BMW 5 Series (E39)
|BMW 5 Series (E39)|
|Production||May 1995– May 2004|
|Designer||Joji Nagashima (1992)|
|Body and chassis|
|Class||Executive car (E)|
|Body style||4-door sedan/saloon|
|Layout||Front-engine, rear-wheel drive|
|Wheelbase||2,830 mm (111.4 in)|
|Length||4,775–4,805 mm (188.0–189.2 in)|
|Width||1,800 mm (70.9 in)|
|Height||1,435–1,445 mm (56.5–56.9 in)|
|Curb weight||1,685–1,845 kg (3,715–4,068 lb)|
|Predecessor||BMW 5 Series (E34)|
|Successor||BMW 5 Series (E60)|
The BMW E39 is the fourth generation of BMW 5 Series, which was sold from 1995 to 2004. It was launched in the sedan body style, with the wagon/estate body style (marketed as "Touring") introduced in 1996. The E39 was replaced by the E60 5 Series in 2003, however E39 Touring models remained in production until May 2004.
The proportion of chassis components using aluminium significantly increased for the E39, and it was the first 5 Series to use aluminium for all major components in the front suspension or any in the rear. It was also the first 5 Series where a four-cylinder diesel engine was available. Rack and pinion steering was used for the first time in a 5 Series (with the exception of the E34 525iX), being fitted to the four-cylinder and six-cylinder models. Unlike its E34 predecessor and E60 successor, the E39 was not available with all-wheel drive.
Development and launch
Development for the E34's successor began in 1989, and ended in 1995. The final design by Joji Nagashima was selected in June 1992 and later frozen for production under new design chief Chris Bangle. With design selection in 1992, the series development phase began and took 39 months till start of production. The domestic German design patent was filed on 20 April 1994, with an E39 prototype.
In May 1995 BMW published the first official photos of the E39. The E39 premiered in September 1995 at the Frankfurt Motor Show. In December 1995 sales of sedan models began on the European mainland. Production of wagon/estate models began in November 1996.(p7)
A "latent heat accumulator" was available as an option up until September 1999. The accumulator stores engine heat by converting a salt from solid to liquid form (phase transition). The insulated tank can store heat for several days. The next time the vehicle is started, this heat is automatically used to reduce exhaust emissions (by heating the engine up to operating temperature quicker), for cabin heating and window defrosting.
Separate to the latent heat accumulator is the Residual Heat function (activated by a button labelled "REST"), (p104) which allows the demister and cabin heater to use the heat of an engine that has recently been turned off (using an electric pump to push hot coolant through the heater core).
Standard equipment on the launch models included dual front and side airbags, pretensioners and load limiters for the front seatbelts, anti-lock brakes, traction control, power steering, and air conditioning. , Satellite navigation was also available, initially using maps on CD, then moving to DVD maps in 2002. Along with these options, on North American Touring models roof rails for mounting a roof rack came standard.
All North American Models from factory arrived pre-wired for mobile phones. It was a dealer option to have a mobile phone installed into the center console.
Special options available options on touring models were either a roller blind or extending cargo cover with patrician net for the rear cargo area, roller sun visors for rear and side windows.
At launch, the petrol engines consisted of the M52 straight-six and M62 V8, which were both new engines at the time. In late 1998, the "technical update" (TÜ) versions of these engines were introduced, introducing double VANOS to the M52 and single VANOS to the M62, this increased torque at low rpm. At the 2000 facelift (LCI), the M52 straight-six engine was replaced by its successor the M54, however the M62TÜ remained in use for the V8 models. The M54B30 (used in the E46 330i and E39 530i) topped the Ward's 10 Best Engines list in 2002 and 2003.
The initial diesel models used the M51 straight-six turbo-diesel engine. In 1998, its successor the M57 was introduced, however the M51 also remained in production for two more years. In 1999, the M47 four-cylinder turbo-diesel was introduced in the 520d model, which is the only E39 model to use a four-cylinder engine.
