Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League

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Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League
বাংলাদেশ কৃষক শ্রমিক আওয়ামী লীগ
Leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
Founded 24 February 1975
Dissolved 15 August 1975
Merger of Awami League, Communist Party of Bangladesh, National Awami Party (Mozaffar) and Jatiyo League
Headquarters Dhaka, Bangladesh
Ideology Bengali nationalism,
Socialism

The Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (BAKSAL) (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ কৃষক শ্রমিক আওয়ামী লীগ Bangladesh Krishôk Sromik Aoami Lig) was a political front comprising Bangladesh Awami League, Communist Party of Bangladesh, National Awami Party (Mozaffar) and Jatiyo League.[1]

The political platform was floated as the national party of Bangladesh with an announcement made by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on 24 February 1975, after the theory of Second Revolution was placed and the fourth amendment of the constitution was made on 25 January 1975.[2] In addition, with the presidential order, all other political parties were outlawed with the formation of BAKSAL.[3]

The party advocated state socialism as a part of the group of reforms under the theory of Second Revolution. BAKSAL was the decision making council to achieve the objectives of the Second Revolution.[4]

BAKSAL was dissolved after the assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on 15 August 1975.[citation needed]

With the end of BAKSAL, all the political parties who merged themselves with BAKSAL including Awami League became independent political parties.

Background[edit]

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and his Awami League won a landslide victory in the 1973 election. Backing for the government waned, however, as supporters became disillusioned by widespread corruption.[5] In the face of growing unrest, on 28 December 1974 Mujib declared a state of emergency, which gave him the power to ban any political group.[6] He pushed the Fourth Amendment to the constitution through parliament on 25 January 1975. It dissolved all political parties and gave him the authority to institute one-party rule.[7][8][9]

Formation[edit]

On 24 February 1975, Mujib formed a new party, Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (BAKSAL), which all MPs were required to join.[5][10] Any MP who missed a parliamentary session, abstained, or failed to vote with the party would lose their seat.[11] All civilian government employees, professionals, and trade union leaders were pressed to join the party.[5] All other political organizations were banned.[11] Most Awami League politicians and many from other parties joined BAKSAL, seeing no other way to retain any political power.[5] The Jatiyo Samajtantrik Dal, Purba Banglar Sarbahara Party, Purbo Bangla Sammobadi Dal-Marxbadi-Leninbadi (East Bengal Communist Party-Marxist–Leninist), East Pakistan Communist Party (Marxist–Leninist), and Bangladesh Communist Party (Leninist) did not join BAKSAL. According to political science professor Talukder Maniruzzaman, BASKSAL was in practice "the Awami League under a different name".[12]

BAKSAL, the new national party, was scheduled to replace officially the nation's other political organizations, whether those political parties agreed or not, and associations on 1 September 1975.

Organizationally, President Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the BAKSAL chairman, appointed for the national party a fifteen-member executive committee, a 115-member central committee, and five front organisations, namely, Jatiya Krishak League, Jatiya Sramik League, Jatiya Mahila League, Jatiya Juba League and Jatiya Chhatra League (peasants, workers, women, youth, and students respectively).[12] All members of the executive committee and central committee were to enjoy the status of ministers. BAKSAL was also designed to overhaul the administrative system of the country in order to make it people-oriented.

Executive Committee[edit]

  1. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (Chairman)
  2. Syed Nazrul Islam (Secretary General)
  3. Muhammad Mansur Ali (Secretary General)
  4. Abdul Hasnat Mohammad Kamruzzaman
  5. Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad
  6. Abdul Malek Ukil
  7. Professor M. Yousuf Ali
  8. Manaranjan Dhar
  9. Dr. Muzzaffar Ahmed Chowdhury
  10. Sheikh Abdul Aziz
  11. Mohiuddin Ahmed
  12. Gazi Golam Mostafa
  13. Zillur Rahman
  14. Sheikh Fazlul Haque Mani
  15. Abdur Razzaq

Central Committee[edit]

