Russian BMP-2 during a rehearsal for the military parade in Yekaterinburg, 6 May 2009.
|Type||Infantry fighting vehicle|
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
Syrian Civil War
|Weight||14.3 tonnes (15.8 short tons; 14.1 long tons)|
|Length||6.735 metres (22 ft 1.2 in)|
|Width||3.15 metres (10 ft 4 in)|
|Height||2.45 metres (8 ft 0 in)|
|Crew||3 (+7 passengers)|
|Armor||33 millimetres (1.3 in) (max)|
30 mm automatic cannon 2A42|
9M113 Konkurs ATGM
|7.62 mm machine gun (PKTM)|
300 hp (225 kW)
|600 km (370 mi)|
65 km/h (40 mph) (road)|
45 km/h (28 mph) (off-road)
7 km/h (4.3 mph) (water)
The BMP-2 (Boyevaya Mashina Pekhoty, Russian: Боевая Машина Пехоты, literally "infantry combat vehicle") is a second-generation, amphibious infantry fighting vehicle introduced in the 1980s in the Soviet Union, following on from the BMP-1 of the 1960s.
- 1 Development history
- 2 Design
- 3 Service history
- 4 Variants
- 5 Operators
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Although the BMP-1 was a revolutionary design, its main armament, the 2A28 Grom and the 9S428 ATGM launcher capable of firing 9M14 Malyutka (NATO: AT-3A Sagger A) and 9M14M Malyutka-M (NATO: AT-3B Sagger B) ATGMs, quickly became obsolete. Therefore, the Soviet Union decided to produce an updated and improved version of the BMP-1. The main emphasis was put on improving the main armament. In 1972, work got under-way to develop an improved version of the BMP-1.
During its combat debut in the Yom Kippur War, Egyptian and Syrian BMPs proved vulnerable to .50 calibre machine-gun fire in the sides and rear, and to 106 mm recoilless rifles. The 73 mm gun proved inaccurate beyond 500 metres, and the AT-3 Sagger missile could not be guided effectively from the confines of the turret.
Several Soviet technical teams were sent to Syria in the wake of the war to gather information. These lessons, combined with observations of western AFV developments, resulted in a replacement program for the original BMP in 1974. The first product of this program was the BMP-1P upgrade, which was intended as a stopgap to address the most serious problems with the existing design. Smoke grenade launchers were added to the rear of the turret and the manually guided AT-3 Sagger missile system was replaced with the semi-automatically guided AT-4 Spigot / AT-5 Spandrel system. The BMP-1P was in production by the late 1970s and existing BMP-1s were gradually upgraded to the standard during the 1980s.
This section does not cite any sources. (November 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The BMP-2 is broadly similar to the BMP-1. The most significant changes are:
- A new two-man turret armed with the 2A42 30 mm autocannon and the 9P135M ATGM launcher capable of firing SACLOS guided 9M111 "Fagot" (AT-4 Spigot), 9M113 "Konkurs" (AT-5 Spandrel) and 9M113M "Konkurs-M" (AT-5B Spandrel B) anti-tank missiles.
- The commander now sits with the gunner in an enlarged turret.
- Only seven troops can be carried instead of eight.
- Two rear infantry roof hatches instead of four.
- Slightly improved armour.
In the centre of the vehicle is the welded steel turret, which seats the commander and gunner, both of whom have hatches. The commander sits to the right and has three day vision periscopes, a 1PZ-3 day-sight designed for anti-aircraft use with 1×, 2× and 4× magnification, an OU-3GA2 infra-red searchlight, a TNP-165A designator and a TKN-3B binocular sight with 4.75× day magnification and 4× night-sight magnification.
The gunner sits to the commander's left and has a smaller rectangular hatch with a rearward-facing day periscope, additionally there are three other day periscopes facing forward and left. The gunner has a BPK-1-42 binocular sight with a moon/starlight vision range of 650 metres, or 350 metres using the infra-red searchlight, and a TNPT-1 designator. An FG-126 infra-red searchlight is mounted coaxially to the 30 mm cannon.