- 5-speed ZF S5-39DZ (525d,530d)
- 5-speed S5D 250G (523i,528i from 1996, 520i, 525i)
- 5-speed S5D 260Z (525td)
- 5 speed S5D 320Z (523i up to 1996, 530i, 535i)
- 6-speed Getrag 420G (540i, M5)
- 4-speed GM 4L30-E (A4S270R) (523i and 528i- up to 1999)
- 5-speed GM 5L40-E (A5S360R)  (523i and 528i- 1999–2000)
- 5-speed GM 5L40-E (A5S390R) (520i, 525i, 530i and 530d)
- 5-speed ZF 5HP19 (A5S325Z)  (523i, 525i, 528, 530i)
- 5-speed ZF 5HP24 (A5S440Z) (540i after 1996, 535i)
- 5-speed ZF 5HP30 (A5S560Z) (540i model- 1996 only)
Note that the 523i, 525i, 528i and 530i had several overlapping automatic transmission options for some years.
|Model||Tranmission||Production year||Final Gear||Body style|
Figures shown are for North American models
Unusually, two different steering systems were used for the E39, depending on the engine. Models with four-cylinder and six-cylinder models use rack and pinion steering, the first time this system has been used in a 5 Series. This system steers from the front of the axle. Models with V8 engines use recirculating ball steering, as per the previous generations of 5 Series.
Chassis and body
Compared with its E34 predecessor, the E39 wheelbase grew by 68 mm (2.7 in) and overall length by 55 mm (2.2 in). Torsional rigidity was increased over the E34 by 40 percent, which reduces body flex and allows the suspension to operate more accurately, also improving ride quality. Due to a stiffer body shell, the weight of the chassis increased by 10 kg (22 lb), which is offset by the reduced weight of some aluminium suspension components. The wagon version was 85 mm (3.3 in) longer than the previous generation (E34) and weighed approximately 40 kg (88 lb) more.
Structural dynamics was also an objective of the body design, so the body's frequencies for torsional twisting and bending are in separate ranges and above natural frequency. These frequencies are out of the range of engine and driveline vibrations, to avoid vibrations being amplified.
The E39 was the first 5 Series to use aluminium for most components in the front suspension. The proportion of chassis components using aluminium significantly increased for the E39.
The front suspension consists of a double-jointed version of the MacPherson strut, with six-cylinder cars using an aluminium front subframe. Aluminium is used for the steering knuckles, outer strut tube and the spring pads, resulting in a weight saving of 21 kg (46 lb). V8 models also use aluminium in the steering box and several suspension links, to compensate for the heavier steel subframe.
The rear suspension consists of a four link design (called "Z-link"), which is similar to the system used by the E38 7 Series. The design minimises unintentional toe angle changes, which increases the stability of the handling.
Wagon self-levelling suspension
The Touring model was the first BMW model to use air suspension (self-levelling suspension was first used by BMW for the E23 7 Series with a closed-loop nitrogen system that operated in parallel with the steel springs). This "self leveling" system controls the ride height of the rear of the vehicle and is designed to keep the center of the wheel a specified distances from the lip of the fender as the weight of the load in the cargo area varies.
Instead of using a traditional coil springs separated from a strut or a coilover design, the system uses pneumatic springs paired with air reservoirs. These reservoirs are connected to an air compressor mounted inside the spare tire well beneath the spare tire.
The air system is controlled by two Hall effect sensors at the rear of the vehicle. These sensors tell the EHC (electric height control) if the rear ride height needs to be adjusted and adjust headlight height for vehicles equipped with Xenon headlights. When a door or the rear hatch is opened and then closed the control module will constantly monitor the input signals from the HALL sensors and will activate a correction if the ride height has change greater than 10mm. During normal operation the system stays online but does not adjust to conditions such as potholes.
