BMW New Class
|BMW New Class|
BMW 2002 (US)
Jakarta, Indonesia (Gaya Motor)
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||'00 Series:
4-door mid-size luxury sedan
2-door GT coupe
2-door compact sedan
2-door compact convertible
|Engine||1.5-2.0 L M10 4-cyl|
|Successor||BMW 3 Series for 2-door compact sedans
BMW 5 Series for 4-door sedans
BMW E9 for 2000C/2000CS coupes
The BMW New Class (German: Neue Klasse) was a line of sedans and coupes produced by German automaker BMW between 1962 and 1977. These models ensured BMW's solvency after the company's financial crisis of the 1950s and established the identity of BMW automobiles as sports sedans. The 02 Series (especially the 2002) caught auto enthusiasts' attention and established BMW as an international brand.
The naming convention is as follows: 2-door sedans form the "'02 Series" (although initially the 1602 was badged the 1600-2), 4-door sedans form the "'00 Series", and the larger coupé models are the 2000C and 2000CS.
The first New Class vehicle was the 1500, a 4-door compact executive car with the new M10 (at the time called M115) OHC 4-cylinder engine. In 1965, the 2000C and 2000CS luxury coupés were added to the range. In 1966, the 1600-2 (later renamed 1602) 2-door economy sedans were released.
Replacement of the New Class models began with the larger 2000C and 2000CS coupés, which were replaced by the 6-cylinder E9 2800CS in 1969. In 1972, the 4-door sedans were replaced by the larger E12 5 Series. In 1975, the 2-door sedans were replaced by the E21 3 Series (except for the 1502 model which continued until 1977).
- 1 Overview
- 2 00 Series 4-door sedans
- 3 2000C/2000CS coupés
- 4 02 Series two door sedans
- 5 Further reading
- 6 References
During the 1950s, the BMW line-up consisted of luxury cars with displacements of two litres or greater, economy cars powered by motorcycle engines, and motorcycles. With their luxury cars becoming increasingly outdated and unprofitable and their motorcycles and economy cars becoming less attractive to an increasingly affluent society, BMW needed a car in the 1.5 to 2 litre class to become competitive. Prototypes powered by a 1.6 L engine based on one bank of the BMW OHV V8 engine were built and evaluated without a convincing result.(pp130–131)
In 1960, Herbert and Harald Quandt invested heavily in BMW, and gained a controlling interest in the company.(p134) That year, the "Neue Klasse" project was begun. Led overall by Fritz Fiedler, the project had Eberhard Wolff in charge of chassis design, Wilhelm Hofmeister in charge of styling and body engineering, and Alex von Falkenhausen in charge of engine design.(p136) The team was to produce a new car with a new engine, which BMW had done since the 303 in 1933.
The term New Class referred to the 1.5–2–liter class of automobiles from which BMW had been absent since World War II.
Chassis and body
The three-box four-door saloon was in many ways conventional, using a unitary structure and MacPherson strut front suspension which were becoming mainstream by the time of the 1500s introduction. Less conventional was the independent rear suspension, which featured coil springs and semi-trailing wishbones pivoted from a stout cross beam that also supported the differential housing. While BMW was using MacPherson struts for their first time on the New Class, they had used unit body construction on the 700 and semi-trailing arm rear suspension on the 600 and the 700.(p137)(p62) All New Class cars had front disc brakes.
The M10 overhead camshaft engine used in the New Class was required to displace 1.5 L initially, with the possibility to be expanded to 1.8 L. Von Falkenhausen had earlier designed an engine prototype for possible use in the BMW 700 and used this as a starting point for the M10.(p136)(p62) The engine was canted over at 30 degrees to the right of vertical in order to allow for the low bonnet line, which also contributed to the styling of the car.
|1800 TI/SA (1964−65)||200|
|2000 C/CS (1965−69)||11,720|
|02 series (1966−76)||861,940|
|2002 turbo (1973−74)||1,672|
|Baur Cabriolet (1967−75)||4,210|
The 2002 is one of BMW's most famous automobile models. Its popularity cemented the company's reputation for compact sporting sedans and served as forerunner of the BMW 3 Series.
