BMW 7 Series (E38)

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BMW 7-Series (E38)
BMW 7er (E38) 20090314 front.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer BMW
Production 1994–2001
340,242 built[1][2]
Assembly Dingolfing, Germany
Designer Boyke Boyer (1990, 1991)
Body and chassis
Class Full-size luxury car (F)
Body style 4-door sedan/saloon
Layout FR layout
Powertrain
Engine
  • Petrol:
  • 2.8 L M52 I6
  • 3.0-4.0 L M60 V8
  • 3.5-4.4 L M62 V8
  • 5.4 L M73 V12
  • Diesel:
  • 2.5 L M51 I6 turbo
  • 2.9 L M57 I6 turbo
  • 3.9 L M67 V8 turbo
Transmission 5-speed manual
6-speed manual
5-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase SWB: 2,930 mm (115.4 in)
LWB: 3,070 mm (121 in)
Length SWB: 4,984 mm (196.2 in)
LWB: 5,124 mm (201.7 in)
Width 1,862 mm (73.3 in)
Height SWB: 1,425 mm (56.1 in)
LWB: 1,435 mm (56.5 in)
Curb weight 1,710–2,085 kg (3,770–4,597 lb)
Chronology
Predecessor BMW 7 Series (E32)
Successor BMW 7 Series (E65)

The BMW E38 is the third generation of the BMW 7 Series, which was produced from 1995 to 2001. It replaced the E32 and was available with straight-six, V8 and V12 engines. In 2001, the E38 was replaced by the E65 7 Series.

The E38 was the first car available with curtain airbags. It was also the first European car to offer satellite navigation[3] and the first BMW to offer an in-built television. The E38 was the first 7 Series to be available with a diesel engine.

Development[edit]

In early 1988, development began on the third generation 7-series.[4] From 1989 to 1990 styling work was done initially under design director Claus Luthe[5] (through April 1990), when Boyke Boyer's concept design was chosen and further refined into production form.[6]

In February 1991, the final production design for the new 7-series was approved by the board 36 months ahead of 1994 production.[4] On April 27, 1993 German design patents were filed featuring a pre-production prototype as a design representation.[7] Patents were later filed on October 27, 1993 in the United States.[8]

Production[edit]

Production started on July 23, 1993 on pilot production models and US specification variants on January 13, 1994, with series production commencing on February 17, 1994 and US-specification in the second half of the year. In May 1994, the 1995 model year E38 BMW 7-Series was unveiled.[9][10]

The last E38 (a silver 740i with black leather interior) rolled off BMW's assembly line on July 27, 2001[11] to make way for the replacement E65 7 Series.

Equipment[edit]

Safety features include ASC+T traction control, headlight washers, auto-leveling low beam xenon HID headlamps. Side tubular airbags (called "Head Protection System) were fitted as standard equipment.[12][13] "Active Comfort Seats" were introduced in 1998, to improve comfort and reduce fatigue for the driver and front passenger.[14] This system uses two fluid-filled bladders which alternate in height.[15]

Other equipment includes Electronic Damper Control (called EDC III), power moonroof, rain-sensing wipers, dual zone climate control, electric drivers seat adjustment and electric steering wheel adjustment.

The E38 could also be optioned with double glazed windows (called "dual pane glass"), which is known to delaminate.[16][17] Break resistant "security glass" was also available,[18] and bulletproof glass was used for the Protection model.[17]

The Sport Package included a sport steering wheel, sports seats, sports suspension, "shadowline" exterior trim and unique wood trim for the interior.[19] Some sports models also included a shorter differential ratio and higher stall speed for the torque converter.[20]

In-car electronics[edit]

The E38 was the first European car to be available with satellite navigation,[21] a system called CARIN developed by BMW and Philips.[22]

The in-car entertainment (radio, audio system, satellite navigation, television and communications systems) are part of an automotive communication system called I-bus.[23]

A "multi-function" steering wheel, with controls for the audio, phone, cruise control and air recirculation,[24] was standard equipment.[25]

Transmissions[edit]

A 5-speed ZF 5HP automatic transmission was available on all models.[26]