|110 kW (148 hp) at 5,900 rpm||190 N⋅m (140 lb⋅ft) at 4,200 rpm|
|110 kW (148 hp) at 5,900 rpm||190 N⋅m (140 lb⋅ft) at 3,500 rpm|
|125 kW (168 hp)
at 6,100 rpm
|210 N⋅m (155 lb⋅ft) |
at 3,500 rpm
|125 kW (168 hp) at 5,500 rpm||245 N⋅m (181 lb⋅ft) at 3,950 rpm|
|125 kW (168 hp) at 5,500 rpm||245 N⋅m (181 lb⋅ft) at 3,500 rpm|
|141 kW (189 hp) at 6,000 rpm||245 N⋅m (181 lb⋅ft) at 3,500 rpm|
|142 kW (190 hp) at 5,300 rpm||280 N⋅m (207 lb⋅ft) at 3,950 rpm|
|142 kW (190 hp) at 5,500 rpm||280 N⋅m (207 lb⋅ft) at 3,500 rpm|
|170 kW (228 hp) at 5,900 rpm||300 N⋅m (221 lb⋅ft) at 3,500 rpm|
|173 kW (232 hp) at 5,700 rpm||320 N⋅m (236 lb⋅ft) at 3,300 rpm|
|180 kW (241 hp) at 5,800 rpm||345 N⋅m (254 lb⋅ft) at 3,800 rpm|
|210 kW (282 hp) at 5,700 rpm||420 N⋅m (310 lb⋅ft) at 3,900 rpm|
|210 kW (282 hp) at 5,400 rpm||440 N⋅m (325 lb⋅ft) at 3,600 rpm|
|294 kW (394 hp) at 6,600 rpm||500 N⋅m (369 lb⋅ft) at 3,800 rpm|
|100 kW (134 hp)
at 4,000 rpm
|280 N⋅m (207 lb⋅ft) |
at 1,750 rpm
|120 kW (161 hp) at 4,000 rpm||350 N⋅m (258 lb⋅ft) at 2,000 rpm|
|85 kW (114 hp) at 4,800 rpm||230 N⋅m (170 lb⋅ft) at 1,900 rpm|
|105 kW (141 hp) at 4,600 rpm||280 N⋅m (207 lb⋅ft) at 2,200 rpm|
|135 kW (181 hp) at 4,000 rpm||390 N⋅m (288 lb⋅ft) at 1,750 rpm|
|142 kW (190 hp) at 4,000 rpm||410 N⋅m (302 lb⋅ft) at 1,750 rpm|
North American model range
From 1997–1998, the E39 model range in North America consisted of the 528i and 540i, In 1999 the M5 was introduced along with two wagon/estate models the 528iT and 540iT. In 2001, the 528i was discontinued and replaced by the 525i (525iT in estate/wagon format) and 530i.
Sales in the United States for May 1999 to May 2000 were 19,294 vehicles. The following year, sales for May 2000 to May 2001 were 15,233 vehicles.
Indonesian model range
In Indonesia, the initial model range in 1996 was the 523i and 528i, with only the 523i available with a manual transmission. Following the September 2000 facelift, the line-up consisted of 520i, 525i and 530i. Indonesian models were assembled in Jakarta from complete knock-down kits.
The M5 version of the E39 was Introduced in 1998 at the Geneva Motor Show and was produced from 1998 to 2003. It was powered by the S62 V8 engine. All E39 M5 cars were sold in the sedan body style with a 6-speed manual transmission.
Alpina B10 and D10
In February 2000, Alpina introduced the Alpina D10 Biturbo, the first six-cylinder diesel model produced by Alpina. The engine, a 3.0 litre twin-turbocharged unit rated at 180 kW (241 hp) and 500 N⋅m (369 lb⋅ft) of torque, was based on the engine of the BMW 530d.
The 540i Protection light-armored vehicle was launched in Europe in September 1997 and in North America from January 1998. These models included aramid fiber armor, bullet-resistant glass that is coated with polycarbonate to reduce spall. The 540i Protection is rated to withstand the impact of handgun fire up to and including .44 Magnum, the glass is also protected from attack with blunt objects such as baseball bats and bricks. The additional security measures brought an additional weight of 130 kg (287 lb) compared to the normal 540i sedan. on request, an intercom system was available and from January 1998 run-flat tyres were available.
