Bochasanwasi Akshar Purushottam Swaminarayan Sanstha

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Bochasanwasi Akshar Purushottam Swaminarayan Sanstha
BAPS Logo with the symbol of Akshar Deri
BAPS Logo with the symbol of Akshar Deri
Abbreviation BAPS
Motto "In the joy of others lies our own." – Pramukh Swami Maharaj
Formation 5 June 1907 (110 years ago) (1907-06-05)
Founder Shastriji Maharaj
Type Religious organization
Legal status Foundation
Purpose Educational, Philanthropic, Religious studies, Spirituality
Headquarters Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
Location
  • 3,300 centers
Coordinates 23°02′N 72°35′E / 23.03°N 72.58°E / 23.03; 72.58Coordinates: 23°02′N 72°35′E / 23.03°N 72.58°E / 23.03; 72.58
Area served
Worldwide
Head
Mahant Swami Maharaj
Website

www.baps.org

www.pramukhswami.org

Bochasanwasi Akshar Purushottam Sanstha (IAST: Bocāsanvāsī Akshar Purushottam Sansthā), often abbreviated as BAPS is a worldwide religious and civic organization within the Swaminarayan branch of Hinduism. BAPS was established as a formal organization on 5 June 1907 by Shastriji Maharaj. It was formed on the founder's doctrinal stand that Swaminarayan had promised to remain present through a lineage of Gunatit Gurus or Akshar dating all the way back to Gunatitanand Swami - Swaminarayan's foremost principal devotee.[2]:55[3] Gunatitanand Swami was succeeded by Bhagatji Maharaj, Shastriji Maharaj, Yogiji Maharaj, Prumukh Swami Maharaj and Mahant Swami Maharaj.[4] Due to the organizational emphasis on the Akshar Purushottam doctrine, it essentially forms the organization's middle name. The fundamental beliefs of BAPS include the spiritual guidance through the living Akshar or Guru who is believed to have attained oneness with Swaminarayan. Mahant Swami Maharaj is the current Guru and the president of the organization.

As a global Hindu minority organization, BAPS actively engages in a range of endeavors aimed at spirituality, character-building, and human welfare. The activities span religious, cultural, social, and humanitarian domains. Through these activities, it aims to preserve Indian culture, ideals of Hindu faith, family unity, selfless service, interfaith harmony and peaceful coexistence. 55,000 volunteers and 3,300 temples serve 3,300 communities around the world.

As part of its efforts towards community outreach, BAPS also engages in a host of humanitarian and charitable endeavors, by which its volunteers serve neighbors and communities. Through the BAPS Charities non-profit aid organization, BAPS has spearheaded a number of projects around the world in the arenas of healthcare, education, environmental causes, and community-building campaigns.

Mandirs[edit]

The mandir, known as a Hindu place of worship, serves as a hub for the spiritual, cultural, and humanitarian activities of BAPS. The organization has about 1,100 mandirs and a total of 3,300 volunteer-run centers spanning five continents.[5][6] In the tradition of the Bhakti Movement, Swaminarayan and his spiritual successors began erecting mandirs to provide a means to uphold proper devotion to God on the path towards moksha, or ultimate liberation.[7]:440 BAPS mandirs thus facilitate devotional commitment to the Akshar Purushottam Upasana, in which followers strive to reach the spiritually perfect state of Aksharbrahman, or the ideal devotee, thereby gaining the ability to properly worship Purushottam, the Supreme Godhead.[8]:7–13


Mandir Rituals[edit]

The offering of bhakti, or devotion to God, remains at the center of mandir activities. In all BAPS Swaminarayan mandirs, murtis, or sacred images of Swaminarayan, Gunatitanand Swami, BAPS guru's and other deities, are enshrined in the inner sanctum. After completion of prana pratishta or life-force installation ceremonies, the deities are believed to reside in the murtis, and are thus subjects of direct worship through sacred daily rituals.[2]:240 In many mandirs, murtis are adorned with clothes and ornaments and devotees come to perform darshan, the act of worshiping the deity by viewing the sacred image.[2]:131, 140[9] Aarti, which is a ritual of waving lit lamps in circular motions to illuminate the different parts of the murti while singing a song of praise, is performed five times daily in shikharbaddha mandirs and twice daily in smaller mandirs. Additionally, food is offered to the murtis amidst the singing of devotional songs three times a day as part of the ritual of thaal, and the sanctified food is then distributed to devotees.[2]:140 Daily readings of and discourses on various Hindu scriptures also take place in the mandir.[2]:132 Many mandirs are also home to BAPS sadhus, or monks.[2]:50 On weekends, assemblies are held in which sadhus and devotees deliver discourses on a variety of spiritual topics. During these assemblies, bhakti is offered in the form of call-and-response hymns (kirtans) with traditional musical accompaniment. Religious assemblies also take place for children and teenagers of various age ranges.[2]:62 Throughout the year, mandirs celebrate traditional Hindu festivals. Assemblies with special discourses, kirtans, and other performances are arranged to commemorate Rama Navami, Janmashtami, Diwali, and other major Hindu holidays.[2]:138–147 Members of the sect are known as Satsangi's. Male Satsangi's are generally initiated by obtaining a kanthi at the hands of a sadhu or senior male devotee while females receive the vartman from the senior women followers.[10]

Mandir Activities[edit]

In addition to being focal points of religious activity, BAPS mandirs are also centers of culture.[8]:21 Many forms of traditional Indian art have their roots in Hindu scriptures and have been preserved and flourished in the setting of mandirs.[2]:220 Many BAPS mandirs outside of India hold Gujarati classes to facilitate scriptural study, instruction in traditional dance forms in preparation for performances in festival assemblies, and music classes where students are taught how to play traditional instruments such as tabla.[11][12] Many devotees view the mandir as a place for transmission of knowledge of Hindu values and their incorporation into daily routines, family life, and careers.[13]:418–422[14]

Apart from classes teaching about religion and culture, mandirs are also the site of activities focused on youth development. Many centers organize college preparatory classes, leadership training seminars and workplace skills development workshops.[15][16][17] Many centers host women's conferences aimed at empowering young women.[18] They also host sports tournaments and initiatives to promote healthy lifestyles among children and youth.[19] Many centers also host parenting seminars, marriage counseling, and events for family bonding.[20][21]

BAPS mandirs and cultural centers serve as hubs of several humanitarian activities powered by local volunteers. Mandirs in the US and UK host an annual walkathon to raise funds for local charities such as hospitals or schools.[22][23][24] Many centers also host annual health fairs where needy members of the community can undergo health screenings and consultations.[25] During weekend assemblies, physicians are periodically invited to speak on various aspects of preventative medicine and to raise awareness on common conditions.[26] In times of disaster, centers closest to the affected area become hubs for relief activity ranging from providing meals to reconstructing communities.[27][28]

Notable Mandirs[edit]

The BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir in Robbinsville, New Jersey
The BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Sarangpur, Gujarat

The founder of BAPS, Shastriji Maharaj, built its first and "namesake" mandir in Bochasan.[8]:8–9

The organization's second mandir was built in Sarangpur, which also hosts a seminary for BAPS sadhus.[2]:112

The mandir in Gondal was constructed around the Akshar Deri, the cremation memorial of Gunatitanand Swami, who is revered as a manifestation of Aksharbrahman.[2]:132

Shastriji Maharaj constructed his last mandir on the banks of the River Ghela in Gadhada, where Swaminarayan resided for the majority of his adult life.[2]:19[8]:9

Yogiji Maharaj constructed the mandir in the Shahibaug section of Ahmedabad, which remains the site of the international headquarters of the organization.[13]:86

Under the leadership of Pramukh Swami Maharaj, over 25 additional shikharbaddha mandirs have been erected across Gujarat and other regions of India and abroad.

As a consequence of the Indian emigration patterns, mandirs have been erected in Africa, Europe, North America, and the Asia-Pacific region.[8]:13–14 The BAPS mandir in Neasden, London was the first traditional Hindu mandir built in Europe.[8]:11–12 The organization's sixth and largest North American shikharbaddha mandir was inaugurated in 2014 in the New Jersey suburb of Robbinsville Township,[29] and is the world's largest Hindu temple.[30]

BAPS has a total of 34 shikharbaddha mandirs around the world, with another 9 under construction. In addition to its shikharbaddha madirs, BAPS has over 1,100 other mandirs spread over five continents, including around 70 mandirs in North America (United States and Canada) and 12 mandirs in Europe.[6]. The Sanstha has assets worth 2.3 lakh crore rupees ($35.2 billion)

BAPS has constructed three large temple complexes dedicated to Swaminarayan called Akshardham, which in addition to a large stone-carved mandir has exhibitions that explain Hindu traditions and Swaminarayan history and values.[31] Akshardham temple complexes have been built in India in New Delhi and Gandhinagar, Gujarat, and one in the United States at Robbinsville Township in Central New Jersey.