00 Series 4-door sedans
|BMW New Class sedan|
1800, 1800 TI, 1800TI/SA,
2000, 2000 TI, 2000 tilux, 2000 tii
Giovanni Michelotti, consultant(p61)
|Body and chassis|
|Class||Mid-size / Executive car (E)|
|Body style||4-door sedan|
1500: 1,499 cc
1800: 1,773 cc (1964–1968),
1,766 cc (1968–1971)
1600: 1573 cc
2000: 1,990 cc
5-speed manual on 1800 TI/SA
3-speed automatic optional on 1800/2000
|Wheelbase||2,550 mm (100 in)(p137)|
|Length||4,500 mm (180 in)|
|Width||1,650 mm (65 in)|
|Height||1,420 mm (56 in)|
|Successor||E12 5 Series|
Introduced in September 1961 at the Frankfurt Motor Show, the BMW 1500 entered regular production in October 1962 and was manufactured until December 1964.
Contemporary reports praised the all-round visibility and the commanding driving position while recording that it was necessary to lean forward a little to engage first and third gears due to the long travel distance of the gear lever. The large 40 cm tall luggage compartment was also commended.
The 1500 could accelerate to 100 km/h (62 mph) in approximately 15 seconds. The performance was at the time considered lively in view of the engine size, and although the engine needed to be worked hard in order to achieve rapid progress, it ran smoothly even at speeds above 6,000 rpm. The firm suspension and correspondingly harsh ride surprised those conditioned by the BMW 501 to anticipate a more comfort-oriented suspension setup.
Notable problems that developed with the 1500 included separation of the semi-trailing arm mounts from the body, rear axle failure, and gearbox problems. These were resolved in later versions of the New Class sedan.(p64)
The 1500 was replaced in 1964 by the 1600,(p139) but it was still made available in markets where capacities greater than 1500 cc incurred higher tax rates.
Introduced in September 1963, the BMW 1800 was the second member of the New Class family. This model had an M10 engine with a 84 mm (3.3 in) bore and 80 mm (3.1 in) stroke, giving a displacement of 1,773 cc. It produced 67 kW (90 hp) at 5,250 rpm and 130 N·m (96 lb·ft) at 3,000 rpm.(pp140-141)(pp64-66)
The 1800 TI (Turismo Internazionale) model featured components developed for the 1800 by the tuning company Alpina. The upgrades included dual Solex PHH side-draft carburetors and higher-compression pistons for 82 kW (110 hp) at 5,800 rpm and 136 N·m (100 lb·ft) at 4,000 rpm.(p141)
A homologation special, the 1800 TI/SA, was introduced in 1964.(pp64-66)(p141) The TI/SA's engine had dual Weber DCOE-45 carburetors  and a 10.5:1 compression ratio. This engine produced 97 kW (130 hp) at 6,100 rpm and 144 N·m (106 lb·ft) at 5,250 rpm. The TI/SA also had a Getrag five-speed gearbox, stronger anti-roll bars, and larger-diameter brake discs than the TI. 200 examples of the TI/SA were built.(pp64-66)
An automatic transmission option was introduced in 1966 and in 1967 the 1800 was generally updated along with the 2000. The updates included interior changes (a modernized dashboard design and simpler door panels) as well as styling changes to the front grilles.
