The breakpoint cluster region protein (BCR) also known as renal carcinoma antigen NY-REN-26 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BCRgene. BCR is one of the two genes in the BCR-ABL complex, which is associated with the Philadelphia chromosome. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.
A reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 22 and 9 produces the Philadelphia chromosome, which is often found in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia. The chromosome 22 breakpoint for this translocation is located within the BCR gene. The translocation produces a fusion protein that is encoded by sequence from both BCR and ABL, the gene at the chromosome 9 breakpoint.
The BCR-ABL oncoprotein oligomerisation domain found at the N-terminus of BCR is essential for the oncogenicity of the BCR-ABL fusion protein. The BCR-ABL oncoprotein oligomerisation domain consists of a short N-terminal helix (alpha-1), a flexible loop and a long C-terminal helix (alpha-2). Together these form an N-shaped structure, with the loop allowing the two helices to assume a parallel orientation. The monomeric domains associate into a dimer through the formation of an antiparallelcoiled coil between the alpha-2 helices and domain swapping of two alpha-1 helices, where one alpha-1 helix swings back and packs against the alpha-2 helix from the second monomer. Two dimers then associate into a tetramer.
^Ling X, Ma G, Sun T, Liu J, Arlinghaus RB (January 2003). "Bcr and Abl interaction: oncogenic activation of c-Abl by sequestering Bcr". Cancer Res. 63 (2): 298–303. PMID12543778.
^Pendergast AM, Muller AJ, Havlik MH, Maru Y, Witte ON (July 1991). "BCR sequences essential for transformation by the BCR-ABL oncogene bind to the ABL SH2 regulatory domain in a non-phosphotyrosine-dependent manner". Cell. 66 (1): 161–71. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90148-R. PMID1712671.
^Hallek M, Danhauser-Riedl S, Herbst R, Warmuth M, Winkler A, Kolb HJ, Druker B, Griffin JD, Emmerich B, Ullrich A (July 1996). "Interaction of the receptor tyrosine kinase p145c-kit with the p210bcr/abl kinase in myeloid cells". Br. J. Haematol. 94 (1): 5–16. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2141.1996.6102053.x. PMID8757502.
^ abcdBai RY, Jahn T, Schrem S, Munzert G, Weidner KM, Wang JY, Duyster J (August 1998). "The SH2-containing adapter protein GRB10 interacts with BCR-ABL". Oncogene. 17 (8): 941–8. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1202024. PMID9747873.
^Million RP, Van Etten RA (July 2000). "The Grb2 binding site is required for the induction of chronic myeloid leukemia-like disease in mice by the Bcr/Abl tyrosine kinase". Blood. 96 (2): 664–70. PMID10887132.
^Stanglmaier M, Warmuth M, Kleinlein I, Reis S, Hallek M (February 2003). "The interaction of the Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase with the Src kinase Hck is mediated by multiple binding domains". Leukemia. 17 (2): 283–9. doi:10.1038/sj.leu.2402778. PMID12592324.
^Lionberger JM, Wilson MB, Smithgall TE (June 2000). "Transformation of myeloid leukemia cells to cytokine independence by Bcr-Abl is suppressed by kinase-defective Hck". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (24): 18581–5. doi:10.1074/jbc.C000126200. PMID10849448.
^ abSalgia R, Sattler M, Pisick E, Li JL, Griffin JD (February 1996). "p210BCR/ABL induces formation of complexes containing focal adhesion proteins and the protooncogene product p120c-Cbl". Exp. Hematol. 24 (2): 310–3. PMID8641358.
^Salgia R, Li JL, Lo SH, Brunkhorst B, Kansas GS, Sobhany ES, Sun Y, Pisick E, Hallek M, Ernst T (March 1995). "Molecular cloning of human paxillin, a focal adhesion protein phosphorylated by P210BCR/ABL". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (10): 5039–47. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.10.5039. PMID7534286.
^Skorski T, Kanakaraj P, Nieborowska-Skorska M, Ratajczak MZ, Wen SC, Zon G, Gewirtz AM, Perussia B, Calabretta B (July 1995). "Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase activity is regulated by BCR/ABL and is required for the growth of Philadelphia chromosome-positive cells". Blood. 86 (2): 726–36. PMID7606002.
^Liedtke M, Pandey P, Kumar S, Kharbanda S, Kufe D (October 1998). "Regulation of Bcr-Abl-induced SAP kinase activity and transformation by the SHPTP1 protein tyrosine phosphatase". Oncogene. 17 (15): 1889–92. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1202117. PMID9788431.
^Park AR, Oh D, Lim SH, Choi J, Moon J, Yu DY, Park SG, Heisterkamp N, Kim E, Myung PK, Lee JR (2012). "Regulation of dendritic arborization by BCR Rac1 GTPase-activating protein, a substrate of PTPRT". J. Cell Sci. 125 (Pt 19): 4518–31. doi:10.1242/jcs.105502. PMID22767509.