History[edit]

Doctrinal origins (1799–1905)[edit]

Formation[edit]

The History of BAPS as an organization begins with Shastriji Maharaj's desire to propagate the mode of worship[32]:186 as revealed by Swaminarayan in his original teachings.[33][34][35]:7 During Swaminarayan's own time, his group's spread had been curbed by opposition from Vaishnava sampradayas and others hostile to Swaminarayan's bhakti teachings.[8]:363 Due to the hostility of those who found Swaminarayan's growing popularity and teachings unacceptable, sadhus and devotees during Swaminarayan's time tempered some of the public presentation of his doctrine, despite their own convictions, to mitigate violence towards their newly formed devotional community.[8]:364 The original doctrine taught by Swaminarayan continued to be conveyed in less public fora, but with the passage of time, Shastriji Maharaj sought to publicly reveal this doctrine, which asserted that Swaminarayan and his choicest devotee, Gunatitanand Swami, were ontologically, Purushottam and Akshar, respectively.[32]:186 However, when Shastriji Maharaj began openly discoursing about this doctrine, hereafter the Akshar-Purushottam doctrine, he was met with opposition from some quarters within the Vartal diocese.[2]:55[8]:365 As the opposition against him grew violent,[8]:365 Shastriji Maharaj was left with no choice but to leave[2]:54–56 Vartal to escape violent physical assaults.[8]:363–365 Thus, Williams notes, the very basis for separation from the Vartal diocese and raison d’être for the formation of BAPS was this doctrinal issue.[2]:55[36][37]

Revelation of Doctrine[edit]

Swaminarayan is viewed as God (Purushottama) by BAPS followers.[8]:362 Thus, his writings and discourses form the foundation for BAPS’ theological tenets.[13]:342 Regarding Swaminarayan's philosophy, Akshar plays a fundamental role in the overall scheme of ultimate liberation.[32]:33 To that end, Swaminarayan indicated that those who wish to offer pure devotion to God (Purushottama)[8]:364 and are desirous of Moksha should imbibe the qualities of the Gunatit Guru[38] [Satsangijivanam Volume IV/72:1,2]. As Akshar, embodied as the Gunatit Guru,[39][40] epitomizes ideal devotion[2]:87 transcending Maya. Swaminarayan's philosophical stand that liberation is unattainable unless one "identifies oneself with Akshar (a synonym of Brahman) and offers the highest devotion to Purushottam"[41] is also found in various Hindu scriptures [Mundaka Upanishad 3/2:9, Shrimad Bhagavatam I/1:1, Bhagvad Gita XVIII/54]. It follows that the doctrine that Shastriji Maharaj propagated, as Kim observes, "did not result in the rejection of any scriptures; instead, it was the beginning of a distinctive theology which added a single but powerful qualification, [that Akshar plays] in the form of the living guru".[13]:318

BAPS devotees also believe that Swaminarayan propagated the same doctrine through the mandirs he built.[8]:364 From 1822 to 1828, Swaminarayan constructed a total of six shikharbaddha mandirs in Gujarat; in each he installed the murtis of a principal deity coupled with their ideal devotee in the central shrine: Nar-Narayan in Ahmedabad (1822) and Bhuj (1823), Lakshmi-Narayan in Vartal (1824), Madan-Mohan in Dholera (1826), Radha-Raman in Junagadh (1828), and Gopi-Nath in Gadhada (1828).[8]:364–365

As Kim notes, "For BAPS devotees, the dual murtis in the original Swaminarayan temples imply that Swaminarayan did install a murti of himself alongside the murti of his ideal bhakta or Guru".[8]:364 Thus, Shastriji Maharaj, was simply extending that idea by enshrining the murti of Swaminarayan along with Gunatitanand Swami, his ideal devotee, in the central sanctum.[8]:364 However, many within the Vartal and Ahmedabad dioceses did not subscribe to this view, and this became one of the main points of disagreement that led to the schism.[42]:55

Shastriji Maharaj explained that as per Swaminarayan's teachings, God desired to remain on earth through a succession of enlightened gurus.[43]:317 In many of his discourses in the Vachanamrut (Gadhada I-71,[44]:147–148 Gadhada III-26[44]:630–631 and Vadtal 5[44]:534) Swaminarayan explains that there forever exists a Gunatit Guru[8]:363 (perfect devotee) through whom Swaminarayan manifests on earth[42]:92 for the ultimate redemption of jivas.[32]:178

Shastriji Maharaj noted that Swaminarayan had "expressly designated" the Gunatit Guru to spiritually guide the satsang (spiritual fellowship) while instructing his nephews to help manage the administration of the fellowship within their respective dioceses.[43]:317[45]:610

Numerous historical accounts[32]:89[34] and texts[33] written during Swaminarayan and Gunatitanand Swami's time period identify Gunatitanand Swami as the embodiment of Akshar. Followers of BAPS believe that the Ekantik dharma that Swaminarayan desired to establish is embodied and propagated by the Ekantik Satpurush – the Gunatit Guru.[43]:327, 358 The first such guru in the lineage was Gunatitanand Swami.[2]:90 Shastriji Maharaj had understood from his own guru, Bhagatji Maharaj, that Gunatitanand Swami was the first Gunatit Guru in the lineage.[36]

Historically, each Gunatit Guru in the lineage has continued to reveal his successor; Gunatitanand Swami revealed Pragji Bhakta (Bhagatji Maharaj), who in turn revealed Shastriji Maharaj, who pointed to Yogiji Maharaj, who revealed Pramukh Swami Maharaj, the Guru, thus continuing the lineage of Akshar.[2]:89–90[36] Most recently, Pramukh Swami Maharaj revealed Mahant Swami Maharaj as the next and current Guru in the lineage.

Propagation of Doctrine by Bhagatji Maharaj[edit]

Although Bhagatji Maharaj was originally a disciple of Gopalanand Swami, he instructed him to seek the company of Gunatitanand Swami if he desired to attain the Gunatit state.[46][47] Through his association with Gunatitanand Swami, Bhagatji Maharaj understood that the doctrine of Akshar-Purushottam was the true doctrine propagated by Swaminarayan.

In 1883,[48][49] Shastriji Maharaj met Bhagatji Maharaj in Surat.[50] Recognizing Bhagatji Maharaj's spiritual caliber, Shastriji Maharaj began spending increasing amounts of time listening to Bhagatji Maharaj's discourses, and soon, he accepted Bhagatji Maharaj as his guru.[51]:21 Over time, Shastriji Maharaj also became a strong proponent of the Akshar-Purushottam Upasana.[2]:55 After Bhagatji Maharaj died on 7 November 1897,[52] Shastriji Maharaj became the primary proponent of the doctrine of Akshar-Purushottam.[2]:55 He believed that the construction of mandirs guided by this doctrine was urgently needed to facilitate followers’ practice of this understanding of Swaminarayan devotion.[8]:363

Foundation and early years (1905–1950)[edit]

In this regard, Shastriji Maharaj persuaded Acharya Kunjvihariprasadji to consecrate the murtis of Akshar (Gunatitanand Swami) and Purushottam (Swaminarayan) in the Vadhwan mandir.[51]:21 Shastriji Maharaj's identification of Gunatitanand Swami as the personal form of Akshar was already a paradigm shift for some that led to "opposition and hostility"[8]:363 from many within the Vadtal diocese.[8]:357–390 Moreover, the installation of Gunatitanand Swami's murti next to Swaminarayan in the Vadhwan Mandir, led to further hostility and opposition from many sadhus of the Vadtal temple who were determined to prevent the murti of Gunatitanand Swami from being placed [along with Swaminarayan in the central shrine].[2]:55 Although several attempts were made on his life following this event,[8]:365 Shastriji Maharaj maintained his reluctance to leave Vadtal.[51]:21 Since Bhagatji Maharaj had promised him that even if he was cut into pieces, he would sew him together, and therefore should not ever leave Vadtal.[53] Seeing the unrelenting threat to Shastriji Maharaj's life, Krishnaji Ada, a respected lay leader of the Swaminarayan Sampraday, advised him to leave for his own safety, as per the teachings of Swaminarayan in the Shikshapatri Verse 153–154.[51]:21 Acknowledging the commands of Swaminarayan in the Shikshapatri,[51]:21 Shastriji Maharaj decided to leave[42]:54–56 the Vartal temple to preach in the surrounding regions until the temple became safe again.[51]:21

On 12 November 1905, Shastriji Maharaj left the Vadtal temple with five sadhus and the support of about 150 devotees.[35]:13 However, he did not consider himself to be separating from Vadtal[54] as he instructed his followers to continue their financial contributions to and participation in the temples of the Vartal diocese.[8]:365 See Shastriji Maharaj: Formation of BAPS

Mandirs to facilitate doctrinal practice

On 5 June 1907 he consecrated the murtis of Swaminarayan and Gunatitanand Swami in the central shrine of a shikharbaddha mandir he was constructing in the village of Bochasan in the Kheda District of Gujarat.[43]:91 This event was later seen to mark the formal establishment of the Bochasanwasi Akshar-Purushottam Swaminarayan Sanstha,[8]:364 which was later abbreviated as BAPS. The Guajarati word Bochasanwasi implies hailing from Bochasan, since the organization's first Mandir was in this village.