In 1968 the 1,773 cc engine used in the 1800 was replaced by an engine with the 89 mm (3.5 in) bore of the 2.0 L engine and the original 71 mm (2.8 in) stroke, which resulted in a displacement of 1,766 cc and a stroke/bore ratio of 0.798:1 (compared with the previous 1800 engine's ratio of 0.952:1).(p144)
The 1600, introduced as the replacement to the 1500 in 1964, used the 84 mm (3.3 in) bore of the 1800 with the 1500s 71 mm (2.8 in) stroke, resulting in a displacement of 1,573 cc,(p64)(p141) a power output of 62 kW (83 hp) at 5,500 rpm and 113 N·m (83 lb·ft) at 3,000 rpm. The 1600 was produced until early 1971.(p141)
The engines from the 2000C and 2000CS coupes were used in the 4-door sedan body for the 2000 and 2000TI models. The 2000 sedan, released in 1965, used the 75 kW (101 hp) engine from the 2000 C. The 2000TI sedan, released in 1966, used the 90 kW (121 hp) engine from the 2000 CS with twin Solex PHH side-draft carburetors.(pp142-143)(p67)
Intended as an upscale version of the 1800, the 2000 featured distinct wide taillights, more exterior trim, and unique rectangular headlights. The American market 2000 sedans could not have the rectangular headlights due to government regulations. A different grille with four individual round headlights, similar to the design that BMW later used in the 2500 sedan, was offered in the US. The 2000TI retained the '1800' taillights and headlights. A more luxurious 2000TI-lux (later "tilux") featured the sporty TI engine with a more high-grade interior and accessories,(p143) including a wood dashboard and optional leather seats.
In 1969, BMW introduced the 2000tii ('touring international, injected'), BMW's first fuel-injected model, featuring Kugelfischer mechanical fuel injection.(p144) The 2000tii produced 97 kW (130 hp) at 5,800 rpm and 178 N·m (131 lb·ft) at 4,500 rpm.(p74) 1,952 2000tii cars were built of this final New Class sedan model.(p144)
Note that not all models are included.
|Model||1600||1800||1800 TI||1800 TI/SA|
|Assembly||by Karmann at Osnabrück|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||2-door coupé|
|Platform||BMW New Class|
|Related||BMW New Class
|Engine||2.0 L OHC I4
2000C: single carburettor, 100 hp (75 kW) at 5500 rpm
2000CS: two carburettors, 120 hp (89 kW) at 5500 rpm
|Transmission||4 speed manual
3 speed automatic (available on 2000C only)
|Wheelbase||2,550 mm (100 in)|
|Length||4,530 mm (178 in)|
|Width||1,675 mm (65.9 in)|
|Height||1,360 mm (54 in)|
|Predecessor||BMW 3200 CS|
The BMW New Class coupé range, which comprised the BMW 2000C and BMW 2000CS, was a coupé body style built by Karmann for BMW from the summer of 1965(p141)(pp66-67) to 1969. In 1965, BMW ended production of their Bertone-bodied 3200 CS coupé, the last of their line of V8 powered luxury cars from the 1950s. BMW decided to continue with a coachbuilt coupé. Based on the New Class platform, the 2000C and 2000CS introduced the 2.0 L version of the M10 4-cylinder engine and replaced the 3200 CS as BMW's flagship model in 1965.(p66). The New Class coupes were replaced by the E9 coupés, which were based on a stretched 2000CS chassis and use a 6-cylinder engine.
The New Class coupé was developed from the New Class sedans to showcase the 2.0 L version of the engine used in the sedans. The new displacement of 1,990 cc (121 cu in) was achieved with the 80 millimetres (3.1 in) stroke of the 1.8 L version combined with a 89 millimetres (3.5 in) bore. The coupé was built for BMW by Karmann in Osnabrück and was available as the 2000C, with a single-carburettor engine delivering 100 horsepower (75 kW) at 5500 revolutions per minute, or as the 2000CS with a twin-carburettor engine delivering 120 hp (89 kW) at 5500 revolutions per minute.(p141)(pp66-67) Both versions used a four speed manual transmission as standard, while the 2000C was available with a three speed automatic transmission as an optional extra.(p141)(p66-67)
