংলাদেশ কৃষক শ্রমিক আওয়ামী লীগ
Leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
Founded February 24, 1975
Dissolved August 15, 1975
Merger of Awami League, Communist Party of Bangladesh, National Awami Party (Mozaffar) and Jatiyo League
Headquarters Dhaka, Bangladesh
Ideology Bengali nationalism,
Socialism
Politics of Bangladesh
Political parties
Elections

The Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (BAKSAL) (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ কৃষক শ্রমিক আওয়ামী লীগ Bangladesh Krishôk Sromik Aoami Lig) was a political front comprising Bangladesh Awami League, Communist Party of Bangladesh, National Awami Party (Mozaffar) and Jatiyo League.[1]

The political platform was floated as the national party of Bangladesh with an announcement made by Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on February 24 0f 1975, after the theory of Second Revolution was placed and the fourth amendment of the constitution was made on January 25 of 1975.[2] In addition, with the presidential order, all other political parties were outlawed with the formation of BAKSAL.[3]

The party advocated state socialism as a part of the group of reforms under the theory of Second Revolution. BAKSAL was the decision making council to achieve the objectives of the Second Revolution.[4]

BAKSAL was dissolved after the assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on August 15, 1975.

With the end of BAKSAL, all the political parties who merged themselves with BAKSAL including Awami League became independent political parties.

Background[edit]

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and his Awami League won a landslide victory in the 1973 election. Backing for the government waned, however, as supporters became disillusioned by widespread corruption.[5] In the face of growing unrest, on 28 December 1974 Mujib declared a state of emergency, which gave him the power to ban any political group.[6] He pushed the Fourth Amendment to the constitution through parliament on 25 January 1975. It dissolved all political parties and gave him the authority to institute one-party rule.[7][8][9]

Formation[edit]

On 24 February 1975, Mujib formed a new party, Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (BAKSAL), which all MPs were required to join.[5][10] Any MP who missed a parliamentary session, abstained, or failed to vote with the party would lose their seat.[11] All civilian government employees, professionals, and trade union leaders were pressed to join the party.[5] All other political organizations were banned.[11] Most Awami League politicians and many from other parties joined BAKSAL, seeing no other way to retain any political power.[5]

BAKSAL, the new national party, was scheduled to replace officially the nation's other political organizations, whether those political parties agreed or not, and associations on 1 September 1975.

Organizationally, President Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the BAKSAL chairman, appointed for the national party a fifteen-member executive committee, a 115-member central committee, and five front organisations, namely, Jatiya Krishak League, Jatiya Sramik League, Jatiya Mahila League, Jatiya Juba League and Jatiya Chhatra League. All members of the executive committee and central committee were to enjoy the status of ministers. BAKSAL was also designed to overhaul the administrative system of the country in order to make it people-oriented.

Executive Committee[edit]

  1. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (Chairman)
  2. Syed Nazrul Islam (Secretary General)
  3. Muhammad Mansur Ali (Secretary General)
  4. Abdul Hasnat Mohammad Kamruzzaman
  5. Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad
  6. Abdul Malek Ukil
  7. Professor M. Yousuf Ali
  8. Manaranjan Dhar
  9. Dr. Muzzaffar Ahmed Chowdhury
  10. Sheikh Abdul Aziz
  11. Mohiuddin Ahmed
  12. Gazi Golam Mostafa
  13. Zillur Rahman
  14. Sheikh Fazlul Haque Mani
  15. Abdur Razzaq

Central Committee[edit]