Shastriji Maharaj continued to consolidate and spread the Akshar-Purushottam teachings of the nascent BAPS and spent the majority of 1908–15 discoursing throughout Gujarat, while continuing construction work of mandirs in Bochasan and Sarangpur. As recognition of Shastriji Maharaj's teachings continued to spread throughout Gujarat, he acquired a loyal and growing group of devotees, admirers, and supporters, many of whom were formerly associated with the Vartal or Ahmedabad diocese of the Swaminarayan Sampradaya.[8]:365 Over the next four decades, Shastriji Maharaj completed four more shikharabaddha mandirs in Gujarat (Sarangpur - 1916, Gondal - 1934, Atladra - 1945, and Gadadha - 1951).[8]:365

Kim notes that these temples, in essence, represented the fundamental doctrine that Shastriji Maharaj wished to propagate based on Swaminarayan's teachings: "the ultimate reality [Purushottam] and the means, in the form of the Guru, which [enables a] devotee to offer eternal devotion to the ultimate reality".[8]:365 Thus, this historical period marked a "focused emphasis" on building shikharabaddha mandirs as a means of conveying Swaminarayan doctrine.

Successors

On 12 August 1910 Shastriji Maharaj met his eventual successor, Yogiji Maharaj, at the house of Jadavji in Bochasan.[35]:16 Yogiji Maharaj was a resident sadhu at Junagadh Mandir (Saurãshtra),[32]:183 where Gunatitanand Swami had served as mahant.[35]:17 Yogiji Maharaj regarded Gunatitanand Swami as Akshar and also served the murti of Shri Harikrishna Maharaj which had previously been worshipped by Gunatitanand Swami.[35]:17 As he already believed in the doctrine being preached by Shastriji Maharaj, Yogiji Maharaj left Junagadh on 9 July 1911 with six sadhus to join Shastriji Maharaj's mission.[32]:186

On 7 November 1939, 17-year-old Shantilal Patel(who would become Pramukh Swami Maharaj) left his home[55] and was initiated by Shastriji Maharaj into the parshad order, as Shanti Bhagat, on 22 November 1939,[56] and into the sadhu order, as Sadhu Narayanswarupdas, on 10 January 1940.[56] Initially, he studied Sanskrit and Hindu scriptures[56] and served as Shastriji Maharaj's personal secretary. In 1946, he was appointed administrative head (Kothari) of the Sarangpur mandir.[56]

In the early part of 1950, Shastriji Maharaj wrote several letters to 28-year-old Shastri Narayanswarupdas expressing a wish to appoint him as the administrative president of the organization. Initially, Shastri Narayanswarupdas was reluctant to accept the position, citing his young age and lack of experience and suggesting that an elderly, experienced sadhu should take the responsibility.[57] However, Shastriji Maharaj insisted over several months, until, seeing the wish and insistence of his guru, Shastri Narayanswarupdas accepted the responsibility.[56] On 21 May 1950 at Ambli-Vali Pol in Amdavad, Shastriji Maharaj appointed Shastri Narayanswarupdas as the administrative president (Pramukh) of BAPS.[35]:11 He instructed Shastri Narayanswarupdas, who now began to be referred to as Pramukh Swami, to ennoble Satsang under the guidance of Yogiji Maharaj.[58]

In the last few years of his life, Shastriji Maharaj took steps to preserve the growth and future of BAPS by registering BAPS as a charitable trust in 1947 under India's new legal code.[35]:33

Development and Organizational Formation (1950–1971)[edit]

After the death of Shastriji Maharaj on 10 May 1951,[59] Yogiji Maharaj became the spiritual leader, or Guru, of the organization while Pramukh Swami continued to oversee administrative matters as president of the organization.[2]:60 Yogiji Maharaj carried Shastriji Maharaj's mission of fostering the Akshar-Purushottam doctrine by building temples, touring villages, preaching overseas and initiating weekly local religious assemblies for children, youths and elders. In his 20 years as guru, from 1951 to 1971, he visited over 4,000 cities, towns and villages, consecrated over 60 mandirs and wrote over 545,000 letters to devotees.[35]:9

Youth Movement

This period of BAPS history saw an important expansion in youth activities. Yogiji Maharaj believed that in a time of profound and rapid social ferment, there was an imminent need to save the young from ‘degeneration of moral, cultural and religious values’.[60]:219 To fill a void in spiritual activities for youths, Yogiji Maharaj started a regular Sunday gathering (Yuvak Mandal) of young men in Bombay[60]:217 in 1952.[35]:167 Brear notes, "His flair, dynamism and concern led within ten years to the establishment of many yuvak mandals of dedicated young men in Gujarat and East Africa".[60]:217 In addition to providing religious and spiritual guidance, Yogiji Maharaj encouraged youths to work hard and excel in their studies. Towards realizing such ideals, he would often remind them to stay away from worldly temptations.[61] A number of youths decided to take monastic vows.[32]:187 On 11 May 1961 during the Gadhada Kalash Mahotsav, he initiated 51 college-educated youths into the monastic order as sadhus.[35]:168 Mahant Swami initiated as Sadhu Keshavjivandas was one of the initiates.

East Africa

Satsang in Africa had started during Shastriji Maharaj's lifetime, as many devotees had migrated to Africa for economic reasons. One of Shastriji Maharaj's senior sadhus, Nirgundas Swami, engaged in lengthy correspondence with these devotees, answering their questions and inspiring them to start satsang assemblies in Africa. Eventually, in 1928, Harman Patel took the murtis of Akshar-Purushottam Maharaj to East Africa and started a small center.[35]:20 Soon, the East Africa Satsang Mandal was established under the leadership of Harman Patel and Magan Patel.[35]:20

In 1955, Yogiji Maharaj embarked on his first foreign tour to East Africa.[60]:217 The prime reason for the visit was to consecrate Africa's first Akshar-Purushottam temple in Mombasa. The temple was inaugurated on 25 April 1955.[35]:168[62] He also travelled to Nairobi, Nakuru, Kisumu, Tororo, Jinja, Kampala, Mwanza and Dar es salaam.[35]:168 His travels inspired the local devotees to begin temple construction projects. Due to the visit, in a span of five years, the devotees in Uganda completed the construction of temples in Tororo, Jinja and Kampala and asked Yogiji Maharaj to revisit Uganda to install the murtis of Akshar-Purushottam Maharaj. The rapid temple constructions in Africa were helped by the presence of early immigrants, mainly Leva Patels, who came to work as masons, and were particularly skilled in temple building.[63]

As a result, Yogiji Maharaj made a second visit to East Africa in 1960 and consecrated hari mandirs in Kampala, Jinja and Tororo in Uganda.[35]:50 Despite his failing health, Yogiji Maharaj at the age of 78 undertook a third overseas tour of London and East Africa in 1970.[35]:169 Prior to his visit, the devotees had purchased the premises of the Indian Christian Union at Ngara, Kenya in 1966 and remodeled it to resemble a three-spired temple.[64] Yogiji Maharaj inaugurated the temple in Ngara, a suburb of Nairobi in 1970.[62][64]

England

In 1950, disciples Mahendra Patel and Purushottam Patel held small personal services at their homes in England. Mahendra Patel, a barrister by vocation, writes, "I landed in London in 1950 for further studies. Purushottambhai Patel...was residing in the county of Kent. His address was given to me by Yogiji Maharaj".[65] Beginning 1953, D. D. Meghani held assemblies in his office that brought together several followers in an organized setting. In 1958, leading devotees including Navin Swaminarayan, Praful Patel and Chatranjan Patel from India and East Africa began arriving to the UK.[65] They started weekly assemblies at Seymour Place every Saturday evening at a devotee's house.[65] In 1959, a formal constitution was drafted and the group registered as the "Swaminarayan Hindu Mission, London Fellowship Centre".[65] D.D. Megani served as Chairman, Mahendra Patel as Vice-Chairman and Praful Patel the secretary.[65] On Sunday, 14 June 1970, the first BAPS temple in England was opened at Islington by Yogiji Maharaj.[65] In this same year he established the Shree Swaminarayan Mission[32]:189 as a formal organization.[66]

United States

Yogiji Maharaj was unable to travel to the United States during his consecutive foreign tours. Nonetheless, he asked Dr. K.C. Patel, a chemistry instructor at Brooklyn College, to begin satsang assemblies in the United States.[67] He gave Dr. Patel the names of twenty-eight satsangi students to help conduct [satsang] assemblies.[67]

In 1970, Yogiji Maharaj accepted the request of these students and sent four sadhus to visit the U.S.[67][68] The tour motivated followers to start satsang sabhas in their own homes every Sunday around the country.[67] Soon, K.C. Patel established a non-profit organization known as BSS under US law.[69] Thus, a fledgling Satsang Mandal formed in the United States before the death of Yogiji Maharaj in 1971.