In some markets, a 5-speed manual transmission was available for the 728i,[27] 730i,[28] 735i[29] and a 6-speed for the 740i.[30]

Model range[edit]

Petrol engines[edit]

Model Engine Power Torque Years Production[31]
728i M52B28
I6
142 kW (190 hp) 280 N·m (207 lb·ft) 1995–1998 26171
M52TUB28
I6
142 kW (190 hp) 280 N·m (207 lb·ft) 1998–2001 12776
728iL M52B28
I6
142 kW (190 hp) 280 N·m (207 lb·ft) 1995–1998 1915
M52TUB28
I6
142 kW (190 hp) 280 N·m (207 lb·ft) 1998–2001 4901
730i M60B30
V8
160 kW (215 hp) 290 N·m (214 lb·ft) 1994–1996 20876
730iL M60B30
V8
160 kW (215 hp) 290 N·m (214 lb·ft) 1994–1996 2137
735i M62B35
V8
173 kW (232 hp) 320 N·m (236 lb·ft) 1996–1998 12971
M62TUB35
V8
174 kW (233 hp) 345 N·m (254 lb·ft) 1998–2001 8510
735iL M62B35
V8
173 kW (232 hp) 320 N·m (236 lb·ft) 1996–1998 3863
M62TUB35
V8
174 kW (233 hp) 345 N·m (254 lb·ft) 1998–2001 3100
740i M60B40
V8
210 kW (282 hp) 400 N·m (295 lb·ft) 1994–1996 33322
M62B44
V8
210 kW (282 hp) 420 N·m (310 lb·ft) 1996–1998 28272
M62TUB44
V8
210 kW (282 hp) 440 N·m (325 lb·ft) 1998–2001 27259
740iL M60B40
V8
210 kW (282 hp) 400 N·m (295 lb·ft) 1994–1996 12402
M62B44
V8
210 kW (282 hp) 420 N·m (310 lb·ft) 1996–1998 40655
M62TUB44
V8
210 kW (282 hp) 440 N·m (325 lb·ft) 1998–2001 38223
740iL P M62TUB44
V8
210 kW (282 hp) 440 N·m (325 lb·ft) 1998–2001 151
750i M73B54
V12
240 kW (322 hp) 490 N·m (361 lb·ft) 1995–1997 6888
M73TUB54
V12
240 kW (322 hp) 490 N·m (361 lb·ft) 1998–2001 1671
750iL M73B54
V12
240 kW (322 hp) 490 N·m (361 lb·ft) 1995–1997 11038
M73TUB54
V12
240 kW (322 hp) 490 N·m (361 lb·ft) 1998–2001 4039
750iL P M73TUB54
V12
240 kW (322 hp) 490 N·m (361 lb·ft) 1998–2001 85
750iL S M73B54
V12
240 kW (322 hp) 490 N·m (361 lb·ft) 1995–1997 253
M73TUB54
V12
240 kW (322 hp) 490 N·m (361 lb·ft) 1998–2001 344
L7 M73B54
V12
240 kW (322 hp) 490 N·m (361 lb·ft) 1996–1998 462
M73TUB54
V12
240 kW (322 hp) 490 N·m (361 lb·ft) 1998–2001 437

Diesel engines[edit]

Model Engine Power Torque Years Production[31]
725tds M51D25
I6 turbo
105 kW (141 hp) 280 N·m (207 lb·ft) 1995–2001 9053
730d M57D30
I6 turbo
142 kW (190 hp) 410 N·m (302 lb·ft) 1998–2001 12336
740d M67D40
V8 turbo
180 kW (241 hp) 560 N·m (413 lb·ft) 1998–2001 3450

Special models[edit]

L7[edit]

From 1997 to 2001, BMW sold an extended wheelbase limousine model called the L7.[32][33] The wheelbase was extended by 25 cm (10 in) over the "iL" models, resulting in an overall length of 5.37 m (211 in).[34] Features included electrically adjustable rear seats, rear footrests, fold down rear trays, a fridge, rear television screen, video player, fax machine.[34][35]