The New Class coupé was introduced just after the 3200CS coupé was discontinued.(pp66-67) The styling was based on the 3200CS and the New Class sedan, but the styling of the front of the car was all-new.(p141)(pp66-67) The headlights were behind a glass fairing, and the grill consisted solely of a chromed BMW "double-kidney" at the centre of the front. Apart from chrome accents around the headlights and along the top of the front end, the rest of the front was painted metal, with a row of vertical slots behind the bumper to admit air for cooling and engine induction.(p145) Reactions to the front end styling have been mixed; Norbye describes it as "a blunt, unattractive front end",(p141) Severson agrees, calling the front clip "odd-looking" and stating that the details of the front end "do no favors for the looks", while Noakes disagrees, referring to its "imposing front end" being "tidier than the Bertone body's fussy nose" in comparison to the 3200CS.(pp66-67)
Of the 11,720 New Class coupés built between 1965 and the end of production in mid-1969,(p142) 9,999 were twin carburettor 2000CS coupés, 3,249 were single carburettor 2000C coupés with automatic transmission, and 443 were 2000C coupés with manual transmission.(p251)
The development of the BMW New Six meant that the New Class coupé would no longer be at the top of the BMW line. The coupe was modified with a longer wheelbase and longer front clip to accommodate the new six-cylinder engine. The front end styling was also modified to resemble that of the "New Six" E3 sedan. This resulted in the BMW E9 platform.(p168)
02 Series two door sedans
|BMW "02 Series"|
1974 BMW 2002
|Also called||BMW 1600-2, BMW 1600 TI, BMW 1602
BMW 2002, BMW 2002 TI, BMW 2002 tii, BMW 2002 Turbo
1602, 1802: 1971–1975
|Designer||Georg Bertram, Manfred Rennen|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||2-door sedan
1602, 1502: 1573 cc
1802: 1,766 cc
2002: 1,990 cc
|Transmission||4 speed manual
3 speed automatic (from 1969)
|Wheelbase||2,500 mm (98.4 in)|
|Successor||BMW 3 Series (E21)|
The 1600-2, as the first "02 Series" BMW was designated, was an entry-level BMW, and was smaller, less expensive, and less well-appointed than the four-door sedan on which it was based.(pp144-161)(p69) BMW's design director Wilhelm Hofmeister assigned the two-door project to staff designers Georg Bertram and Manfred Rennen.(pp18-21) The shorter length and wheelbase and lighter weight of the two-door sedan made it more suitable than the original New Class sedan for sporting applications.(p69)(p161) As a result, the two door sedan became the basis of the sporting 02 Series.
Beginning in 1968, a convertible based on the 02 body was built by Karosserie Baur. A hatchback, called the Touring model, was developed from the 02 body, being available from 1971 to 1974.(p76)(p161)
The 1600-2 (the "-2" meaning "2-door") made its debut at the Geneva auto show in March 1966 and was sold through 1975, with the designation being simplified to "1602" in 1971.(p162) The 1.6 L M10 engine produced 63 kW (84 hp) at 5,700 rpm and 130 N·m (96 lb·ft) at 3,500 rpm.(p69) In 1968, Road & Track declared the US$2676 1600 "a great automobile for the price".(p161)
A high performance version, the 1600 TI, was introduced in September 1967. With a compression ratio of 9.5:1 and the dual Solex PHH side-draft carburetor system from the 1800 TI, the 1600 TI produced 82 kW (110 hp) at 6,000 rpm. The 1600 TI was not sold in the United States, as it did not meet their emission standards.(p161)
Also introduced in September 1967 was a limited-production cabriolet, which would be produced by Baur from 1967 through 1971. A hatchback 1600 Touring model was introduced in 1971 but was discontinued in 1972.(p162)
Helmut Werner Bönsch, BMW's director of product planning, and Alex von Falkenhausen, designer of the M10 engine, each had a two litre engine installed in a 1600-2 for their respective personal use. When they realized they had both made the same modification to their own cars, they prepared a joint proposal to BMW's board to manufacture a two litre version of the 1600-2.(p73)(p21) At the same time, American importer Max Hoffman was asking BMW for a sporting version of the 02 series that could be sold in the United States.(p21)
