BMW 5 Series (E34)

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BMW 5-Series (E34)
E34 525i skyline.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer BMW
Production 1987–1996
Assembly Germany: Dingolfing
South Africa: Rosslyn[1]
Designer Claus Luthe; Ercole Spada; J Mays (1982, 1985)[2]
Body and chassis
Class Executive car[3]
Body style 4-door saloon
5-door estate
Layout FR layout (most models)
F4 layout (525iX only)
Related BMW M5
BMW E32
Powertrain
Engine Petrol:
1.8 L M40 I4
1.8 L M43 I4
2.0-2.5 L M20 I6
2.0-2.5 L M50 I6
3.0-3.4 L M30 I6
3.5-3.8 L S38 I6
3.0-4.0 L M60 V8
Diesel:
2.4 L M21 turbo I6
2.5 L M51 turbo I6
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,761 mm (108.7 in)[4]
Length 4,720 mm (185.8 in)
Width 1,751 mm (68.9 in)
Height sedan: 1,412 mm (55.6 in)
Touring: 1,417 mm (55.8 in)[5]
Curb weight 518i sedan: 1,445 kg (3,186 lb)
540i Touring: 1,765 kg (3,891 lb)
Chronology
Predecessor BMW E28
Successor BMW E39

The BMW E34 is third generation of the BMW 5 Series, which was sold from 1988 to 1996. It was launched in the sedan body style, with the range expanded in 1990 to include the "Touring" wagon (estate) body style. The E34 was replaced by the E39 in 1995, although E34 Touring models remained in production until 1996.

The E34 was the first 5 Series to be available with the wagon body style, the 525iX was the first 5 Series with all-wheel drive and V8 engines were also first available in a 5 Series during the E34 generation. It also saw the introduction of stability control (ASC), traction control (ASC+T) a 6-speed manual transmission and adjustable damping (EDC) to the 5 Series range.

There was an unusually large range of engines fitted over its lifetime, as nine different engine families were used. These consisted of 4-cylinder, straight-six and V8 engines.

The E34 M5 is powered by the S38 straight-six engine and was produced in sedan and wagon body styles.

Development and production[edit]

Development ran from July 1981 to late 1987, with design specifications being chosen in 1982 and finalized for production in mid-1985.[6] The E34 was launched in February 1988 and 1,333,412 units were built.[7]

Models[edit]

E34 525i sedan (Australia)
E34 525i Touring (Australia)

518i[edit]

Base model, available only in Europe.[8] It uses a 4i-cylinder engine: initially the M40, which was replaced by the M43 in 1994. The 518i was available in sedan or wagon body styles, however the only transmission available was a 5-speed manual.[9]

518g[edit]

A model which could run on natural gas (as well as petrol) and was only sold in Germany. The 518g was based on the 518i wagon and the only transmission available was a 5-speed manual.[10] When running on natural gas, the engine produced 77 kW (103 hp),[citation needed] compared with 85 kW (114 hp) when running on petrol. It was only produced in 1995 and just 298 units were built.

518iev[edit]

After unveiling the BMW E1 and E2 Electric Vehicles (EVs) in 1992, BMW began a project to show it was possible to make full-sized electric car, something few others would countenance due to the weight of the battery technology at the time. To make it possible despite the lead-based batteries, the 518iev,[11] had a modified 4 cylinder drive-line fitted with CVT, battery packs and ground-breaking rotating-field AC electric drive. This configuration was the predecessor of present-day EV Hybrids. BMW built at least one fully functional e34 prototype; however, very little was recorded about it that exists online. Extensive testing of this (and many others) in the late nineties was carried out with partners such as Deutsche Post, however the company did not utilise improvements in battery technology in the years following to advance electric technology in production until BMW announced ActiveE prototypes in 2010 (preceding the BMW i3 and i8) and 'Efficient Dynamics' models.

520i[edit]

The lowest 6-cylinder model and the base model E34 in some countries. Initial production of the 520i started in late 1987, using the single-cam M20 engine. In 1990, the M20 was replaced by the twin-cam M50 engine. A further revision of the 520i engine took place in September 1992, when the updated M50 engine (called "M50TU") introduced VANOS (variable valve timing). The M50 version of the 520i was the most popular variant sold in Europe and the 520i was the second most popular E34 model globally, with 436,108 units produced.[citation needed]

525i[edit]

BMW 525i M20 I6 engine

A mid-range model which used a 6-cylinder engine. Like the 520i, the 525i was initially powered by the M20 engine, which was later updated to the M50 and M50TU engines. The 525i was the most popular E34 model globally, with 566,573 units produced.[citation needed]

525iX[edit]

The 525iX was the first all-wheel drive 5 Series, and the only all-wheel drive model in the E34 range. It was powered by the M50 engine and available in both sedan and wagon body styles. The centre differential normally would divide 36% torque to the front axle and 64% to the rear axle, but could adjust the ratio according to driving conditions in case wheels of one of the axles started to slip.[citation needed] Only 9,366 cars were produced.[citation needed]

530i[edit]

There are two versions of the 530i, a 6-cylinder model which was produced from 1988 to 1990 and a V8 model produced from 1992 to 1995. The earlier 6-cylinder model was powered by the M30 and not sold in North America. The V8 version, which effectively replaced the 6-cylinder 535i in the line-up, was powered by the new M60 engine and was available in sedan and wagon body styles. Transmission choices for the V8 version were a 5-speed manual and a 5-speed automatic.[8] The V8 models were differentiated with a wider grille.