  1. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
  2. Sayed Nazrul Islam
  3. Mansoor Ali
  4. Abdul Malik Ukil
  5. Khandakar Mushtaq Ahmad
  6. A.H.M Kamaruzzaman
  7. Mahmudullah
  8. Abdus Samad Azad
  9. Yusuf Ali
  10. Fani Bhushan Majumder
  11. Dr. Kamal Hussain
  12. Sohrab Hussain
  13. Abdul Mannan
  14. Abdur Rab Shernyabat
  15. Manaranjan Dhar
  16. Abdul Matin
  17. Asaduzzanan
  18. Korban Ali
  19. Dr. Azizul Rahman Mallik
  20. Dr. Mozzaffar Ahmad Choudhury
  21. Tofayel Ahmad
  22. Shah Moazzam Hossain
  23. Abdul Momen Talukder
  24. Dewan Farid Ganj
  25. Professor Nurul Islam Choudhry
  26. Taher uddin Thakur
  27. Moslemuddin Khan
  28. Professor Abu Sayeed
  29. MD Nurul Islam Manju
  30. AKM Obaidur Rahman
  31. Dr. Khitish Chandra Mandal,
  32. Reazuddin Ahmad,
  33. M. Baitullah,
  34. Rahul Quddus(Secretary)
  35. Zillur Rahman
  36. Mohiuddin Ahmad MP
  37. Sheikh Fazlul Haq Moni
  38. Abdur Razzaq
  39. Sheikh Shahidul Islam
  40. Anwar Choudhry
  41. Sajeda Choudhry
  42. Taslema Abed
  43. Abdur Rahim
  44. Abdul Awal
  45. Lutfur Rahman
  46. A.K. Muzibur Rahman
  47. Dr. Mofiz Choudhry
  48. Dr. Allauddin
  49. Dr. Ahsanul Haq
  50. Raushan Ali
  51. Azizur Rahman Akkas
  52. Sheikh Abdul Aziz
  53. Salahuddin Yusuf
  54. Michale Shushil Adhikari
  55. Kazi Abdul Hakim
  56. Mollah Jalaluddin
  57. Shamsuddin Mollah
  58. Gaur Chandra Bala
  59. Gazi Ghulam Mustafa
  60. Shamsul Haq
  61. Shamsuzzoha
  62. Rafiqueuddin Bhuiya
  63. Syed Ahmad
  64. Shamsur Rahman Khan
  65. Nurul Haq
  66. Kazi Zahurul Qayyum
  67. Capt.(Retd) Sujjat Ali
  68. M.R. Siddiqui
  69. MA Wahab,
  70. Chittaranjan Sutar,
  71. Sayeda Razia Banu
  72. Ataur Rahman Khan
  73. Khandakar Muhammad Illyas
  74. Mong Pru Saire
  75. Professor Muzzafar Ahmad
  76. Ataur Rahman
  77. Pir Habibur Rahman
  78. Sayeed Altaf Hussain
  79. Muhammad Farhad
  80. Motia Choudhury
  81. Hazi Danesh
  82. Taufiq Inam(Secretary)
  83. Nurul Islam(Secretary)
  84. Fayezuddin Ahmed (Secretary)
  85. Mahbubur Rahman(Secretary)
  86. Abdul Khaleque
  87. muzibul Haq (Secretary)
  88. Abdur Rahim(Secretary)
  89. Moinul Islam (Secretary)
  90. Sayeeduzzaman(Secretary)
  91. Anisuzzaman(Secretary)
  92. Dr. A Sattar (Secretary)
  93. M.A Samad(Secretary)
  94. Abu Tahir (Secretary)
  95. Al Hossaini (Secretary)
  96. Dr Tajul Hossain(Secretary)
  97. Motiur Rahman. Chairman. TCB
  98. Maj. Gen K.M. Safiullah
  99. Air Vice Marshal Khandakar
  100. Commodore M.H. Khan
  101. Maj Gen. Khalilur Rahman
  102. A.K. Naziruddin
  103. Dr. Abdul Matin Choudhury
  104. Dr. Mazharul Islam
  105. Dr. Sramul Haq
  106. ATM Syed Hossain
  107. Nurul Islam
  108. Dr. Nilima Ibrahim
  109. Dr. Nurul Islam PG Hospital
  110. Obaidul Haq Eiditor Observer
  111. Anwar Hossain Manju Editor Ittefaq
  112. Mizanur Rahman BPI
  113. Manawarul Islam
  114. Abu Thaer Bhuiyan
  115. Brig. A.M.S. Nuruzzaman DG Jatiyo Rakki Bahini
  116. Kamruzzaman teachers Association
  117. Dr. Mazhar Ali Kadri

Activities[edit]

Many restrictive regulations coming from the BAKSAL included the promulgation of the Newspaper Ordinance (June 1975;Annulment of Declaration) under which the declarations of all but four state owned newspapers were annulled. The Fourth Amendment was a direct attack on the press freedom which allowed only four newspapers (Dainik Bangla, Bangladesh Observer, Ittefaq & Bangladesh Times - these four newspapers were, in fact, owned and managed by the State) to continue their publication and banned the rest of the press and newspaper industries. It brought the whole news media completely under the absolute control of the government.

Impact[edit]

Criticisms[edit]

Abu Thaher Bhuiyan

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rono, Haider Akbar Khan (March 2010). Śatābdī pēriẏē শতাব্দী পেরিয়ে (in Bengali). Taraphadara prakashani. p. 335. ISBN 984-779-027-2. 
  2. ^ Ahmed, Moudud (2015). Bangladesh: Era of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. University Press Limited. p. 284. ISBN 978-984-506-226-8. 
  3. ^ Mitra, Subrata Kumar; Enskat, Mike; Spiess, Clemens (2004). Political parties of South Asia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 226. 
  4. ^ "Bangladesh: The Second Revolution". TIME Magazine. 1975-02-10. Retrieved 2016-01-29. 
  5. ^ a b c d Khan, Zillur R. (2001). "From Mujib to Zia, Elite Politics in Bangladesh". In Ahmed, Rafiuddin. Religion, Identity & Politics: Essays on Bangladesh. International Academic Publishers. pp. 54–55. ISBN 978-1-58868-081-5. ... landslide victory of the Awami League in the 1973 elections ... [those] who were earlier inspired by the charisma of Sheikh Mujib grew increasingly restive in view of what they viewed as widespread corruption ... making it mandatory for members of parliament to join the single national party, called the Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (BAKSAL), if they wanted to retain their seats ... most Awami Leaguers, and may others from the other parties, decided to join the BAKSAL. Between Mujib's BAKSAL and total political oblivion, few were left with any choice ... All higher bureaucrats, professional people and trade union leaders were urged to join. 
  6. ^ "State of emergency announced in Dacca". The Tuscaloosa News. Associated Press. 29 December 1974. p. 6A. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  7. ^ "Sheikh Assumes Absolute Rule in Bangladesh". The Blade (Toledo, Ohio). Associated Press. 26 January 1975. p. 1. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  8. ^ "Mujib names his Govt". The Sydney Morning Herald. Australian Associated Press-Reuter. 28 January 1975. p. 4. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  9. ^ "Bangladesh President Takes Over". The Daily Herald (Provo, Utah). United Press International. 24 February 1975. p. 8. Retrieved 4 January 2016 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  10. ^ "'Second Revolution' Is Sham: No Real Change Seen in Bangladesh". The Capital Times (Madison, Wisconsin). Los Angeles Times News Service. 28 February 1975. p. 6. Retrieved 4 January 2016.  open access publication - free to read
  11. ^ a b "One man, one party govern Bangladesh". The Sydney Morning Herald. 27 January 1975. p. 1. Retrieved 4 January 2016.