Growth and Global Expansion (1971–2016)[edit]

After Yogiji Maharaj’s death, Pramukh Swami Maharaj became both the spiritual and administrative head of BAPS[70] in 1971.[71] He was the fifth spiritual Guru of the BAPS organization.[72] Under his leadership, BAPS has grown into a global Hindu organization and has witnessed expansion in several areas. His work has been built on the foundations laid by his gurus – Shastriji Maharaj and Yogiji Maharaj.

Personal Outreach (1971–1981)

Immediately upon taking helm, Pramukh Swami Maharaj ventured on a hectic spiritual tour in the first decade of his role as the new Spiritual Guru. Despite health conditions—cataract operation in 1980—he continued to make extensive tours to more than 4000 villages and towns, visiting over 67,000 homes and performing image installation ceremonies in 77 temples in this first decade.[2] He also embarked on a series of overseas tours beginning in 1974 as the Guru. Subsequent tours were made in 1977, 1979, and 1980.[73]

Overall, he embarked on a total of 27 international spiritual tours between 1974 and 2007.[67] His travels were motivated by his desire to reach out to devotees for their spiritual uplift and to spread the teachings of Swaminarayan.[74]

Festivals and Organization (1981–1992)

The personal outreach (vicharan) of the earlier era (1971–81) by Pramukh Swami Maharaj through traveling to villages and towns, writing letters to devotees, and giving discourses contributed to sustaining a global BAPS community.

The Gujarati migration patterns in the early 1970s, globalization factors and economic dynamics between India and the West saw the organization transform into a transnational devotional movement.[75] Organizational needs spanned from transmitting cultural identity through spiritual discourses to the newer much alienated generation in the new lands, temple upkeep and traveling to regional and local centers to disseminate spiritual knowledge. As a result, this era saw a significant rise in the number of sadhus initiated to maintain the organizational needs of the community – both in India and abroad. Furthermore, having access to a greater volunteer force and community enabled the organization to celebrate festivals on a massive scale which marked the arrival of a number of milestone anniversaries in the history of the organization, including the bicentenary of Swaminarayan, bicentenary of Gunatitanand Swami, and the centenary of Yogiji Maharaj. Some effects of the celebration included a maturation of organizational capacity, increased commitment and skill of volunteers, and tangentially, an increased interest in the monastic path.

The Swaminarayan bicentenary celebration, a once in a life-time event for Swaminarayan followers, was held in Amdavad in April 1981.[2] On 7th March 1981, 207 youths were initiated into the monastic order.[2] In 1985 the bicentenary birth of Gunatitanand Swami was celebrated.[2] During this festival, 200 youths were initiated into the monastic order.[76]

The organization held Cultural festivals of India in London in 1985 and New Jersey in 1991.[76] The month-long Cultural Festival of India was held at Alexandra Palace in London in 1985.[76] The same festival was shipped to US as a month-long Cultural Festival of India at Middlesex County College in Edison, New Jersey.[60]

Migrational patterns in the 70s led to a disproportionate number of Hindus in the diaspora.[75] Culturally, a need arose to celebrate special festivals (Cultural Festival of India) to reach out to youths in the diaspora to foster understanding and appreciation of their mother culture in a context accessible to them.[71][77] To engage the youths, festival grounds housed temporary exhibitions ranging from interactive media, dioramas, panoramic scenes and even 3D-exhibits.

By the end of the era, owing to the success of these festivals and the cultural impact it had on the youths, the organization saw a need to create a permanent exhibition in the Gandhinagar Akshardham Temple complex in 1991.

In 1992, a month-long festival was held to both celebrate Yogiji Maharaj's centenary and to inaugurate a permanent exhibition and temple called Swaminarayan Akshardham in Gandhinagar. The festival also saw 125 youths initiated into the monastic order bringing the total number of sadhus initiated to more than 700 in fulfillment to a prophecy made by Yogiji Maharaj.[78]

Mandirs and Global Growth (1992–2012)

In the third leg of the era, the organization saw an unprecedented level of mandir construction activities taking place in order to accommodate the rapid rise of adherents across the global Indian diaspora. Initially, beginning with the inauguration of Swaminarayan Akshardham in Gandhinagar in 1992. A number of Shikharbaddha mandirs (large traditional stone mandirs) were inaugurated in major cities; Neasden (1995), Nairobi (1999), New Delhi (2004), Swaminarayan Akshardham (2005), Houston (2004), Chicago (2004), Toronto (2007), Atlanta (2007) and Los Angeles (2012)

Philosophy[edit]

The philosophy of BAPS is centered on the doctrine of Akshar Purshottam Upasana, in which followers worship Swaminarayan as God, or Purshottam, and his choicest devotee Gunatitanand Swami, as Akshar.[42]:73 The concept of Akshar has been interpreted differently by various Swaminarayan denominations, and one major reason for the separation of BAPS from the Vartal diocese has been attributed to doctrinal differences in the interpretation of the concept of Akshar. Both the Vadtal and Ahmedabad dioceses of the Swaminaryan sampradaya believe Akshar to be the divine abode of the supreme entity Purushottam.[42]:73 The BAPS denomination concurs that Akshar is the divine abode of Purushottam, but they further understand Akshar as "an eternally existing spiritual reality having two forms, the impersonal and the personal"[42]:73[79] Followers of BAPS identify various scriptures and documented statements of Swaminarayan as supporting this understanding of Akshar within the Akshar Purushottam Upasana.[80]:95–103 BAPS teaches that the entity of Akshar remains on earth through a lineage of "perfect devotees", the gurus or spiritual teachers of the organization, who provide "authentication of office through Gunatitanand Swami and back to Swaminarayan himself."[2]:92 Followers hold Mahant Swami Maharaj[4] as the personified form of Akshar and the spiritual leader of BAPS.

Swaminarayan Ontology[edit]

The Swaminarayan ontology comprises five eternal entities: Jiva, Ishwar, Maya, Brahman, and Parabrahman. The entities are separate and distinct from one another and structured within a hierarchy.[81] Encompassing the entities of both Swaminarayan and his ideal devotee, this hierarchy emphasizes the relationship between Akshar and Purshottam.[43]:65

Parabrahma- At the top is Parabrahman. Parabrahman is the highest reality, God. He is understood as Sarva karta (all-doer), Sarvopari (transcendent), Sakar (having a form), and Pragat (present on the earth).[43]:318 He is also one and unparalleled, the reservoir for all forms of bliss and eternally divine. Parabrahman is also referred to as Purshottam and Paramatma, both of which reflect his supreme existential state.[43]:319 Furthermore, Parabrahman is the only unconditioned entity upon which the other four entities are contingent.[2]:78

Brahma- Subservient to Parabrahman is Brahman, also known as Akshar, which exists simultaneously in four states. The first state is in the form of the impersonal Chidakash, the divine, all-pervading substratum of the cosmos.[82] Another form of Akshar is the divine abode of Parabrahman, known as Akshardham.[43]:319 Muktas, or liberated jivas (souls), also dwell here in unfathomable bliss and luster which is beyond the scope of human imagination. The other two states of Akshar are personal, which manifest as the ideal servant of Purshottam, both within his divine abode of Akshardham and simultaneously on earth as the God-realized saint.[43]:320

