BBCH-scale (peanut)

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In biology, the BBCH-scale for peanut describes the phenological development of peanuts using the BBCH-scale.

The phenological growth stages and BBCH-identification keys of peanuts are:

Growth stage Code Description
0: Germination 00 Dry seed
01 Beginning of seed imbibition
03 Seed imbibition complete
05 Radicle emerged from seed
07 Hypocotyl with cotyledons breaking through seed coat
08 Hypocotyl reaches the soil surface; hypocotyl arch visible
09 Emergence: hypocotyl with cotyledons arising above soil surface (“cracking stage”)
1: Leaf development (main shoot) 10 Cotyledons completely unfolded1
11 First true leaf (pinnate) unfolded1
12 2nd true leaf (pinnate) unfolded1
13 3rd true leaf (pinnate) unfolded1
1 . Stages continuous till . . .
19 9 or more true leaves unfolded.1 No side shoots visible2
2: Formation of side shoots3 21 1st side shoot visible
22 2nd side shoot visible
23 3rd side shoot visible
2 . Stages continuous till . . .
29 9 or more side shoots visible
3: Main stem elongation (Crop cover) 31 Beginning of crop cover: 10% of plants meets between rows
32 20% of plants meets between rows
33 30% of plants meets between rows
34 40% of plants meets between rows
35 50% of plants meets between rows
36 60% of plants meets between rows
37 70% of plants meets between rows
38 80% of plants meets between rows
39 Crop cover complete: 90% of plants meets between rows
5: Inflorescence emergence 51 First inflorescence buds visible
55 First individual flower buds visible
59 First flower petals visible. Flower buds still closed
6: Flowering 61 Beginning of flowering
62 First carpophore pegs visible
63 Continuation of flowering
64 First carpophore pegs visibly elongated
65 Full flowering
66 First carpophore pegs penetrating the soil
67 Flowering declining4
68 Tip of first carpophore pegs growing horizontally in the soil
69 End of flowering4
7: Development of fruits and seeds 71 Beginning of pod development: tip of first carpophore pegs swollen (at least twice the original diameter)
73 Continuation of pod development: beginning of pod filling: first pods have attained final size and are ripening
75 Main phase of pod development: continuation of pod filling
77 Advanced pod filling
79 Fresh seeds fill the cavity of the pods which have attained their final size
8: Ripening of fruits and seeds5 81 Beginning of ripening: about 10% of pods developed to final size are ripe
82 About 20% of pods developed to final size are ripe
83 Continuation of ripening: about 30% of pods developed to final size are ripe
84 About 40% of pods developed to final size are ripe
85 Main phase of ripening: about 50% of pods developed to final size are ripe
86 About 60% of pods developed to final size are ripe
87 Advanced ripening: about 70% of pods developed to final size are ripe
88 About 80% of pods developed to final size are ripe
89 Full maturity: nearly all pods developed to final size are ripe
9: Senescence 91 About 10% of above ground parts of plant dry
92 About 40% of above ground parts of plant dry
93 About 30% of above ground parts of plant dry
94 About 40% of above ground parts of plant dry
95 About 50% of above ground parts of plant dry
96 About 60% of above ground parts of plant dry
97 Above ground parts of plant dead
99 Harvested product

1 Leaves are counted from the cotyledon node (= node 0)
2 Side shoot development may occur earlier; in this case continue with principal growth stage 2
4 Only for varieties with a determinate flowering period
5 Criteria of maturity: Pericarp hard, with distinct texture, can be split open easily;

References[edit]

Munger, L.; H. Bleiholder; H. Hack; M. Hess; R. Stauss; T. van den Boom; E. Weber (1998). "Phenological Growth Stages of the Peanut plant (Arachis hypogaea L.) Codification and Description according to the BBCH Scale – with figures.". Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 180 (2): 101–107. doi:10.1111/j.1439-037X.1998.tb00377.x.