Model year changes
Most changes occur in September each year, when the changes for the following model year go into production, as is typical BMW practice. Therefore, the changes for 1996 represent the 1997 model year, for example.
- Wagon/Estate body style (called Touring) introduced.
- 525td model introduced.
- On-board computer upgraded.
- Cornering Brake Control introduced.
- Rear side airbags introduced.
- Sport Package introduced.
- Automatic transmission option introduced for 540i.
- North American sales commence, starting with the 528i and 540i models.
- M5 model introduced. Lower-body rear side airbags were standard on the M5, remaining optional for other models.
- M52 straight-six engines updated to M52TU.
- M62 V8 engines updated to M62TU.
- 530d model introduced, using the new M57 straight-six turbo-diesel engine.
- Xenon headlights introduced.
- Parking sensors ("Park Distance Control") introduced.
- Self-levelling rear suspension introduced for Estate models.
- Stability control upgraded (from ASC+T to DSC).
- Sport Package replaced by "M Sport" package.
- Self-Adjusting Clutch (SAC) introduced on the straight-six petrol engines.
- Satellite navigation upgraded from MKI (or Mark I) to MKII. Like the MKI, the MKII uses a 4:3 screen and stores the maps on a CD.
- Rain-sensing windshield wipers introduced (June 1999)
- North American Market receives Touring model
- Front seat airbags upgraded to dual stage:page 5
- 520d introduced, powered by a four-cylinder diesel engine.
- 525d model (using M57 engine) replaces the 525td model (M51 engine).
- 520i, 525i and 530i models (using M54 engines) replace the 523i and 528i model (M52TU engines).
- 530d model receives power increase.
- Kidney grilles on all models are changed to those of the M5.
- Revised "angel eye" headlights.
- Revised tail lights with LED running lights.
- Navigation screen updated from 4:3 to larger 16:9 widescreen.
- Automatic transmission cars had the manual shift direction switched (to forwards for downshifts, backwards for upshifts).
- Automatic headlights introduced.
- 540i power increased from 210 kW (282 hp) to 216 kW (290 hp) in the American market.:page 12
- In-dash CD player becomes standard equipment on all models.:page 12
- Power passenger seat becomes standard on 6 cylinder models and automatic climate control becomes standard on 525i.
- 540i M-sport model introduced (not available in the U.S. until 2003)
- Navigation upgraded from Compact Disk format (8 disks to cover the United States and Canada) to a single DVD.
- Additional chrome trim added on the trunk (boot) and on the sides of the body.
Car and Driver featured the E39 in its "10Best list" six consecutive times, from 1997 to 2002. In 2001, Consumer Reports gave the 530i its highest car rating ever, declaring it the best car they had ever reviewed to date.
The first pilot production models were built in February 1995, with full-scale production starting later in the year. Most cars were built at the Dingolfing factory,(p40,46–48) with complete knock-down assembly used in Mexico, Indonesia and Russia. CKD production amounted to 17,280, with total production numbering 1,488,038.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to BMW E39.|
- "1995 BMW 523i Steptronic specifications". www.automobile-catalog.com. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
- "Specifications for BMW 523i E39 Sedan (1995-1998)". www.bmwheaven.com. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
- "Specifications for BMW 540i E39 LCI Touring (2000-2005)". www.bmwheaven.com. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
- "2002 BMW 535i E39 car specifications, auto technical data - performance, fuel economy, emissions, dimensions 104071". www.carfolio.com. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
- "2002 BMW 540i Touring Automatic E39 car specifications, auto technical data - performance, fuel economy, emissions, dimensions 96184". www.carfolio.com. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
- "BMW 5 Series touring (E39)". bmw-grouparchiv.de. BMW AG. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
- Annual Report 2004 (PDF). Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft. p. 13. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
- "BMW E39: Joji Nagashima – die Übergangslösung". www.auto-motor-und-sport.de. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
- "Bavarian Dreams: The 10 Best Designed BMWs of All Time". www.au.complex.com. Retrieved 7 March 2017.[permanent dead link]
- "Registerauskunft zum Design Designnummer: M9403410-0001". Deutsches Patent- und Markenamt. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
- "Die neue BMW 5er-Reihe: vom Original zum Meisterstück in der oberen Mittelklasse". www.bmw-grouparchiv.de. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
- "BMW TAKES A LOOK BACK AT ALL PREVIOUS 5 SERIES GENERATIONS". www.motor1.com. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
- "1998 – 2003 BMW 5-Series". www.topspeed.com. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- Preise BMW 5er Limousine (Die neue BMW 5er Reihe) (PDF). Bayerische Motoren Werke. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
- "Fast Facts April 2008" (PDF). www.bmweducation.co.uk. Archived from the original (pdf) on 12 September 2012.