535i[edit]

M30 engine, as used in the 535i

During its production from 1987 to 1992, the 6-cylinder 535i was the top model in the regular E34 line-up. A total of 126,895 535i cars were produced, including 6,469 were sold in North America. The 535i was replaced by the V8 engined 530i and 540i models.

Despite the 535i designation and '3.5' casting on the intake manifold, the M30 6-cylinder engine found in the E34 535i was actually 3.4 litres (207 cu in).

535i Sport & 525i Sport (UK)[edit]

The E34 535i Sport was introduced to the UK market as an 1989 model. In 1993, the 535i Sport (powered by the M30 engine) was replaced by the 525i Sport (powered by the newer M50 engine). These models included features such as the M-tech body kit, a rear spoiler, M-tech steering wheel, LSD, sports suspension and upgraded stereo.

540i[edit]

In 1993, the 540i model was added at the top of the E34 line-up, using the M60 V8 engine. It was available in both sedan and wagon body styles (the latter not in US). The transmission options were a 6-speed manual transmission (offered in 1995 in North America, and from 1993 to 1996 in Europe) or a 5-speed automatic. Only 3,203 units of the manual 540i were produced.[citation needed] The V8 models were differentiated with a wider grille.

540i M-sport / M540i / 540i Manual Limited Edition[edit]

540i with "throwing star" wheels
BMW 525i sedan (US) – with narrow grille

A 540i M-Sport model was built in 1995 for the North American market. On top of the regular 540i features, additional features included sports suspension and seats 205 "M-Sport" models were built, 139 of them with the 6-speed manual transmission.

The M540i model was sold in Canada. It includes the features of the North American 540i M-sport, plus upgraded brakes, 18-inch wheels M-parallel and various trim pieces. Only 32 of these cars were built, all with a manual transmission.

The 540i Manual Limited Edition was sold in Australia. This model included the interior from the M5 and "throwing star" M-System II wheels. 70 of the 540i Manual Limited Edition sedans were produced, all manual and individually numbered.

North American model range[edit]

The E34 range was launched in North America with the 525i and 535i 6-cylinder models. Over the course of the E34 generation, the 525i Touring, 530i, 530i Touring, 540i and M5 models were sold in North America. Each model was released earlier in Europe than in North America.[citation needed]

M5 version[edit]

BMW M5 S38 I6 engine

The M5 version of the E34 was produced from 1988 to 1995. It featured an S38 straight-6 engine, originally a 3.6 L with an output of 232 kW (315 PS; 311 hp), later upgraded to a 3.8 L producing 250 kW (340 PS; 335 hp).

In its last year of production, it also sported the 6-speed manual gearbox that had been taken from 540i/6 E34. This gearbox then followed through to the next generation of 5 series: the E39.

Specifications[edit]

Petrol engines[edit]

Model[8] Year(s) Engine Displacement Power Torque Acceleration[12]
518i 1989–1994 M40B18
4-cyl SOHC
1,796 cc (110 cu in) 85 kW (114 hp) 165 N·m (122 ft·lbf) 12.8 s
518i 1994–1996 M43B18
4-cyl SOHC
1,796 cc (110 cu in) 85 kW (114 hp) 168 N·m (124 ft·lbf) 12.3 s
520i 1987-1990 M20B20
6-cyl SOHC
1,990 cc (121 cu in) 95 kW (127 hp) 174 N·m (128 ft·lbf) 11.9 s
520i 1989-1992 M50B20
6-cyl DOHC
1,990 cc (121 cu in) 110 kW (148 hp) 190 N·m (140 ft·lbf) 10.6 s
520i 1992-1996 M50B20TU
6-cyl DOHC
1,990 cc (121 cu in) 110 kW (148 hp) 190 N·m (140 ft·lbf) 10.6 s
525i 1987-1991 M20B25
6-cyl SOHC
2,494 cc (152 cu in) 125 kW (168 hp) 222 N·m (164 ft·lbf) 9.5 s
525i 1991-1992 M50B25
6-cyl DOHC
2,494 cc (152 cu in) 141 kW (189 hp) 245 N·m (181 ft·lbf) 8.6 s
525i 1992-1996 M50B25TU
6-cyl DOHC
2,494 cc (152 cu in) 141 kW (189 hp) 250 N·m (184 ft·lbf) 8.6 s
530i 1987-1991 M30B30
6-cyl SOHC
2,986 cc (182 cu in) 138 kW (185 hp) 260 N·m (192 ft·lbf) 8.6 s
530i 1992-1996 M60B30
V8 DOHC
2,997 cc (183 cu in) 160 kW (215 hp) 290 N·m (214 ft·lbf) 7.1 s
535i 1987-1992 M30B35
6-cyl SOHC
3,430 cc (209 cu in) 155 kW (208 hp) 305 N·m (225 ft·lbf) 7.7 s
540i 1992–1996 M60B40
V8 DOHC
3,982 cc (243 cu in) 210 kW (282 hp) 400 N·m (295 ft·lbf) 6.3 s
M5 1988–1992 S38B36
6-cyl DOHC
3,535 cc (216 cu in) 232 kW (311 hp) 360 N·m (266 ft·lbf) 6.3 s
M5 1992–1996 S38B38
6-cyl DOHC
3,795 cc (232 cu in) 250 kW (335 hp) 400 N·m (295 ft·lbf) 5.9 s