The driver sits in the front left of the vehicle, with the engine in a separate compartment to his right. The driver has his own entry hatch above him, with three day periscopes. The centre TNPO-170A periscope can be replaced with either a TNPO-350B extended periscope for amphibious operation or a TVNE-1PA night vision scope. An infantryman sits immediately behind the driver, and has a firing port and vision block. TNPO-170A periscopes are used throughout the vehicle and are electrically heated.
The BMP-1 and BMP-2 share the same chassis and have almost identical road performance. The BMP-2 is heavier, but also has a more powerful engine to compensate.
The BMP-2 is amphibious with little preparation, using hydrodynamic fairings to convert track momentum into water jets. Peacetime regulations require that any BMPs entering water must have a working radio set, since its bearings are not airtight and it can be carried away by currents in case of loss of engine power (the vehicle lacks an anchor).
The main armament is a stabilized 30 mm 2A42 autocannon with dual ammunition feeds, which provide a choice of 3UBR6 AP-T and 3UOR6 HE-T / 3UOF8 HE-I ammunition. The gun has a selectable rate of fire, either slow at 200 to 300 rounds per minute or fast at 550 rounds per minute. The original stabilization provides reasonable accuracy up to a speed of about 35 kilometres per hour.
The AP-T ammunition can penetrate 15 millimetres of armour at sixty degrees at 1,500 metres, while a new APDS-T tungsten round can penetrate 25 millimetres at the same distance. A typical ammunition load is 160 rounds of AP ammunition and 340 rounds of HE ammunition. The ammunition sits in two trays located on the turret floor rear. The gun can be fired from either the commander's or the gunner's station.
The commander's 1PZ-3 sight is specifically designed for anti-aircraft operation and combined with the high maximum elevation of 74 degrees, it allows the 30 mm cannon to be used effectively against helicopters and slow flying aircraft. The turret traverse and elevation are powered and it can traverse 360 degrees in 10.28 seconds and elevate through 74 degrees in 12.33 seconds.
Reloading the BMP-2's 30 mm cannon can be somewhat problematic, and can take up to two hours, even if the ammunition is prepared. Additionally, the cannon is normally only used on the slow rate of fire, otherwise fumes from the weapon would build up in the turret faster than the extractor fan can remove them.
The effective range of the 30 mm cannon is up to 1,500 metres against armour, 4,000 metres against ground targets, and 2,500 metres against air targets.
A coaxial 7.62 mm PKT machine gun is mounted to the left of the 30 mm cannon, and 2,000 rounds of ammunition are carried for it. On the roof of the turret is an ATGM launcher, on Russian vehicles this fires AT-5 Spandrel missiles, but on export models it normally fires AT-4 Spigot missiles. A ground mount for the missile is also carried, allowing it to be used away from the vehicle. The missiles are a substantial improvement on the AT-3 Sagger missiles used on the BMP-1, in both range and accuracy.
Behind the turret is the troop compartment that holds six troops, the seventh sits just behind the driver. The troops sit back to back, along the centre of the vehicle. Down each side of the compartment are three firing ports with periscopes. Access to the compartment is by the two rear doors, which also hold fuel tanks, both doors have integral periscopes and the left door has a firing port.
In addition to the main weapons, it can carry a man-portable surface-to-air missile launcher and two missiles, and an RPG launcher and five rounds. The vehicle is fitted with a PAZ overpressure NBC system and fire suppression system, and carries a GPK-59 gyrocompass.
The original BMP-1 had a vulnerability in its mine protection scheme, which only became obvious during the war in Afghanistan. The one-man-turret fighting vehicle seated its driver and commander in tandem layout, in the front-left side of the hull alongside the diesel engine. When a BMP-1 hit the obsolete kind of tilt-rod anti-tank land mine, its steeply sloped lower front glacis armour plate allowed the mine's arming rod to tilt with little resistance until the maximum deflection was reached, at which time the mine was already well under the chassis. When it subsequently detonated, the blast usually killed both the driver and the vehicle commander, causing a significant loss of specialist personnel in the Soviet Army. This shortcoming was addressed in the BMP-2 design, where the tank commander shares the well-armoured two-man turret with the gunner. The driver's station has been enlarged and he is provided with an armoured driver's seat, in addition to extra belly-armour in the lower front.
