Epoch J2000.0 Equinox J2000.0
|Right ascension||01h 54m 50.3443s|
|Declination||+21° 18′ 22.477″|
|Apparent magnitude (V)||9.01|
|U−B color index||0.559|
|Proper motion (μ)|| RA: 39.32 mas/yr |
Dec.: -20.95 mas/yr
|Parallax (π)||10.88 ± 1.27 mas|
|Distance||approx. 300 ly |
(approx. 90 pc)
|Age||>1 × 109 years|
The dust that orbits around several hundred main-sequence stars is cold and comes from a Kuiper-belt analogous region. In the Solar System the ongoing collisions between asteroids generate a tenuous cloud of dust known as the zodiacal light. When the Solar System was young such collisions were more common and the rate of dust production was probably many times higher. Zodiacal dust around stars much younger than the Sun has been rarely found. Only a few main-sequence stars have revealed warm (>120 K) zodiacal dust.
An exceptionally large amount of warm, small, silicate dust particles around the solar-type star BD +20°307 (HIP 8920, SAO 75016) has been reported. The composition, quantity and temperature of the dust may be explained by recent, frequent or huge collisions between asteroids or other planetesimals whose orbits are being perturbed by a nearby planet.
Both stars of the close binary are considered to be Solar-type stars that are slightly more massive than the Sun. The two stars differ in effective temperature by only ~250 K and have a mass ratio of 0.91. The two orbit a common center of mass every 3.42 days. Within the spectra of the two stars the Li lines show different equivalent widths. The Li 6707 Å line though weak is detected only from the primary star, suggesting that it is older than 1 Gyr. If so, the large amount of zodiacal dust around the binary must be from a very large and recent collision of planetesimals.
Recent measurements indicate that the binary star system has an age of several billion years — comparable to the Solar System.
The dust cloud orbiting BD +20°307 has about 1 million times more dust than is orbiting the Sun. Furthermore, the dust is made up of extremely tiny particles, and its temperature is over 100 K, which is unusually high. It is hypothesized that, within the past few hundred thousand years and perhaps much more recently, these particles were formed by a collision between two bodies similar to Earth. "It's as if Earth and Venus collided," said Prof. Benjamin Zuckerman, UCLA professor of physics and astronomy. "Astronomers have never seen anything like this before. Apparently, major catastrophic collisions can take place in a fully mature planetary system." This hypothesis explains why the bulk of this dust has not spiraled into BD +20°307, or been pushed out by stellar winds yet. The National Science Foundation (NSF), NASA, Tennessee State University (TSU) and the State of Tennessee funded the work by Zuckerman and his collaborators.
Sun-like stars with hot dust
|Constellation||Dust (or Debris;
|System||Dust (or Debris)
|Cool Dust > 10 AU||Stellar Age (Myr)|
|η Corvi||F2V||59||Corvus||> 80||Unary||< 3.5||yes||1500|
|HD 113766||F3V||424||Centaurus||~440||Binary||1.8||yes ||~10-16|
|BD +20307||G0V||~300||Aries||> 100||Binary||1||no||> 1000|
|HD 72905||G1.5Vb||46.5||Ursa Major||unknown||Unary||0.23||yes||400|
|HD 12039||G3-5V||138||Cetus||110||close stellar companion||4-6||no||7.5-8|
|HD 69830||K0V||40.6||Puppis||unknown||3 Neptune planets < 1 AU||1||no ||2000 - 5000|
|HD 98800B||K5Ve||~150||Crater||unknown||Binary||2.2 AU inner disk
~5.9 outer disk
- Song I, Zuckerman B, Weinberger AJ, Becklin EE (July 2005). "Extreme collisions between planetesimals as the origin of warm dust around a Sun-like star". Nature. 436 (7049): 363–5. Bibcode:2005Natur.436..363S. doi:10.1038/nature03853. PMID 16034411.
- Weinberger AJ (May 2008). "On the Binary Nature of Dust-encircled BD +20 307". Astrophys. J. 679: L41–4. arXiv:0804.1799. Bibcode:2008ApJ...679L..41W. doi:10.1086/589180.
- Britt, Robert Roy (23 September 2008). "Oh, My! When Worlds Really Collide". SPACE.com. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
- Wyatt MC, Smith R, Greaves JS, Beichman CA, Bryden G, Lisse CM (2007). "Transience of hot dust around Sun-like stars". Astrophys. J. 658 (1): 569. arXiv:astro-ph/0610102. Bibcode:2007ApJ...658..569W. doi:10.1086/510999.
- Lisse, C.M.; Chen, C.; Wyatt, M.; Morlok, A. (2008). "Circumstellar Dust Created by Terrestrial Planet Formation Around HD113766A". Astrophys. J. 673 (1): 1122. arXiv:0710.0839. Bibcode:2008ApJ...673.1106L. doi:10.1086/523626.
- Rayl, A.J.S. (2005). Extrasolar Planets: Could Dusty Star Be Harboring a Young Earth in the Making? Retrieved July 21, 2005.
- BD +20°307
- UCLA Newsroom > Research > News Releases > Worlds in collision Retrieved September 27, 2008.