- "5' E39 528i Latent heat accumulator". www.realoem.com. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- Vasiliev, Leonard L. (2000). "Latent heat storage modules for preheating internal combustion engines: application to a bus petrol engine". Applied Thermal Engineering. 20: 913–923. doi:10.1016/s1359-4311(99)00061-7. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
- BMW E39 Owner's Handbook for the vehicle. Germany: BMW. 1998. p. 159.
- ""Latent heat store", explain please!!?". www.bmw5.co.uk. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- "Neue 5er-Reihe; Z3" (PDF). bmw-grouparchiv.de (in German). Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft. 9 June 1995. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- User manuals for E39 5 Series (in German). BMW AG. July 1998. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
- "5 Series Video Handbook". www.youtube.com. BMW North America. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
- "5er absolviert US-Crashtest als bestes Fahrzeug". www.bmw-grouparchiv.de (in German). Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- "1996 BMW 528i". www.redbook.com.au. Archived from the original on 21 August 2011.
- "1996 BMW 540i". www.redbook.com.au. Red Book. Archived from the original on 21 August 2011.
- "Extending cargo cover/partition net". RealOEM.com.
- "Roller sun vizor". RealOEM.com.
- "1997 BMW 5 Series – European Car". www.motortrend.com. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
- "VANOS". www.usautoparts.net. Archived from the original on 24 July 2014.
- "Procedures – M62TÜ Vanos Procedure". www.beisansystems.com. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
- "10 Best Engines". www.wardsauto. 1 January 2003. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- "BMW E39 Specifications". www.bmwinfo.com. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
- Larimer, Fred (2002). BMW Buyer's Guide. MotorBooks International. p. 154. ISBN 0-7603-1099-8.
- "Electronic Transmission Control" (PDF). www.e38.org. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- "BMW Transmission and Oil Application Chart – BMW Doc SD 92–113" (PDF). www.europeantransmissions.com. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
- "5 Series classic E39 (1995-2003) Parts Catalog". RealOEM.com.
- "Bent-Eight Beemer". www.autospeed.com.au. Archived from the original on 21 September 2007.
- "Professional Development Department E39 Introduction". BMW of North America, Inc. 1996. Cite journal requires
- "BMW E39 5-Series (1996-03)". www.carpoint.com.au. Archived from the original on 10 November 2007.
- "1991 BMW 525i Touring". Automobile catalog.
- "BMW Geschäftsbericht 1995" (PDF). www.bmw-grouparchiv.de (in German). Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft. 14 February 2016. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- "BMW E39 M5 Performance Parts @ Custom Performance Innovations". www.custom-performance.net. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- "DIY: Front Strut Replacement". www.bimmerforums.com. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- "BMW Service Training air suspension level control system" (PDF). p. 5.
- "E39 Self Level" (PDF). BMW E38 Links. pp. 13–23.
- "BMW 5 Series saloon". Munich: BMW AG. 2003. Cite journal requires
- "Der BMW 5er Limousine" (in German). 1998. Retrieved 6 April 2017. Cite journal requires
- "Autoweek Carbase for BMW 5-series". www.autoweek.nl (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 9 August 2007.
- "540i 6-speed sedan Technical Data". www.bmwusa.com. Archived from the original on 18 December 2001.