The BMP-2's armour is broadly similar to the original BMP-1. Its side armour is not effective against the most recent .50-calibre SLAP (Sabotted Light Anti-armour Projectile) and the front armour against 25 mm cannon of the US M2 Bradley MICV or the British GKN Warrior IFV's 30 mm RARDEN. Like the BMP-1, the rear doors of the BMP-2 are filled with diesel fuel which may present some risk from incendiary rounds. These additional fuel tanks are used only during transport from area to area and are typically drained before entering combat.
The basic hull armour on the BMP-2 can be easily penetrated by any shaped-charge missile, from the 66 mm LAW on up. One important modification carried out as the result of operational experience in Afghanistan was the fitting of a second layer of stand-off armour, usually a high resistant ballistic rubber-like material, to act as spaced armour around the top of the hull sides and around the attack.
The BMP-2's hull provides all-around protection from 7.62 mm armor piercing rounds at 30 meters, while the front can withstand several hits from 23 mm armor piercing shells. The IFV lacks the ability install add-on protection packages like slat armor cages or explosive reactive armor (ERA).
In the Soviet Army, BMPs were typically issued to the motor rifle battalions of tank regiments. In a typical motor-rifle division, one motor-rifle regiment had BMPs, the other two had wheeled BTRs.
Proliferation varied greatly among the rest of the Warsaw Pact nations. For example, at least some East German motor-rifle divisions were recorded to have all three motor-rifle regiments with BMPs, ranging down to the Romanian and Bulgarian Armies, some of whose divisions had no BMPs at all.
Poland planned to replace its BWP-1 with BWP-2 (BMP-2 and BMP-2D); but, because of financial problems, only ordered 62 vehicles in 1988, which were delivered in 1989. Since obtaining a sufficient number of BWP-2 vehicles after the political changes of 1989 became impossible, Poland was forced to abandon this plan. The 62 BWP-2 that Poland bought were sold to Angola in 1995.
- 1975–2002: Angolan Civil War (Angola)
- 1979–1989: Soviet–Afghan War (Soviet Union)
- 1980–1988: Iran–Iraq War (Iraq)
- 1988–1993: Georgian Civil War (Georgia)
- 1988–1994: Nagorno-Karabakh War (Armenia, Azerbaijan)
- 1989: Georgian-Ossetian conflict
- 2008 – War in South Ossetia
- 1990–1991: Gulf War (Iraq, Kuwait)
- 1991-present Somali Civil War
- 1992–1997: Civil War in Tajikistan (Russia, Tajikistan)
- 1994: Yemeni Civil War (1994)
- 1994–1996: First Chechen War (Russia)
- 1998: Six-Day War of Abkhazia
- 1998: Second Congo War (Angola)
- 1999: Second Chechen War (Russia)
- 2000–2003 Indonesian military operation in the Province of Aceh (Indonesia)
- 2001: War in Afghanistan (2001–present) (Afghanistan, Czech Republic)
- 2003: Iraq War
- 2003 invasion of Iraq (Iraq)
- 2004: Iran–PJAK conflict (Iran)
- 2008: South Ossetia War (Russia, Georgia)
- 2011–present: Syrian civil war (Syria)
- 2014–present: War in Donbass (Ukraine, Pro-Russian separatists)
- 2015: Yemeni Civil War (2015–present)
- 2016: 2016 Nagorno-Karabakh clashes (Armenia, Azerbaijan)
Former Soviet Union
- BMP-2 obr. 1980 – Initial production model.
- BMP-2 obr. 1984 – Improved version with "kovriki" armour on turret front.
- BMP-2 obr. 1986 – Late-production model with new BPK-2-42 sight instead of the BPK-1-42.
- BMP-2D (D stands for desantnaya – assault) – Fitted with additional spaced type steel appliqué armour on the hull sides, under the driver's and commander's stations, and 6 mm thick appliqué armour on the turret. Due to the added weight, the vehicle is no longer amphibious. It also has provision for mounting a mine clearing system under the nose of the vehicle. In service since 1982, it saw service during Soviet–Afghan War. During that conflict, western observers saw the vehicle for the first time and gave it a designation BMP-2E.
