BL 15 inch Mk I naval gun
|BL 15 inch Mark I|
As mounted on monitor HMS Terror, 1915.
|Place of origin||UK|
|Used by||UK, Soviet Union|
|Wars||WWI, WWII, Cold War|
|Weight||100 long tons (100 t)|
|Length||650.4 inches (16.52 m)|
|Shell||separate charges and shell|
|Shell weight||1,938 pounds (879 kg)|
|Calibre||15-inch (381.0 mm)|
|Recoil||46 inches (1.2 m)|
|Rate of fire||2 rounds per minute|
|Muzzle velocity||2,458 feet per second (749 m/s)|
|Maximum firing range||33,550 yards (30,680 m) (Mk XVIIB or Mk XXII streamlined shell @ 30°)|
The BL 15 inch Mark I succeeded the 13.5-inch (340 mm) gun. It was the first British 15 inch (381 mm) gun design and the most widely used and longest lasting of any British designs, and arguably the most efficient heavy gun ever developed by the Royal Navy. It was deployed on capital ships from 1915 until 1959, and was a key Royal Navy gun in both World Wars.
This gun was an enlarged version of the successful BL 13.5 inch Mk V naval gun, specifically intended to arm the new Queen Elizabeth-class battleships as part of the British response to the new generation of Dreadnought battleships Germany was building during the naval arms race leading up to World War I. The normal slow and cautious prototype and testing stages of a new gun's development were bypassed, and it was ordered straight from the drawing board due to the urgency of the times. In the event it met all expectations and was a competitive battleship main armament throughout both World Wars.
The barrel was 42 calibres long (i.e., 15 in x 42 = 630 in) and was referred to as "15 inch/42". This wire-wound gun fired a 1938 lb (879 kg) Mk XVIIB shell at a muzzle velocity of 2,458 ft/s (749 m/s). Maximum range in shipboard mountings was 33,550 yards (30,680 m) (30 degrees elevation). During World War II older battleships with gun elevation limited to 20 degrees were supplied with supercharges to increase their maximum range to 29,930 yards (27,370 m) at 2638 ft/s (804 m/s) using the Mk XVIIB or Mk XXII projectile, while HMS Vanguard could range to 37,870 yards (34,630 m) while using supercharges at a gun elevation of 30 degrees. Coastal artillery mountings with higher elevations could reach 44,150 yards (40,370 m). The firing life of a 15 inch gun was approximately 335 full charge firings using standard charges, after which it had to be re-lined.
Warships with the BL 15 inch Mark I gun:
- Queen Elizabeth-class battleships (Five ships with eight guns each)
- Revenge-class battleships (Five ships with eight guns each)
- Renown-class battlecruisers (Two ships with six guns each)
- HMS Hood - battlecruiser (Eight guns)
- Courageous-class battlecruisers (Two ships with four guns each)
- Erebus-class monitors (Two ships with two guns each)
- Marshal Ney-class monitors (Two ships with two guns each)
- Roberts-class monitors (Two ships with two guns each)
- HMS Vanguard - battleship (Eight guns in mountings taken from Courageous and Glorious)
- Two coastal guns ("Clem" and "Jane") were mounted near Wanstone Farm in Kent in the 1940s, and were used extensively for cross-Channel fire throughout the war.
- Five guns were mounted in Singapore at Johore battery and Buona Vista Battery in the 1930s.
186 guns were manufactured between 1912 and 1918. They were removed from ships, refurbished, and rotated back into other ships over their lifetime.
- Elswick Ordnance Company, Elswick, Newcastle: 34
- Armstrong Whitworth, Openshaw, Manchester: 12.
- William Beardmore & Company, Parkhead, Glasgow: 37
- Coventry Ordnance Works, Coventry: 19
- Royal Gun Factory, Woolwich: 33
- Vickers, Son and Maxim, Sheffield: 49
Two guns, one formerly from HMS Ramillies (left gun) and the other originally mounted in HMS Resolution, but later moved to HMS Roberts (right gun), are mounted outside the Imperial War Museum in London.
World War II ammunition
Weapons of comparable role, performance and era
- Ian Buxton, p. 181.
- John Campbell, p. 25.
- Roskill, p. 89.
- Ian Buxton, p. 179.
- Buxton, Ian Lyon (1978). Big Gun Monitors. Tynemouth: World Ship Society. ISBN 0-905617-06-1.
- Campbell, John (1985). Naval Weapons of World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-459-4.
- Roskill, Captain Stephen Wentworth (1974). H.M.S. Warspite: The Story of a Famous Battleship. London: Futura Publications. ISBN 0-86007-172-3.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to BL 15 inch Mk I naval gun.|
- Information at Naval Weapons website
- HMS Vanguard site
- The IWM guns
- Images from the Vickers Photographic Archives
- "Closing the breech of a 15 inch gun at Explosion!" The Museum of Naval Firepower, Gosport, UK on YouTube
- Terry Gander, Twentieth century British coast defence guns