Maya- Below Brahman is maya. Maya has three main qualities of sattva, rajas, and tamas (These influences encompass the spectrum of maya, ranging from goodness, passions, and darkness, respectively[83]) that it utilizes to create the physical world.[84] Maya entangles Ishwar and Jiva and causes them to form an attachment to both their physical bodies and the material world.[43]:320 This attachment denies them liberation, and only through contact with the personal form of Brahman can they overcome the illusion created by maya and attain liberation.[85]

Ishwar- Ishwars are conscious spiritual beings that are responsible for the creation, sustenance, and destruction of the cosmos, at the behest of Parabrahman.[43]:320[86] They have greater power than the jivas and are infinite in number. They are the deities that are above jiva, but are also subject to maya.[87]

Jiva- The jiva is the eternal soul which has not been liberated, as it is under the influence of maya, and can be freed only through association with Aksharbrahma.[43]:320–321[88]

Akshar Purshottam Upasana[edit]

History

In 1907, Shastriji Maharaj consecrated the images of Akshar and Purshottam in a temple's central shrine in the village of Bochasan as sacred, marking the formation of the BAPS fellowship as a formally distinct organization. However, the fundamental beliefs of the sampraday date back to the time of Swaminarayan.[89] One revelation of Gunatitanand Swami as Akshar occurred in 1810 at the grand yagna of Dhaban, during which Swaminarayan initiated Gunatitanand Swami as a sadhu. On this occasion, Swaminarayan publicly confirmed that Gunatitanand Swami was the incarnation of Akshar, declaring, "Today, I am extremely happy to initiate Mulji Sharma. He is my divine abode – Akshardham, which is infinite and endless." The first Acharya of the Vartal diocese, Raghuvirji Maharaj, recorded this declaration in his composition, the Harililakalpataru (7.17.49-50).[90] Under Shastriji Maharaj, considered the manifest form of Akshar at the time, the fellowship continued the traditions of the Akshar Purshottam Upasana. He focused on the revelations of Gunatitanand Swami as Swaminaryan's divine abode and choicest devotee.[91]

Essence

The Akshar Purushottam Upasana refers to two separate entities within the Swaminarayan ontology.[43]:65 These two entities are worshipped in conjunction by followers of BAPS in accordance with the instructions laid down in the Vachanamrut. According to BAPS, Swaminarayan refers to Akshar in the Vachanamrut, with numerous appellations such as Sant, Satpurush, Bhakta and Sadhu, as having an august status that makes it an entity worth worshipping alongside God.[43]:453–455 For example, in Vachanamrut Gadhada I-37, Swaminarayan states: "In fact, the darshan of such a true Bhakta of God is equivalent to the darshan of God Himself"[92] Moreover, in Vachanamrut Vartal 5, Swaminarayan states: Just as one performs the mãnsi puja of God, if one also performs the mãnsi puja of the ideal Bhakta along with God, by offering him the prasãd of God; and just as one prepares a thãl for God, similarly, if one also prepares a thãl for God's ideal Bhakta and serves it to him; and just as one donates five rupees to God, similarly, if one also donates money to the great Sant – then by performing with extreme affection such similar service of God and the Sant who possesses the highest qualities…he will become a devotee of the highest calibre in this very life.[93] Thus, in all BAPS mandirs the image of Akshar is placed in the central shrine and worshipped alongside the image of Purushottam.[2]:86 Furthermore, BAPS believes that by understanding the greatness of God's choicest devotee, coupled with devotion and service to him and God, followers are able to grow spiritually. This practice is mentioned by Swaminarayan in Vachanamrut Vartal 5: "by performing with extreme affection such similar service of God and the Sant who possesses the highest qualities, even if he is a devotee of the lowest type and was destined to become a devotee of the highest type after two lives, or after four lives, or after ten lives, or after 100 lives, he will become a devotee of the highest caliber in this very life. Such are the fruits of the similar service of God and God's Bhakta."[94]

Metaphysical ends

As per the Akshar Purushottam Upasana, each jiva attains liberation and true realization through the manifest form of Akshar.[95] Jivas who perform devotion to this personal form of Brahman can, despite remaining ontologically different, attain a similar spiritual standing as Brahman and then go to Akshardham.[43]:319–320[96] It is only through the performance of devotion to Brahman that Parabrahman can be both realized and attained.[97]

Akshar as a living entity

According to the Akshar Purushottam Upasana, the personal form of Akshar is forever present on the earth through a lineage of spiritual leaders, or gurus. It is through these gurus that Swaminarayan is also held to forever remain present on the earth.[2]:55 These gurus are also essential in illuminating the path that needs to be taken by the jivas that earnestly desire to be liberated from the cycle of rebirth.[43]:65 This lineage begins with Gunatitanand Swami (1785–1867), a sadhu who lived conterminously with Swaminarayan. Members of BAPS point to numerous historical anecdotes and scriptural references, particularly from the central Swaminarayan text known as the Vachanamrut, as veritable evidence that Gunatitanand Swami was the manifest form of Akshar.[43]:76 Swaminarayan refers to this concept specifically in the Vachnamrut chapters of Gadhada I-21, Gadhada I-71, Gadhada III-26, Vadtal 5.[2]:92 Following Gunatitanand Swami, the lineage continued on through Bhagatji Maharaj (1829–1897), Shastriji Maharaj (1865–1951), Yogiji Maharaj (1892–1971), and Pramukh Swami Maharaj (1921–2016). Today Mahant Swami Maharaj is said to be the manifest form of Akshar.[4]

Swaminarayan Praxis[edit]

According to BAPS doctrines, followers aim to attain a spiritual state similar to Brahman which is necessary for ultimate liberation.[43]:291 The practices of BAPS Swaminarayans are an idealistic "portrait of Hinduism."[43]:6 To become an ideal Hindu, followers must identify with Brahman, separate from the material body, and offer devotion to god[98] It is understood that through association with Akshar, in the form of the God-realized guru, one is able to achieve this spiritual state.[43]:325 Followers live according to the spiritual guidance of the guru who is able to elevate the jiva to the state of Brahman.[43]:295 Thus devotees aim to follow the spiritual guidance of the manifest form of Akshar embedding the principles of dharma (righteousness), gnana (knowledge), vairagya (detachment from material pleasures) and bhakti (devotion unto God) in to their lives.[43]:358 The basic practices of the Swaminarayan sect are based on these four principles. Followers receive jnana through regularly listening to spiritual discourses and reading scriptures in an effort to gain knowledge of God and one's true self.[99] Dharma encompasses righteous conduct as prescribed by the scriptures.[99] The ideals of dharma range from practicing non-violence to avoiding meat, onions, garlic, and other items in their diet. Swaminarayan has outlined the dharma of his devotees in the scripture the Shikshapatri.[43]:456 He has included practical aspects of living life such as not committing adultery to respecting elders, gurus, and those of authority.[43]:333 Devotees develop vairagya in order to spiritually elevate their jivas to a Brahmic state. This entails practices such as fasting every eleventh day of each half of each lunar month and avoiding worldly pleasures by strongly attaching themselves to God.[43]:326 The fourth pillar, bhakti, or devotion is at the heart of the BAPS faith community. Common practices of devotion include daily prayers, offering prepared dishes (thal) to the image of God, mental worship of God and his ideal devotee, and singing religious hymns.[99] Spiritual service, or seva, is a form of devotion where devotees serve selflessly "while keeping only the Lord in mind."[43]:343

Followers participate in various socio-spiritual activities with the objective to earn the grace of the guru and thus attain association with God through voluntary service.[80]:97 These numerous activities stem directly from the ideals taught by Swaminarayan, to find spiritual devotion in the service of others.[43]:319–320, 389 By serving and volunteering in communities to please the guru, devotees are considered to be serving the guru.[43]:389 This relationship is the driving force for the spiritual actions of devotees. The guru is Mahant Swami Maharaj, who is seen as embodiment of selfless devotion. Under the guidance of Mahant Swami Maharaj, followers observe the tenets of Swaminarayan through the above-mentioned practices, striving to please the guru and become close to God.[4]

BAPS Charities[edit]

BAPS Charities
New BAPS Charities Logo.png
Origins Hindia
Website www.bapscharities.org

BAPS Charities (formerly BAPS Care International) is an international non-religious, charitable organization that originated from the Bochasanwasi Akshar Purushottam Swaminarayan Sanstha (BAPS) with a focus on serving society.[100] Their history of service activities can be traced back to Swaminarayan, who opened alms houses, built shelters, worked against addiction, and abolished the practice of sati and female infanticide with the goals of removing suffering and effecting positive social change.[100][101] This focus on service to society is stated in the organization's vision, that "every individual deserves the right to a peaceful, dignified, and healthy way of life. And by improving the quality of life of the individual, we are bettering families, communities, our world, and our future.[100] BAPS Charities carries out this vision through a range of programs addressing health, education, the environment, and natural disaster recovery. The organization's worldwide activities are funded through donations and are led by a community of over 55,000 volunteers who are mostly members of BAPS.[100] The volunteers work with local communities and other charities and the organization's activities are mainly based out of their mandirs.