- BMP-2K (K stands for komandirskaya – command) – Command variant fitted with two whip antennas mounted on the rear of the hull, one behind the turret and one on the right-hand side of the rear of the vehicle, one IFF antenna (pin stick) on the left-hand side of the rear of the vehicle and a support for a telescopic mast in the front of the IFF antenna. The firing port equipped with the periscope was removed from either side of the vehicle. The antennae on the turret was removed. The radio equipment consists ether of the R-123M and R-130M radio sets, or the more modern R-173, R-126 and R-10. The crew consists of six men.
- BMP-2M – This is the general designator for upgraded (modernizirovannyj) versions.
- BMP-2M "Berezhok" – This version from KBP has an additional AG-30 grenade launcher, 2+2 launchers for ATGM 9M133 "Kornet" and new day/night sights as found on the BMD-4. This upgrade was selected by Algeria, and Russia will upgrade several hundred vehicles.
- The upgrade package from Kurganmashzavod consists of the UTD-23 400 hp (294 kW) turbocharged engine, BPK-3-42 and TKN-AI sights, additional passive armour, an AG-17 "Plamya" grenade launcher and a KBM-2 air conditioning unit. Furthermore, the upgraded vehicle will have an improved suspension with road wheels of higher load carrying capacity, enhanced-hardness torsion bars, power-consuming shock absorbers and tracks with rubber pad shoes. The upgrade package was ready in 2008.
- BMO-1 (boyevaya mashina ognemyotchikov) – Transport vehicle for a flamethrower squad armed with 30 RPO-A "Shmel" 93 mm napalm rocket launchers. It is equipped with storage racks and a dummy turret. The crew consists of seven soldiers. It entered service in 2001.
- BMP-2 obr. 1984 – Improved version with "kovriki" armour on turret front.
- BVP-2 (bojové vozidlo pěchoty) – Czechoslovak produced version of BMP-2.
- BVP-2V or VR 1p (vozidlo velitele roty) – Company commander's vehicle with tent, telescopic mast and radiosets RF 1325 (x 2), IPRS 32, RF 1301 and NS 2480D. Photos
- VPV (VPV stands for vyprošťovací pásové vozidlo) – BVP-2 conversion into an ARV developed at the ZTS Martin Research and Development Institute and production commenced at the ZTS Martin plant (which is now in Slovakia) in 1984. It is equipped with a powered crane with 5 tonnes capacity, heavy winch, wider troop compartment etc. Hatches on top of the turret and the troop compartment were removed. The vehicle is divided into four compartments: engine, commander's, driver's and repair/cargo. The crew consists of a commander/crane operator, driver/welder/slinger and a logistician/mechanic. The vehicle is armed with a pintle-mounted 7.62 mm PKT light machine gun. A small number of those vehicles was also based on BVP-1.Photos
- BMP-2 "Sarath" ("Chariot of Victory"), also known as BMP-II – Indian licence-produced variant of the BMP-2, built by Ordnance Factory Medak. The first vehicle, assembled from components supplied by KBP, was ready in 1987. By 1999, about 90% of the complete vehicle and its associated systems were being produced in India. It was estimated that, by 2007, 1,250 vehicles had been built. India has also developed the following versions of the "Sarath":
- BMP-2 Light Tank – DRDO developed light tank on BMP-2 Chassis DRDO light tank.
- BMP-2K "Sarath" – Command vehicle, similar to the Soviet/Russian version.
- Armoured Ambulance – This version retains the turret but without the gun or smoke grenade launchers. The troop compartment has been modified to carry four stretchers.
- Armoured Vehicle Tracked Light Repair – Armoured recovery vehicle, fitted with a light hydraulic crane.
- Armoured Amphibious Dozer (AAD) – Turret-less combat engineer vehicle, fitted with a folding dozer blade at the rear, mine ploughs, a main winch with a capacity of 8,000 kg and a rocket-propelled earth anchor for self-recovery.
- Armoured Engineer Reconnaissance Vehicle (AERV) – This version has no gun and is fitted with specialised equipment, including an echo-sounder, a water current metre, a laser range finder and GPS. On the left rear of the hull, a marking system with 40 rods is fitted.
- NBC Reconnaissance Vehicle (NBCRV) – For detection of nuclear, biological and chemical contamination. The NBCRV was developed by DRDO and VRDE and has been ordered by the Indian army.