As per the larger coupe and 4-door sedan models, the 2.0 engine was sold in two states of tune: the base single-carburetor 2002 producing 75 kW (101 hp)and the dual-carburetor high compression 2002 ti producing 89 kW (119 hp).(pp161,162,251) The 2002 Automatic, with the base engine and a ZF 3HP12 3 speed automatic transmission, became available in 1969.(p251)
In 1971, the Baur cabriolet was switched from the 1.6 L engine to the 2.0 L engine to become the 2002 cabriolet, the Touring hatchback version of the 02 Series became available with all engine sizes available in the 02 Series at the time and the 2002 tii was introduced as the replacement for the 2002 ti. The 2002 tii used the fuel-injected 97 kW (130 hp) engine from the 2000 tii, which resulted in a top speed of 185 km/h (115 mph). A 2002 tii Touring model was available throughout the run of the tii engine and the Touring body, both of which ended production in 1974.(p162)
The 2002 Turbo was launched at the 1973 Frankfurt Motor Show. This was BMW's first turbocharged production car and the first turbocharged car since General Motors' brief offerings in the early 1960s. It produced 127 kW (170 hp) at 5,800 rpm,(p162) with 240 N·m (180 lb·ft) of torque. The 2002 Turbo used the 2002 tii engine with a KKK turbocharger and a compression ratio of 6.9:1 in order to prevent engine knocking. The 2002 Turbo was introduced just before the 1973 oil crisis, therefore only 1,672 were built.(p162)
The 1802 was introduced in 1971 and was available with either the original 2-door sedan body or the 3-door Touring hatchback introduced that year. Production of the Touring model continued until 1974, with the 1802 sedan ending production the following year.(p162)
The 1502, an economy model with an engine displacement of 1573 cc and a compression ratio of 8.0:1, was introduced in 1975. While the rest of the 02 Series was replaced in 1975 by the E21 3 Series, the 1502 was continued until 1977.(p162)
The BMW 2002 competed in the Trans Am Series under two liter class, although it saw little success as the class was dominated by Alfa Romeo, Porsche, and Datsun. In the golden age of Trans Am (1966-1972), BMW only garnered two race wins (Bryar and Bridgehampton in 1970).
The 2002ti was successful in racing, with Hans Stuck won the Nurburgring 24-hour race in 1970, and the model also winning many hill-climbs and rallies.
- Crow, James T., ed. (1968). "Two BMWs". Road & Track Road Test Annual. pp. 61–65.
- Norbye, Jan P. (1984). BMW - Bavaria's Driving Machines. Skokie, IL: Publications International. ISBN 0-517-42464-9.
- Noakes, Andrew (2005). The Ultimate History of BMW. Bath, UK: Parragon Publishing. ISBN 1-4054-5316-8.
- Garnier, Peter, ed. (23 November 1974). "Buying Secondhand: BMW 1800 and 2000". Autocar. Vol. 141 (nbr 4074). pp. 54–56.
- Oswald, Werner (2001). Deutsche Autos 1945-1990, volume 4 (in German). Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN 3-613-02131-5.
- Ostmann, Bernd, ed. (8 January 2003). "Vor 40 Jahren: Bayern Vier". Auto, Motor und Sport. Vol. 2003 Heft 2. p. 162.
- Walker, Steve (April 2014). "1800 TiSA". Roundel (BMW Car Club of America). pp. 82–85. ISSN 0889-3225.
- "1966 BMW 1800". www.conceptcarz.com. Archived from the original on 2012-05-13. Retrieved 2013-02-23.
- "1965 BMW 2000 C". www.carfolio.com.
- "From Bavaria with Love: The BMW E9 Coupes". www.ateupwithmotor.com.
- Taylor, James (2013). The Restorer's Reference BMW 2002 1968-1976. Photography by Peter Robain. Minneapolis, MN US: MBI Publishing. ISBN 978-0-76032-796-8. Retrieved 2013-02-22.
- "History". 2002registry.com. 1966-03-09. Retrieved 2009-06-12.
- "Turbo". BMW 2002. Retrieved 2012-08-11.
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|Small family car||600||LS/700|
|Compact exec||3 Series||"New Class" 2-door sedans||E21||E30|
|Executive||5 Series||340/340-2*||"New class" 4-door sedans||E12||E28||E34|
|6 Series||327*||503||3200 CS||2000C, 2000CS||E9||E24|
|Sports car/GT||M1, 8 Series||E26||E31|
|*made in East Germany as EMW|
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