History[edit]

The Bochasanwasi Akshar Purushottam Swaminarayan Sanstha (BAPS) was founded by Shastri Yagnapurushdas in 1907.[102] As an extension of their spiritual beliefs and practice, the organization's volunteers participated in charitable activities focused on fighting addiction and helping the poor during this period. BAPS registered a charity wing in 1950 with a goal of engaging in larger social and charitable works from a secular perspective.[103] The organization increased the scale of its charitable works in India to a national level and assisted in major disaster relief activities, anti-addiction campaigns, and education drives. The organization then expanded its breadth of activities outside of the Indian subcontinent to Europe, Australia, Africa, and North America. In 2000, BAPS Care International was officially registered as an independent, nonprofit, and nonreligious social services arm of BAPS.[103] In this time, the organization expanded its activities internationally and began worldwide walkathon campaigns to benefit local communities, health fairs, environmental activities, and youth development campaigns. In 2007, "BAPS Care International" changed its name to "BAPS Charities".[104] Since 2007, the organization has continued to grow and has partnered with other organizations such as UNICEF and the International Red Cross to serve the global community.[105][106]

Founding vision[edit]

The founding of vision of the charity is rooted in the philosophy of secular social service advanced by Swaminarayan in the early 19th century. Swaminarayan undertook several programs of social reform based on non-violence, temperance, and social justice.[107]:173[108] He helped stop the practice of animal sacrifices in yagnas and promoted animal welfare.[100][109] He also helped outlaw two common social crimes against women during his time, female infanticide and widow burning.[100][107]:165–67 During times of famine and plague, Swaminarayan marshaled the resources of his followers from different parts of Gujarat to meet the relief of those areas hit by the disaster by setting up almshouses.[100][107]:24 Outside of times of disaster, he commanded devotees to regularly engage in charitable work according to their means. Many of Swaminarayan's reforms also served as public health interventions. He educated the masses on rules of personal cleanliness, human waste disposal, and avoiding water contamination that improved sanitation and contributed to ritual purity.[107]:162 He preached against the harmful effects that addictions such as tobacco, alcohol, opium, other intoxicants, and gambling have on the mind and asked society to give up these activities.[107]:160

Shastri Narayanswarupdas (also known as Pramukh Swami), has further contributed to the founding vision and highlighted the importance of service to society in as an extension of spiritual endeavors. He has traveled around the world emphasizing the importance of family harmony and community service.[110] In his speeches, he has continued to preach about addiction-free living.[111]

Activities[edit]

Health[edit]

BAPS Charities engages in numerous health-focused activities. As of 2011, the organization supported 14 hospitals, clinics, health care centers, and 11 mobile medical vans serving over 600,000 people annually worldwide.[100]

In India, the organization has supported anti-addiction campaigns led by several thousand children who spent their summer vacations traveling through cities and villages persuading people to give up their addictions with personal appeals and presentations on the dangers of addictive behaviors.[100] In the de-addiction campaign, approximately 10,000 children contacted over 800,000 people to raise awareness of the health consequences of addiction and convinced 312,000 individuals to give up drugs and violent behavior.[112]

In New Zealand it organizes an annual Health Expo in Auckland in which visitors undergo screening, learn about common disease prevention, understand ayurveda, and learn about women's and children's health.[113][self-published source?]

In Africa, their volunteers have screened for disease and arranged for treatment for visitors at various health camps in areas of need. The organization has arranged eye care camps and Hansen's disease camps in Tanzania and medical screening camps in Kenya.[114]

In the United Kingdom it organizes an annual challenge, which is a 10 kilometer walk in London and across other cities for the purposes of mobilizing communities and raising funds for different British charities, one of such being the British Heart Foundation (BHF).[115][116] The UK chapter has raised and donated over £22,000 to the Anthony Nolan Trust Leukemia Charity[117] and donated over £25,000 each to the charities Macmillan Cancer Support[118] to support patients, raise awareness, and promote scientific research. To help the needy in vulnerable age groups, it also has used funds raised from the Annual Challenge to donate £25,000 each to the charities Barnardo's[119] and Age UK[120] in previous years.

In North America, it organizes health fairs run by volunteer medical professionals where visitors can undergo screening tests, participate in consultations, and receive treatment.[121][122][123] These fairs help provide medical care and advice to people who lack access to quality health care, serving about 10,000 North Americans annually.[100] With a goal of educating about major risk factors and causes of disease and a focus on preventing illness, the group has organized a series of health awareness lectures at over 60 centers across North America covering topics such as nutritional deficiencies, heart disease, stroke, and flu prevention, among others.[124] In support of the National Institutes of Health's "We Can! (Ways to Enhance Children's Activity & Nutrition)" initiative to promote healthy habits in children, they organized Health and Safety Days for Children at centers across North America with the aim of giving parents, caretakers, and children knowledge about hygiene, healthy living, diet, and physical activity.[125] Supporting the goals of Michelle Obama's "Let's Move" campaign which is working to end childhood obesity, BAPS Charities recently launched a health awareness initiative in the United States focused on educating parents and children on benefits of a vegetarian diet.[126] It organizes annual walkathons in cities across North America to help a wide range of community, health and humanitarian organizations. Recent beneficiaries of the walkathons include the American Cancer Society,[127] American Diabetes Association,[128] local schools,[129] and local hospitals.[130] To support biomedical research, the Toronto chapter raised funds through walk-a-thons and donated $20,000 to the Princess Margaret Hospital Cancer Campaign[131] and $100,000 for Toronto's Hospital for Sick Children's Research and Learning Tower Campaign.[132][133] It works with local hospitals and blood banks to organize blood donation drives to help those in need of transfusions.[134] Since 2006, 9,073 pints of blood have been collected across 27 centers.[135] It regularly organizes bone marrow drives where potential donors are registered and informed about the donation process; these drives have been effective in recruiting South Asian donors to national bone marrow registries.[135]

Education[edit]

In India, it supports organizations which fund 5,000 scholarships each year, operates 10 schools and 8 colleges in addition to supporting other colleges, schools, and hostels.[100] It supports organizations that provide professional development opportunities to teachers to help them be more effective in the classroom and run education awareness campaigns to encourage parents to understand the importance of education for their children. Through volunteer-led classes, these organizations are working towards achieving 100 percent literacy in Indian villages.[100]

The UK chapter partnered with the charity KIDS to help provide support for home learning and other educational services for disabled children and their families.[115] It also partnered with the charity Barnardo's to help with the counseling, education, and training services of vulnerable children and teenagers.[119] In the past their Children's Forum in the UK has been collecting funds for the BBC's Children in Need campaign to help support programs helping disadvantaged young people through their housing, schooling, and other needs.[136]

In North America, it organizes annual seminars for professional development where workshops help youth develop interpersonal skills, public speaking, management skills.[137] The organization recently partnered with the Silicon Valley Education Foundation and local elementary schools to help public education in areas of need improve achievement in math and science.[129][130] Volunteers have also organized awareness lectures on the safe use of technology in education and the dangers of cyberbullying. It raises funds from walkathons to support libraries and book banks in underserved areas around the world.[138]

Environment[edit]

The charity manages several programs designed to protect and improve the environment. Volunteers across the world have raised ecological awareness and promoted conservation by employing energy-efficient technologies, such as solar power and biogas[139] and organizing large-scale tree planting campaigns and recycling programs.[140] The charity has planted 1.5 million trees in 2,170 villages.[139] In India, it supports organizations that lead campaigns to improve water supply and conservation and helped secure safe water consumption for communities.[100] These organizations have also conducted almost 500 rainwater-harvesting projects globally.[141] The organization has also recharged 5,475 wells in 338 villages.[139] It supports organizations that arrange 'cattle care' centers to research and improve cattle in India and to support areas experiencing drought or other emergencies; they also provide free veterinary services and help provide food and water for cows, buffaloes, and bulls owned by area farmers.[100]

The organization has undertaken tree planting programs in over 2,000 villages, with over 1.5 million trees planted.[100][141] The organization has established paper and aluminum recycling programs in the UK, USA, and India and used funds generated from this to support other charitable activities.[100] Globally, it has recycled over 10,000 tons of paper and 7 million aluminum cans.[141]

The UK chapter has teamed up with Thames21, a leading waterway charity, to clean up Brent Feeder Canal of litter.[142][self-published source?] In observance of Climate Week, it organized a clothes recycling drive.[143][self-published source?]