- Carrier Mortar Tracked Vehicle – This turret-less version has an 81 mm mortar mounted in the modified troop compartment. The mortar is fired through an opening in the hull roof that has two hinged doors. It has a max. range of 5,000 m and a normal rate of fire of 6–8 rds/min. There is also a longe-range version of the mortar. The vehicle carries 108 mortar rounds and is also fitted with a 7.62 mm machine gun with 2,350 rounds. Crew: 2+4. The first prototype was completed in 1997.
- NAMICA (Nag Missile Carrier) – part of the Nag anti-tank missile system. The Nag (snake) missile is launched from a retractable armoured launcher that contains four launch tubes and the guidance package. "Nag" is a fire-and-forget top-attack ATGM with a tandem-HEAT warhead and a range of at least 4 km.
- Akash – Air-defence missile system that is based on a modified "Sarath" chassis with 7 road wheels. On top of the hull there's a launcher for three SAMs with a range of 27 km and semi-active homing guidance.
- Rajendra – This is a multifunctional 3-D phased radar (MUFAR), associated with the "Akash" system. It is also based on the stretched chassis.
- BMP-2 UGV "Muntra" – unmanned reconnaissance vehicle, "S" version is fitted with equipment used to detect nuclear, biological and chemical contamination while the "M" version is designed to detect mines.
- 105 mm Self-Propelled Gun – This is OFB's mechanized version of the Indian Light Field Gun (EQPT 105/37 LFG E2) with 42 rounds stowed. The gun is mounted in a lightly armoured turret. The 105 mm SPG was shown for the first time in public in February 2010 during DEFEXPO-2010 in New Delhi and is planned to replace the FV433 Abbot SPG in the Indian army.
- BMP-2 upgrade designed by Nimda fitting it with new power unit and automatic transmission which improves both mobility and reliability.
- BWP-2 – Polish designation for BMP-2 and BMP-2D.
- BMP-2MD – Finnish modernisation of the BMP-2, which includes thermal camouflage, thermal sights, anti-aircraft sight and new day/night optics for the gunner and commander, heated cabin and seats, new external storage boxes functioning also as spaced armour and new radio and communications systems.
- Afghanistan –  150 along with 1,500 9M111 Fagot ATGMs were ordered in 1987 from the Soviet Union and delivered between 1987 and 1991 (some of the vehicles were possibly previously in Soviet service). 550 BMP-1s and BMP-2s in service in 1992. Between 60 and 80 BMP-1s and BMP-2s were delivered from Russia after 2002.
- Algeria – 225 along with 2,250 9M111 Fagot ATGMs were ordered in 1989 from the Soviet Union and delivered between 1990 and 1991. 54 BVP-2s and BVP-2Ks were ordered in 1994 from Slovakia and delivered between 1995 and 1996. 64 were ordered in 1998 from Ukraine and delivered between 1998 and 1999 (the vehicles were previously in Soviet and later Ukrainian service). In 2005 Algeria ordered modernization of 300 of its BMP-2s to the BMP-2M standard which started in 2006 and is scheduled to be completed in 2010. 160 were modernized between 2006 and 2008.
- Angola – 65, along with 650 9M111 Fagot ATGMs, were ordered in 1987 from the Soviet Union and delivered in 1987. 7 were ordered in 1993 from Hungary and delivered in 1993 (the vehicles were previously in Hungarian service and were sold via Czech Republic). 62 BMP-2s and BMP-2Ds were ordered in 1994 from Poland and delivered between 1994 and 1995 (the vehicles were previously in Polish service). 65 were ordered in 1997 from Russia and delivered in 1998 (the vehicles were possibly previously in Soviet and later Russian service). 62 were ordered in 1999 from Belarus and delivered in 1999 (the vehicles were previously in Soviet and later Belorussian service). 31 were ordered in 1999 from Ukraine and delivered in 1999 (the vehicles were previously in Soviet and later Ukrainian service). 62 are currently in service.
- Armenia – The Armenian Army currently has over a 100 BMP-2s in service.
- Azerbaijan – 53 BMP-2s in service with the armed forces in 1992, 88 in 1993, 191 in 1994, 206 in 1995, 197 in 1996, 96 in 1997 and 1998, 91 in 1999, 41 in 2000–2004, and 39 in 2006. 100 BMP-2s in service with the border troops in 1997–1999, and 147 in 2000–2006
- Belarus – 1,278 were in service in 1995 and 1,164 in 2000, 2003 and 2005.