  1. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
  2. Sayed Nazrul Islam
  3. Mansoor Ali
  4. Abdul Malik Ukil
  5. Khandakar Mushtaq Ahmad
  6. A.H.M Kamaruzzaman
  7. Ziaur Rahman
  8. Mahmudullah
  9. Abdus Samad Azad
  10. Yusuf Ali
  11. Fani Bhushan Majumder
  12. Dr. Kamal Hussain
  13. Sohrab Hussain
  14. Abdul Mannan
  15. Abdur Rab Shernyabat
  16. Manaranjan Dhar
  17. Abdul Matin
  18. Asaduzzanan
  19. Korban Ali
  20. Dr. Azizul Rahman Mallik
  21. Dr. Mozzaffar Ahmad Choudhury
  22. Tofayel Ahmad
  23. Shah Moazzam Hossain
  24. Abdul Momen Talukder
  25. Dewan Farid Ganj
  26. Professor Nurul Islam Choudhry
  27. Taher uddin Thakur
  28. Moslemuddin Khan
  29. Professor Abu Sayeed
  30. MD Nurul Islam Manju
  31. AKM Obaidur Rahman
  32. Dr. Khitish Chandra Mandal,
  33. Reazuddin Ahmad,
  34. M. Baitullah,
  35. Rahul Quddus(Secretary)
  36. Zillur Rahman
  37. Mohiuddin Ahmad MP
  38. Sheikh Fazlul Haq Moni
  39. Abdur Razzaq
  40. Sheikh Shahidul Islam
  41. Anwar Choudhry
  42. Sajeda Choudhry
  43. Taslema Abed
  44. Abdur Rahim
  45. Abdul Awal
  46. Lutfur Rahman
  47. A.K. Muzibur Rahman
  48. Dr. Mofiz Choudhry
  49. Dr. Allauddin
  50. Dr. Ahsanul Haq
  51. Raushan Ali
  52. Azizur Rahman Akkas
  53. Sheikh Abdul Aziz
  54. Salahuddin Yusuf
  55. Michale Shushil Adhikari
  56. Kazi Abdul Hakim
  57. Mollah Jalaluddin
  58. Shamsuddin Mollah
  59. Gaur Chandra Bala
  60. Gazi Ghulam Mustafa
  61. Shamsul Haq
  62. Shamsuzzoha
  63. Rafiqueuddin Bhuiya
  64. Syed Ahmad
  65. Shamsur Rahman Khan
  66. Nurul Haq
  67. Kazi Zahurul Qayyum
  68. Capt.(Retd) Sujjat Ali
  69. M.R. Siddiqui
  70. MA Wahab,
  71. Chittaranjan Sutar,
  72. Sayeda Razia Banu
  73. Ataur Rahman Khan
  74. Khandakar Muhammad Illyas
  75. Mong Pru Saire
  76. Professor Muzzafar Ahmad
  77. Ataur Rahman
  78. Pir Habibur Rahman
  79. Sayeed Altaf Hussain
  80. Muhammad Farhad
  81. Motia Choudhury
  82. Hazi Danesh
  83. Taufiq Inam(Secretary)
  84. Nurul Islam(Secretary)
  85. Fayezuddin Ahmed (Secretary)
  86. Mahbubur Rahman(Secretary)
  87. Abdul Khaleque
  88. muzibul Haq (Secretary)
  89. Abdur Rahim(Secretary)
  90. Moinul Islam (Secretary)
  91. Sayeeduzzaman(Secretary)
  92. Anisuzzaman(Secretary)
  93. Dr. A Sattar (Secretary)
  94. M.A Samad(Secretary)
  95. Abu Tahir (Secretary)
  96. Al Hossaini (Secretary)
  97. Dr Tajul Hossain(Secretary)
  98. Motiur Rahman. Chairman. TCB
  99. Maj. Gen K.M. Safiullah
  100. Air Vice Marshal Khandakar
  101. Commodore M.H. Khan
  102. Maj Gen. Khalilur Rahman
  103. A.K. Naziruddin
  104. Dr. Abdul Matin Choudhury
  105. Dr. Mazharul Islam
  106. Dr. Sramul Haq
  107. ATM Syed Hossain
  108. Nurul Islam
  109. Dr. Nilima Ibrahim
  110. Dr. Nurul Islam PG Hospital
  111. Obaidul Haq Eiditor Observer
  112. Anwar Hossain Manju Editor Ittefaq
  113. Mizanur Rahman BPI
  114. Manawarul Islam
  115. Abu Thaer Bhuiyan
  116. Brig. A.M.S. Nuruzzaman DG Jatiyo Rakki Bahini
  117. Kamruzzaman teachers Association
  118. Dr. Mazhar Ali Kadri