Disaster relief[edit]

The group has responded to disasters in many parts of the world. It has constructed more than 50 schools in areas affected by natural disasters.[100]

In South Asia, the group has supported organizations carrying out relief activities of providing medical care, medical supplies, warm food, drinking water, clothes, and shelter after natural disasters like the 1979 Morbi Dam Failure, 1993 Latur earthquake, 1994 Surat Plague Epidemic, 1995 Malda Floods, and the 1996 Andhra Pradesh Cyclones.[144][145][146] After the 1999 Odisha cyclone, it assisted the Government of Odisha and other groups in reconstructing three villages with cyclone-resistant houses and other infrastructure in addition to helping other villages and providing food, medical assistance, counseling, and other supplies.[147] Within hours after the 2001 Gujarat earthquake, it supported organizations whose volunteers began providing victims with daily hot meals, clean water, and clothing and assisted with debris removal and search and rescue missions; the organization also adopted more than 10 villages in which they rebuilt the entire community, including all infrastructure and thousands of earthquake-resistant homes.[148][149] With the help of donations from volunteers in India and abroad, the organization supported the rebuilding of the area's communities by constructing schools, hospitals, and other buildings.[150][151] Following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, the group supported organizations working in affected areas of India and Sri Lanka to provide 174,000 hot meals, 12,000 food packets, more than 60 tons of grains, and fresh water tanks to the homeless in 51 villages.[100] These organizations also treated more than 1,700 individuals in 4 medical camps and administered medicine and protective equipment.[100] As part of the rehabilitation efforts estimated to total over one million US dollars, it helped relief organizations construct 245 new houses for victims in Tamil Nadu.[152][self-published source?]

In Africa, its volunteers assisted in the rescue operations after the 1998 Nairobi US Embassy bombings,[153] 1996 Mwanza Ferry sinking[154] and 2013 Uganda Floods.[155] During this time, they provided food, clothes, water, blankets, and financial aid to victims and rescue workers.

In North America, it helped in the relief efforts in the aftermath of the 1992 Los Angeles riots and the 1994 Los Angeles earthquake. After the September 11 attacks in New York City, it conducted blood donation drives, provided counseling to affected individuals, and provided financial assistance for victims’ families, and organized prayer assemblies across the world.[156] Following the 2001 El Salvador earthquakes, it sent $3.3 million worth of medicines and supplies to assist in the relief efforts.[144] After Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast of the United States, its volunteer teams supplied hot food, water, emergency supplies, and relocation aid for victims.[157] The organization carried out similar relief activities in the aftermath of Hurricane Ike in 2008. Recently, the organization partnered with UNICEF to provide medicine, clean water, and temporary housing for children affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake.[158][159] Following the 2011 outbreak of tornadoes in the Southeastern US, they took action to provide hot meals, drinking water and shelter to the over 2,500 affected people at four relief centers and the organization responded similarly after the 2013 tornadoes in Oklahoma.[160] After the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami, they provided supplies and transportation to aid in the relief efforts in affected areas.[161]

Community[edit]

The group organizes initiatives promoting a stronger sense of community. It recently donated $250,000 to the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York City to educate future generations about the importance of ahimsa, or non-violence, and the consequences of hatred.[162][self-published source?][163] To convey other values such as coexistence, faith, friendship, fearlessness, and service prevalent in Hinduism and Indian culture, it produced the IMAX film, Mystic India, which was shown in theaters around the world and is on permanent display at Swaminarayan Akshardham in New Delhi.[164]

Caring for the elderly, disabled, and other vulnerable populations is also a core value promoted by the organization. In the United Kingdom, BAPS Charities has an outreach program in place where children with chaperones regularly visit assisted living facilities and homes in their communities to spend time with the elderly residents.[100] It has used funds raised from its annual sponsored walks to contribute to charities like Barnardo's[119] to help provide disadvantaged children with counseling, adoption services, vocational training, and disability services and charities like Age UK[120] which helps advocate and necessary social services for the elderly. In Tanzania, BAPS Charities regularly provides self-care items, comfort goods, and food to area orphanages.[165][self-published source?] In South Africa, BAPS Charities organizes an annual Winter Warmer Drive where volunteers donate blankets, clothes, toys, and food to underprivileged communities during winter months.[166][self-published source?]

In India, it has organized numerous activities to help promote gender equality and improve the lives of women. Programs include campaigns against the practice of marriage dowries, domestic violence and in support of marriage counseling, self-employment training, vocational guidance, and child health seminars.[100]

It has many programs in place working to help reduce poverty. In marginalized communities isolated from many social and governmental services, it has set up nearly 2,000 community centers which serve as hubs for running education programs, distributing food and clothes, providing healthcare, and facilitating community meetings.[100] In addition to centers, the organization operates mobile health vans, scholarships, student hostels, and literacy campaigns to serve these communities.[100]

Awards and recognition[edit]

Jn 1995, the UK Chapter of BAPS Charities was awarded the Brent Green Leaf Award for the Environment and the Care of Croydon Award for its recycling efforts.[167] In 2004, the National Federation of Indian-American Associations (NFIA) awarded its Humanitarian and Social Services Award to BAPS Care International for the lasting impact the organization has made on those in need. This marked the first time that NFIA has awarded this honor to an organization instead of an individual.[168] In 2005, BAPS Care International received Special Congressional Recognition for its tsunami relief efforts from the United States House of Representatives.[169] Mystic India received the Audience's Choice Award at the 10th International Large Format Film Festival at La Géode in Paris, France. The festival lasted from January 12 to January 31, 2005.[170][171] Mystic India was one of nine large format films selected to be screened at the festival and was accredited with the honor of "Most Popular Film" at the San Jose IMAX Film Festival.[172] The Children's Forum of the UK Chapter of BAPS Charities was awarded the prestigious Queen's Award for Voluntary Service in 2009 for "nurturing Hindu values, education and talents in children and young people in London" through their voluntary service.[173] The Queen's Award is a prestigious national honor in the UK equivalent to the Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (MBE).[174] For their various livestock projects, BAPS Charities has been awarded 34 National Livestock Awards.[139]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

Health[edit]

To prevent and alleviate bodily suffering and to foster good health and physical well-being, BAPS Charities engages in numerous health-focused activities. The organization operates 16 hospitals and clinics serving over 600,000 people annually, with its most recent hospitals opening in Ahmedabad in 2012 and in Vadodara in 2013.[1][2][3] Additionally, BAPS Charities organizes health fairs run by volunteer medical professionals where visitors can undergo screening tests, increase health awareness, participate in consultations, and receive treatment.[4][5] Supporting the goals of Michelle Obama's "Let's Move" campaign which is working to end childhood obesity, BAPS Charities recently launched a health awareness initiative in the United States focused on educating parents and children on benefits of a vegetarian diet.[6] To support biomedical research, the Toronto chapter of BAPS Charities donated $100,000 raised from walk-a-thons for Toronto's Hospital for Sick Children's Research and Learning Tower Campaign.[7][8] In India, the organization has carried out anti-addiction campaigns led by several thousand children who spent their summer vacations traveling through cities and villages persuading people to give up their addictions with personal appeals and presentations on the dangers of addictive behaviors.[9]

Education[edit]

With a goal of improving educational opportunities and outcomes for younger generations, BAPS Charities funds scholarships, operates 10 schools and 8 colleges in addition to supporting other schools and running hostels.[10] Through volunteer-led classes, the organization is working towards achieving 100 percent literacy in villages in India.[9] In Africa, BAPS Charities has been active in providing children in need with school uniforms, school supplies, and food and in addition to helping improve school facilities.[11][12][13] In North America, BAPS Charities also organizes annual seminars for professional development where workshops help youth develop interpersonal skills, public speaking, management skills.[14]

Environment[edit]

BAPS Charities manages several programs designed to protect and improve the environment. Volunteers across the world have raised ecological awareness and promoted conservation by employing energy-efficient technologies and organizing large-scale tree planting campaigns and recycling programs.[15][16] In India, the organization also leads campaigns to improve water supply and conservation and arranges camps to teach better animal husbandry.[17] In Gujarat, BAPS along with other religious sects, professional associations, and civil rights groups expressed support for the Sardar Sarovar Dam project in the 1990s, citing its prospect of generating hydropower, irrigation, potable water, and flood management.[18][19] Although some groups criticized the project for its effect of displacing area residents, BAPS sponsored initiatives to relocate and aid the affected communities.[18]