- Czech Republic – 200 inherited from former Czechoslovakia. 174 in service on 1 January 2008.
- Finland – 20 were ordered in 1988 from the Soviet Union and delivered between 1988 and 1989. Further 84 were ordered in 1991 from the Soviet Union and delivered in 1992 by Russia. The remaining 100 vehicles will be upgraded by 2019 and designated BMP-2MD (FIN). Upgrades include integral camo netting, thermal scopes, new autocannons , new periscopes, display screens for the driver and commander, and internal heating with heated seats.
- Georgia – 40 were ordered in 2004 from Ukraine and were delivered between 2004 and 2005 (the vehicles were previously in Soviet and later Ukrainian service). 11 in service in 2000, 13 in 2002 and 2005 and 57 in 2008. Currently 120 are in service.
- India – 700 BMP-2 "Sarath" ordered in 1984 from the Soviet Union and delivered between 1987 and 1991 (most produced in India). 400 BMP-2 "Sarath" ordered in 1985 and produced in India between 1992 and 1995 at Ordnance Factory Medak of Ordnance Factories Board under Russian licence. 123 BMP-2K ordered in 2006 from Russia and delivered between 2007 and 2008. Around 300 BMP-2 "Sarath" were in service in 1995, 1,000 in 2000 and 2002, around 1,000 in 2005 and more than 1,000 in 2008. Currently more than 1500 are in active service. In May 2013, the Indian Army decided to upgrade all BMP-2/2K vehicles to BMP-2M standard. In Oct 2014 government of India gave nod to produce 362 more BMP-2 Saraths.
- Iran – 1,500 ordered in 1991 from Russia and 413 were delivered between 1993 and 2001 of which 82 were delivered directly by Russia and 331 were assembled in Iran. 100 were in service in 1995, 140 in 2000 and 400 in 2002, 2005 and 2008. 400 are currently in service.
- Indonesia – 9 ordered in 1998 from Ukraine and delivered in 1998 (the vehicles were possibly previously in Soviet and later Ukrainian service and were sold via Slovakia). 2 ordered in 1998 from Ukraine and delivered in 1998 (the vehicles were possibly previously in Soviet and later Ukrainian service and were sold via Slovakia). 11 BVP-2s ordered in 1999 from Slovakia and delivered in 2000 (the vehicles were probably previously in Czechoslovak and later Slovakian service). 40 ex-Czech BVP-2s are currently in service in the Marine Corps.
- Ivory Coast – 2 ordered in 2002 from Angola and delivered in 2002 (the vehicles were previously in Angolan service). 1 ordered in 2003 from Ukraine and delivered in 2003 (the vehicle probably was previously in Ukrainian service).
- Jordan – 31 
- Kazakhstan – 100 were in service in 1995, 140 in 2000 and 400 in 2002 and 2005. Currently 300 are in service.
- Kuwait – 245 along with 2,450 9M111 Fagot ATGMs were ordered in 1988 from the Soviet Union and delivered between 1989 and 1990. Some captured or destroyed by the Iraqi forces. 46 along with 460 9M111 Fagot ATGMs were ordered in 1994 from Russia and delivered between 1994 and 1995. 46 were in service in 1995 and 2000 and 76 in 2005.
- Kyrgyzstan – 101
- Macedonia – 11 were ordered in 2001 from Ukraine and delivered in 2001 (the vehicles were previously in Soviet and later Ukrainian service). 10 are currently in service.
- Russia – 12,200 BMP-1s, BMP-2s and BMP-3s in 1995 and 12,700 in 2000–2009. 2,750 are currently in active service and 6,500 are in reserve. Currently, several hundred BMP-2s are being upgraded with Berezhok combat module and with new communications systems.
- Sierra Leone – 4 were ordered in 1992 from Russia and delivered in 1992 (the vehicles were second-hand). 12 are currently in service.
- Slovakia – 93
- Sri Lanka – 4 were ordered in 1994 from Ukraine and delivered in 1994 (the vehicles were previously in Soviet and later Ukrainian service). 36 were ordered in 2001 from Russia and delivered in 2001.