Diesel engines[edit]

Model[8] Year(s) Engine Displacement Power Torque Acceleration[12]
524td 1988–1991 M21D24
6-cyl SOHC
2,443 cc (149 cu in) 85 kW (114 hp) 222 N·m (164 ft·lbf) 12.9 s
525td 1993-1996 M51D25
6-cyl DOHC
2,497 cc (152 cu in) 85 kW (114 hp) 222 N·m (164 ft·lbf) 12.9 s
525tds 1991-1996 M51D25
6-cyl DOHC
2,497 cc (152 cu in) 105 kW (141 hp) 260 N·m (192 ft·lbf) 11.0 s

Model year changes[edit]

BMW 525i M20 I6 engine

1988[edit]

  • M5 model introduced
  • 524td model introduced

1989[edit]

  • 4-cylinder 518i model introduced
  • 520i engine updated to the M50, the first model using the new twin-cam engine series

1991[edit]

  • 525i engine updated to the M50
  • All-wheel drive 525iX model introduced
  • 525tds diesel model introduced

1992[edit]

  • 520i and 525i engines updated to the M50TU, which introduced variable valve timing (VANOS)
  • 535i model discontinued, marking the end of 24 years of production for the M30 engine
  • V8 engines introduced in the 530i and 540i models, which share engines and transmissions with the E32 7 Series and E31 8 Series. The V8 models use a wider grille than other models.
  • M5 engine enlarged from 3.6 litres to 3.8 litres
  • Revised exterior mirrors and hubcaps
  • ABS and driver's airbag become standard equipment

1993[edit]

  • 525td model introduced
  • 6-speed manual transmission available for 540i model- the first time a 6-speed manual is available in a 5 Series

1994[edit]

  • Wider grille (previously used for V8 models only) now used for all models
  • 518i -> the Engine changed from m40b18 (belt) to m43b18 (chain)
  • M5 model now uses 6-speed transmission

Drivetrain[edit]

Manual transmissions[edit]

Automatic transmissions[edit]

Suspension[edit]

Front suspension consists of MacPherson struts and rear suspension consists of semi-trailing arms.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Vehicle manufacturer profiles". www.automotiveworld.com. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. 
  2. ^ "Ercole Spada, der Brief". www.e34-ig.de. Archived from the original on May 6, 2013. 
  3. ^ "1989 BMW 525i specifications". www.automobile-catalog.com. 
  4. ^ "BMW E34 530i sedan". www.carfolio.com. 2008-04-03. Retrieved 2010-12-07. 
  5. ^ "BMW E34 525i touring". www.carfolio.com. 2008-04-03. Retrieved 2010-12-07. 
  6. ^ "Ercole Spada Wanted to Make the E34 5 Series Look More Like the 8 Series". www.autoevolution.com. 
  7. ^ Kittler, Eberhard (2001). Deutsche Autos seit 1990, vol.5. Stuttgart: Motorbuch. p. 165. ISBN 3-613-02128-5. 
  8. ^ a b c d "BMW 5-Series E34 versions & types". www.automobile-catalog.com. Retrieved 25 March 2016. 
  9. ^ "5'E34 model selection". www.realoem.com. 
  10. ^ "Model selection: 5'E34 > Touring > 518g". www.realoem.com. 
  11. ^ "Back from the future: BMW prototype with hybrid drive" (PDF). MOT magazine. 1995-04-02. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2004-02-19. Retrieved 2004-02-19. 
  12. ^ a b 0–100 km/h (0–62 mph), for saloons with manual transmission where possible.
  13. ^ "BMW E34 5 Series 520i Specs". www.ultimatespecs.com.