Disaster relief[edit]

Relieving human suffering in times of humanitarian emergencies remains an important component of BAPS Charities’ work. Within hours after the 2001 Gujarat earthquake, BAPS volunteers began providing victims with daily hot meals, clean water, and clothing and assisted with debris removal and search and rescue missions; the organization also adopted more than 10 villages in which they rebuilt the entire community, including all infrastructure and thousands of earthquake-resistant homes.[20][21] With the help of donations from volunteers in India and abroad, the organization helped rebuild the area's communities by constructing schools, hospitals, and other buildings.[22][23] After Hurricane Katrina struck the United States Gulf Coast region, BAPS Charities volunteer teams supplied hot food, water, emergency supplies, and relocation aid for victims.[24] The organization partnered with UNICEF to provide medicine, clean water, and temporary housing for children affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake.[25]

Community[edit]

Along the continuum of humanitarian activities, BAPS Charities also organizes initiatives with the goal of effecting positive social change and promoting a stronger sense of community. The organization recently donated $250,000 to the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York City to educate future generations about the importance of ahimsa, or non-violence, and the consequences of hatred.[26][27] In India, BAPS Charities has organized numerous activities to help promote gender equality and improve the lives of women. Programs include campaigns against marriage dowries and domestic violence and seminars offering vocational guidance and self-employment training.[28] Caring for the elderly and disabled is also a core value promoted by the organization. In the United Kingdom, BAPS Charities has an outreach program in place where children with chaperones regularly visit assisted living facilities and homes in their communities to spend time with the elderly residents.[29]


Notable projects and achievements[edit]

BAPS Swaminarayan Sanstha is a charitable Non-governmental organization. The organization is recognized as a non-governmental organization, that holds general consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council.[30][31]

  • In November 2005, the President of BAPS, Pramukh Swami Maharaj – along with the President of India, A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, Prime Minister, Dr. Manmohan Singh, and the Leader of Opposition, Lal Krishna Advani- inaugurated "Swaminarayan Akshardham", a 100-acre (0.40 km2) site in Delhi. Akshardham includes a 141 ft (43 m) high monument constructed entirely of stone, two exhibition halls highlighting Indian culture and values, Delhi's first large format movie theater, gardens, and a temple (mandir). On December 17, 2007 in Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India's Delhi Akshardham was named the largest Hindu temple in the world by Guinness Book of World Records representative Mr. Michael Whitty. The Temple, built on banks of the Yamuna River, was accused of lacking the environmental clearance and first culprit in Yamuna bed violation.[32]
  • Neasden Temple BAPS constructed what was at the time the world's largest traditional Hindu temple outside India.[33] BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, London <https://web.archive.org/web/20130611161524/http://mandir.org/>, also popularly known as the Neasden Temple) was opened in 1995. Constructed entirely from Marble and Limestone, the temple is popular amongst tourists seeking a unique place to visit in London. On 8 July 2000, the Managing Editor of Guinness Book of Records, Tim Footman and Andrew W. Dowsey presented Pramukh Swami with certificates marking his entries into the world-famous record book. The first certificate presented to him was for building and inspiring the largest traditional Hindu mandir outside India. The second certificate marked a record 355 temple consecration ceremonies performed by Pramukh Swami between April 1971 and May 2000.
  • In 1999 BAPS opened its first traditional temple in Africa at Nairobi, Kenya. The mandir in Nairobi is unique in that the interior is constructed entirely from intricately carved wood.
  • In 2004 BAPS broke its own record when it opened the largest Hindu temple outside India near Chicago, USA. Based upon the Neasden Temple, the mandir in Chicago is the USA's second traditional Swaminarayan Temple. The mandir in Houston was the first. A similar, slightly smaller temple, it was opened in Texas, a month prior to the opening of the one in Chicago.
  • July 2007 saw BAPS break its own record with the opening of the mandir in Toronto. The first traditional stone temple in Canada, and the largest such structure outside India. Just over a month later, in August 2007, the mandir in Atlanta was inaugurated, breaking the record broken the previous month in Toronto. The mandirs in Atlanta and Toronto are the two largest Hindu temples outside India.
  • BAPS financed and produced the 2004 large format film, Mystic India, which retraces the 12,000 km barefoot journey throughout 18th century India undertaken by Neelkanth Varni at the age of 11.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Clarke, Matthew (2011). Development and Religion: Theology and Practice. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-84844-584-0. 
  2. ^ "Narendra Modi inaugurates BAPS Yogiji Maharaj Hospital in Ahmedabad". DeshGujarat. 17 May 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  3. ^ "Inauguration of BAPS Shastriji Maharaj Hospital, Atladra (Vadodara), India". Swaminarayan Aksharpith. Retrieved 29 March 2013. 
  4. ^ "BAPS Annual Health Fair Promotes Wellness". Indo American News. 22 April 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2013. [permanent dead link]
  5. ^ Patel, Sandip (16 May 2011). "BAPS Health Fair in Bartlett a big success". India Post. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  6. ^ "BAPS Charities support Michelle Obama's initiative". Deccan Herald. 18 April 2012. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  7. ^ "Support SickKids with BAPS Charities annual walk". InsideToronto.com. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  8. ^ "Annual Report 2010-2011" (PDF). SickKids Foundation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 March 2012. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  9. ^ a b Clarke, Matthew (2011). Development and Religion: Theology and Practice. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-84844-584-0. 
  10. ^ Clarke, Matthew (2011). Development and Religion: Theology and Practice. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 44–45. ISBN 978-1-84844-584-0. 
  11. ^ "BAPS Charities helps school children in Durban". BAPS Charities. Archived from the original on 14 December 2010. Retrieved 28 March 2013. 
  12. ^ "BAPS Charities Food Drive, Dar-es-Salaam". BAPS Charities. Archived from the original on 14 December 2010. Retrieved 28 March 2013. 
  13. ^ "BAPS Charities helps school students facing water-crisis". Archived from the original on 14 December 2010. Retrieved 28 March 2013. 
  14. ^ "BAPS Swaminarayan Sanstha holds National Youth Leadership Seminar". Atlanta Dunia. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  15. ^ "BAPS Charities Goes Green for Earth Day". Atlanta Dunia. 23 April 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  16. ^ "BAPS Charities goes green for Earth Day". India Post. 5 May 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  17. ^ Clarke, Matthew (2011). Development and Religion: Theology and Practice. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-84844-584-0. 
  18. ^ a b Jones, Lindsay (2005). Encyclopedia of Religion. Farmington Hills: Thomson Gale. p. 8890. ISBN 0-02-865984-8. 
  19. ^ "Unprecedented Awakening to Counter the Challenge of the anti-Narmada Protestors [Narmada samena padkaro jheeli leva lokoman abhootpurva chetna]". Gujarat Samachar. 29 December 1990. 
  20. ^ Malik, Rajiv (July–August 2001). "To Rebuild Kutch". Hinduism Today. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  21. ^ "Prince Charles comes to the aid of quake victims". Indian Express. 6 March 2001. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  22. ^ "Post-quake Kutch schools get facelift". The Times of India. 22 June 2002. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  23. ^ Harley, Gail (2003). Hindu and Sikh Faiths in America. New York: Shoreline Publishing. pp. 82–83. ISBN 0-8160-4987-4. 
  24. ^ "BAPS gives $10,000 to student victims of Katrina". India Herald. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  25. ^ "BAPS Charities' donation totals $63,000 to UNICEF for Haiti Earthquake Relief Fund". Atlanta Dunia. 6 August 2010. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  26. ^ "BAPS Charities donates to the National September 11 Memorial & Museum". BAPS Charities. Archived from the original on 21 April 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  27. ^ "Our Donors". National September 11 Memorial & Museum. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  28. ^ Clarke, Matthew (2011). Development and Religion: Theology and Practice. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-84844-584-0. 
  29. ^ Clarke, Matthew (2011). Development and Religion: Theology and Practice. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-84844-584-0. 
  30. ^ "News of BAPS - BAPS participates in United Nations 6th annual International Youth Assembly". Swaminarayan.org. Retrieved 2012-09-21. 
  31. ^ "Pramukh Swami at the UN". IndianExpress.com. 11 September 2000. Archived from the original on 15 January 2008. Retrieved 15 January 2008. 
  32. ^ http://www.indianexpress.com/news/akshardham-is-first-culprit-in-yamuna-bed-violation-ramesh/734643/
  33. ^ "Guinness World Record Certificate – London". 

External links[edit]

Organization Information
Mandirs and Monuments
Productions