- Sudan – 6 were ordered in 1995 from Ukraine and delivered in 1996 (the vehicles were probably previously in Soviet and later Ukrainian service). 9 were ordered in 2003 from Belarus and delivered in 2003 (the vehicles were previously in Soviet and later Belorussian service).
- Syria – 100 were ordered in 1987 from the Soviet Union and were delivered between 1987 and 1988.
- Tajikistan – 25 were in service in 2000 and 2005.
- Togo – 20 ordered in 1996 from an unknown supplier (officially Poland despite the fact that all 62 Polish BWP-2s were exported to Angola) and delivered in 1997.
- Turkmenistan – 538 BMP-1s and BMP-2s were in service in 1995, 930 in 2000 and 2005.
- Uganda – 31 were ordered in 2003 from Ukraine and were delivered between 2004 and 2005 (the vehicles were previously in Soviet and later Ukrainian service).
- Ukraine – 1,460 were in service in 1995, 1,467 in 2000 and 1,434 in 2005. Currently 1,400 are in service.
- Uzbekistan – 97 were in service in 1995, 160 in service in 2000 and 270 in service in 2005.
- Vietnam – 150 along with 1,500 9M111 Fagot ATGMs were ordered in 1982 from the Soviet Union and were delivered between 1982 and 1984. Currently 600 are in service.
- Yemen – 100 were ordered in 2002 from Ukraine and were delivered between 2003 and 2004 (the vehicles were probably previously in Soviet and later Ukrainian service). Between 180 and 188 BMP-2Ds were ordered in 2004 from Russia and were delivered between 2004 and 2005. Currently 334 are in service.
- Czechoslovakia – 279 ordered in 1978 and produced between 1983 and 1989. Passed on to the successor states.
- East Germany – 24 were ordered in 1985 from the Soviet Union and were delivered between 1986 and 1987 (the vehicles were possibly produced in Czechoslovakia). Passed on to the unified German state.
- West Germany/ Germany – 24, taken from East Germany's army, all sold to other countries or given to the museums.
- Iraq – 200 were ordered in 1986 from the Soviet Union and were delivered between 1987 and 1989 (some of the vehicles were possibly produced in Czechoslovakia). 1,500 BMP-1s and BMP-2s in service in 1990, about 900 in 1995, about 1000 in 2000 and about 900 in 2002. Possibly captured some from Kuwait in the First Persian Gulf War. All destroyed or scrapped.
- Poland – 62 BMP-2s and BMP-2Ds (all of which were designed as BWP-2) ordered in 1988 and delivered in 1989. Sold in 1994 to Angola and delivered between 1994 and 1995.
- Soviet Union – 24,000 BMP-1s and BMP-2s in service in 1985. Passed on to successor states.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to BMP family IFV.|
- BMP Development
- BMD-1 – related family of Soviet airborne fighting vehicles
- Combat Vehicle 90
- M2 Bradley
- Warrior Tracked Armoured Vehicle
- info about BMP-2. Fas.org. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- Soderzhaniye. Web.archive.org (11 May 2005). Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- Russia`s Ministry of Defense to overhaul BMP-2 Infanty [sic] Fighting Vehicles - Armyrecognition.com, 25 August 2016
- Warsaw Pact Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. Orbat.com. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- BMP-2 Pancerni.net 1. Pancerni.abajt.pl. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- SIPRI Arms Transfers Database. Armstrade.sipri.org. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- JED The Military Equipment Directory[self-published source?]
- "Gary's Combat Vehicle Reference Guide". Inetres.com (13 December 2009). Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- (in Russian) Армс-Тасс. Armstass.su. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- Military Parade 2006-6 page 61
- Video. Tanknutdave.com (14 April 2010). Retrieved on 20 September 2011. Archived 6 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- Russian BMP-2 and BMD-2 upgraded with new Berezhok weapon station – Armyrecognition.com, 3 October 2017
- Fire power Archived 3 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. Kurganmash.ru. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- Defence Security Report. Janes.com (8 December 2008). Retrieved on 20 September 2011. Archived 16 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- CZE – BVP-2V (velitelské stanoviště). forum.valka.cz. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- Ordnance Factory Board. Ofbindia.gov.in. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- Ordnance Factory Board. Ofbindia.gov.in. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- Ordnance Factory Board. Ofbindia.gov.in. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- "DRDO develops India's first unmanned tank, Muntra; rolls it out of Chennai lab". Firstpost. 2017-07-29. Retrieved 2017-08-11.