Activities[edit]

Many restrictive regulations coming from the BAKSAL included the promulgation of the Newspaper Ordinance (June 1975; Annulment of Declaration) under which the declarations of all but four state owned newspapers were annulled. The Fourth Amendment was a direct attack on the press freedom which allowed only four newspapers (Dainik Bangla, Bangladesh Observer, Ittefaq & Bangladesh Times - these four newspapers were, in fact, owned and managed by the State) to continue their publication and banned the rest of the press and newspaper industries. It brought the whole news media completely under the absolute control of the government.

Dissolution[edit]

The party carried out independently until 1991, when almost all of its party leaders deserted the organization to merge with the Bangladesh Awami League.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rono, Haider Akbar Khan (March 2010). Śatābdī pēriẏē শতাব্দী পেরিয়ে (in Bengali). Taraphadara prakashani. p. 335. ISBN 984-779-027-2. 
  2. ^ Ahmed, Moudud (2015). Bangladesh: Era of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. University Press Limited. p. 284. ISBN 978-984-506-226-8. 
  3. ^ Mitra, Subrata Kumar; Enskat, Mike; Spiess, Clemens (2004). Political parties of South Asia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 226. 
  4. ^ "Bangladesh: The Second Revolution". TIME Magazine. 10 February 1975. Retrieved 29 January 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c d Khan, Zillur R. (2001). "From Mujib to Zia, Elite Politics in Bangladesh". In Ahmed, Rafiuddin. Religion, Identity & Politics: Essays on Bangladesh. International Academic Publishers. pp. 54–55. ISBN 978-1-58868-081-5. ... landslide victory of the Awami League in the 1973 elections ... [those] who were earlier inspired by the charisma of Sheikh Mujib grew increasingly restive in view of what they viewed as widespread corruption ... making it mandatory for members of parliament to join the single national party, called the Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (BAKSAL), if they wanted to retain their seats ... most Awami Leaguers, and may others from the other parties, decided to join the BAKSAL. Between Mujib's BAKSAL and total political oblivion, few were left with any choice ... All higher bureaucrats, professional people and trade union leaders were urged to join. 
  6. ^ "State of emergency announced in Dacca". The Tuscaloosa News. Associated Press. 29 December 1974. p. 6A. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  7. ^ "Sheikh Assumes Absolute Rule in Bangladesh". The Blade (Toledo, Ohio). Associated Press. 26 January 1975. p. 1. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  8. ^ "Mujib names his Govt". The Sydney Morning Herald. Australian Associated Press-Reuter. 28 January 1975. p. 4. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  9. ^ "Bangladesh President Takes Over". The Daily Herald (Provo, Utah). United Press International. 24 February 1975. p. 8. Retrieved 4 January 2016 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication - free to read
  10. ^ "'Second Revolution' Is Sham: No Real Change Seen in Bangladesh". The Capital Times (Madison, Wisconsin). Los Angeles Times News Service. 28 February 1975. p. 6. Retrieved 4 January 2016.  open access publication - free to read
  11. ^ a b "One man, one party govern Bangladesh". The Sydney Morning Herald. 27 January 1975. p. 1. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  12. ^ a b Maniruzzaman, Talukder (February 1976). "Bangladesh in 1975: The Fall of the Mujib Regime and Its Aftermath". Asian Survey (University of California Press) 16 (2): 119–129. 
  13. ^ "Near East & South Asia: Bangladesh" (PDF). JPRS Report 1: 10. 12 September 1991. Retrieved 19 July 2016.