- "2001 BMW 540 (for Europe) specs". www.automobile-catalog.com. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- "BMW GROUP NA SALES MAY 2001: BMW SALES CONTINUE AT RECORD LEVELS; May Sales Soar 32 Percent and Year-to-Date Sales Jump 18 Percent". www.bmwgroup.com. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- "5'E39 model selection: Sedan - 528 - IDN". www.realoem.com. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- "ALPINA Automobiles based on BMW 5 Series E39". www.alpina-automobiles.com. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
- "BMW introduces $88,000 bulletproof car". www.cnn.com. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
- "BMW Ballistic Protection". bmw-ids.com. Archived from the original on 13 February 2003. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
- Popular Science. February 1998. p. 26.
- BMW definiert neues Marktsegment. BMW AG. 23 June 1997. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
- "BMW M5 (E39)". bmw-grouparchiv.de. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
- "Information on M52 engines". www.bmwheaven.com. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
- "Information on M62 engines". www.bmwheaven.com. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
- "65908364421 RMFD NAVIGATION CD COMPUTER MK I". www.realoem.com. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
- "65906908313 RMFD NAVIGATION CD COMPUTER MK II". www.realoem.com. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
- "E39 FAQs/ Links/ Autoparts/ 528i links". www.bimmerforums.com. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- BMW E39 5 Series 1997–2002 Model Year Changes. www.archive.org. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
- "520d, 525d: Zwei neue Diesel im 5er". bmw-grouparchiv.de. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
- "Drei neue Sechszylinder, 5er Facelift, mehr Power für den 530d, Allradoption auch für 325i und 330d". www.press.bmwgroup.com. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
- "65906908313 RMFD NAVIGATION CD COMPUTER MK II". www.realoem.com. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
- "2002 BMW 5-Series Review". www.jbcarpages.com. Retrieved 3 April 2011.
- "BMW 540i M Sport". www.perpetualradio.ca. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
- "MKIV". www.bimmernav.com. Retrieved 3 October 2010.
- "Italian Superstars Championship 2007 – The grid: Photo 20 / 20".; "Italian Superstars Championship 2007 – The grid: Photo 9 / 20".; "#56 Todi Corse BMW M5(e39): Leonardo Baccarelli".; "#58 Todi Corse BMW M5 (e39): Marco Gregori".
- "The Best Around: Car and Driver’s 10Best Cars through the Decades". www.caranddriver.com. 29 November 2017. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
- "2011 BMW 5-series / 528i / 535i / 550i – Official Photos and Info". www.caranddriver.com. Retrieved 12 September 2010.
- "Consumer Reports Article – 530i Best Ever". www.roadfly.com. Archived from the original on 6 March 2017.
- "2002 BMW 5-Series Review". www.jbcarpages.com. Retrieved 3 April 2011.
- "Used BMW 5 Series review: 1996–2003". www.carsguide.com.au. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- "Top Gear's greatest ever car? A BMW banger that cost £1500". www.telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- "Is the E39 5 Series the best car ever made?". www.bmwblog.com.
- "Future Classic Friday: BMW 5-Series E39". www.honestjohn.co.uk. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- "The Clarkson review: BMW 528i Touring SE (1999)". www.driving.co.uk. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- "BMW 5 Series (1998)". www.euroncap.com. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- "2003 BMW 5 series". www.iihs.org. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- "BMW E39". www.bmwarchive.org. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
- "SKD site Mexico". bmw-grouparchiv.de. BMW AG. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
- Jacobs, A. J. (2015). The New Domestic Automakers in the United States and Canada: History, Impacts, and Prospects. Lexington Books. p. 259. ISBN 9780739188262. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
- "Группа компаний Автотор :: Автомобили BMW". www.avtotor.ru. Archived from the original on 8 December 2002.
- "BMW 5 Series (E39)". bmw-grouparchiv.de. BMW AG. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
|Z Series||Z1||Z3||Z4 (E85)||Z4 (E89)|