- "Combat Vehicles Research & Development Estt (CVRDE) Chennai - CVRDE Chennai- DRDO DRDO". www.drdo.gov.in. Retrieved 2017-08-11.
- OFB 105 mm SPG Specs | Flickr – Photo Sharing!. Flickr (19 February 2010). Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- OFB 105 mm Tracked SPG on BMP II | Flickr – Photo Sharing!. Flickr. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- CIMG2671.JPG (image). 4.bp.blogspot.com. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- Nimda Group Ltd. – commercial and military systems in energy, transportation and automotive applications Archived 2 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Suomi modernisoi noin 100 rynnäkköpanssarivaunua – tarkoitus sinnitellä ainakin 2030-luvulle asti" (in Finnish). Helsingin Sanomat. 30 January 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
- "Rynnäkköpanssarivaunu BMP-2 MD" (in Finnish). Finnish Defence Forces. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
- История России. Всемирная, мировая история – Афганистан в конце XX в. Istorya.ru. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- Defence Express News – РОССИЯ И АФГАНИСТАН ВЫПОЛНЯЮТ ДОГОВОРЕННОСТИ, ЗАКЛЮЧЕННЫЕ МЕЖДУ ВОЕННЫМИ ВЕДОМСТВАМИ ДВУХ СТРАН В КАБУЛЕ В 2002 Г. Defense-ua.com (29 January 2003). Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- Angolan army armyrecognition.com
- Международный Контроль Над Обычными Вооружениями И Неконтролируемое Оружие. (PDF). Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- Belarus Army Equipment. Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- "Czech Ministry of Defense". Army.cz. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- Maavoimat alkaa modernisoida rynnäkköpanssarivaunuja – Puolustusvoimat – Kotimaa – Helsingin Sanomat. HS.fi (9 September 2014). Retrieved on 11 September 2014.
- Tältä näyttävät armeijan uusitut "Bemarit". iltalehti.fi (3 March 2015). Retrieved on 3 March 2015.
- Georgia Army. Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- Georgian army armyrecognition.com Archived 31 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Ordnance Factory Board". Ofbindia.gov.in. Retrieved 2013-11-16.
- Indian Army Equipment. Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- Land Forces Site – BMP-2 Archived 7 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Bharat Rakshak (20 February 2002). Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- Indian Army to Upgrade its BMP-2/2K Infantry Combat Vehicles to BMP-2M Standard – Deagel.com, May 6, 2013
- Iranian Ground Forces Equipment. Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- Iranian army armyrecognition.com Archived 12 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
- John Pike. "Jordan Arab Army". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2013-11-16.
- Kazak Ground Forces Equipment. Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- Kuwait – Army Equipment. Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- Macedonian Armor. Vojska.net. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- Russian Army Equipment. Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- warfare.ru[dead link]. warfare.ru. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- Slovakian Army equipment Archived 3 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
- Tajik-Army Equipment. Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- Turkmen-Army Equipment. Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- Ground Forces Equipment – Ukraine. Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- Ukrainian army armyrecognition.com
- Uzbek-Army Equipment. Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- Iraqi Ground Forces Equipment. Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.
- Jane's Armour and Artillery 2005–2006.
- Andrew W. Hull; David R. Markov; Steven J. Zaloga. Soviet/Russian Armor and Artillery Design Practices:1945 to Present.
- Tsouras, P.G. Changing Orders: The evolution of the World's Armies, 1945 to the Present Facts On File, Inc, 1994. ISBN 0-8160-3122-3
- FM 100-60
- Ustyantsev, Sergej Viktorovich; Kolmakov Dmitrij Gennadevich Boyeviye mashiny Uralvagonzavoda. Tank T-72
- A.V. Karpenko (1996) Obozreniye Bronetankovoj Tekhniki (1905–1995 gg.) Nevskij Bastion
- Perrett, Bryan (1987). Soviet Armour Since 1945. London: Blandford Press. ISBN 0-7137-1735-1.
- Grau, Lester W. Russian-Manufactured Armored Vehicle Vulnerability in Urban Combat: The Chechnya Experience, Red Thrust Star, January 1997
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to BMP-2.|