Based on the 750iL with a 12-cylinder engine, the L7 has a top speed of 250 km/h (155 mph).[36] The L7 was only available in the Middle East, Southeast Asia and Europe, and 899 examples were built.[31] The 2000-2001 models had an optional "privacy window" glass partition to separate the driver from the rear passengers.[37]

Protection line[edit]

The armoured "Protection Line" vehicles were built from 2000–2001, based on the 740iL and 750iL models.[38] Security features include body armor, bullet-resistant glass and run-flat tires.[39][40] An intercom system is provided to communicate with people outside the vehicle while the windows and doors are shut.[41]

Security line[edit]

A High-Security version with protection up to B6/7[42] was also available in Europe,[43] known internally as the 750iL S. The additional security measures brought an additional weight of 950 kg (2,090 lb) compared to the normal 750iL[44][45] Features include explosive cord around the windshield allowing removal of the windshield facilitating escape through it,[45] Hydraulically actuated windows,[45] A gas sensor that can detect irritants like CS gas and respond by turning the blower motor off closing the fresh air flaps and all windows,[45] a fire suppression system triggered by either a button or the detection of extreme temperatures in the engine bay or the vicinity of the fuel tank,[46][45] a breathing air system is also available which delivers air from a cylinder in the trunk,[45] up to three firearms cases designed to fit a Heckler & Koch MP5K were also optionally available,[45] and spherical gunports in the doors.[45]

Hydrogen 750hL[edit]

Hydrogen BMW 750hL

On May 11, 2000, BMW presented a fleet of fifteen 750hL's in Berlin.[47]

It's twelve-cylinder hydrogen combustion engine can be operated on both hydrogen and petrol. In operation on hydrogen, it delivers 150 kW (204 hp), accelerating from 0 to 100 km/h in 9.6 seconds and reaches a top speed of 226 km/h (140 mph).[48]

The production of the hydrogen engine was integrated into the regular engine production at the Dingolfing plant. It differs from the conventional petrol engine essentially only in regards to the intake tract with additional injection valves for the hydrogen.[49] The hydrogen is stored cryogenically at a temperature of minus 253 degrees Celsius in a double-walled steel tank behind the rear seat back. The hydrogen tank holds 140 liters and allows an additional range of 350 kilometers.[48] In addition, the 750hL has a fuel cell with a power of 5 kilowatts at 42 volts. This is not used as a drive unit, but as an auxiliary power unit (APU) for power supply to the electrical system.[50]

During the Expo 2000 in Hannover the vehicles were used as shuttles. From February to November 2001 the vehicles were part of the "CleanEnergy WorldTour 2001" in the cities of Dubai, Brussels, Milan, Tokyo, Los Angeles and Berlin. By November 2001 the 750hL had achieved a mileage of over 150,000 km.[51] On the Nürburgring the 750hL reached a time of 9 minutes and 53 seconds while powered by hydrogen.[52]

Alpina B12[edit]

B12 6.0

Based on the BMW 750i and 750iL, Alpina released the B12 5.7 in 1995 and the B12 6.0 in 1999. In contrast to the cars they are based on, these models are not electronically limited to a top speed of 250 km/h (155 mph), but reach top speeds of more than 280 km/h (174 mph) and 291 km/h (181 mph), respectively.[53] According to Alpina the B12 5.7 was the world's first vehicle with an electrically heated metal catalyst as standard.[54] The B12 5.7 has a 5.7 litre V12 and the B12 6.0 has a 6.0 litre V12.

Model Engine Power[53] Torque Years[55] Production[56]
B12 5.7 V12 285 kW (382 hp) 560 N·m (413 lb·ft) 12/1995–08/1998 202
B12 6.0 V12 316 kW (424 hp) 600 N·m (443 lb·ft) 07/1999–07/2001 94

North American model range[edit]

The models for sale in the North America were the 740i, 740iL and 750iL, and production began in the second half of 1994. The base prices in 2001 were US$62,900 for the 740i, US$66,900 for the 740iL and US$92,100 for the 750iL.[57]

The 750iL was BMW's flagship vehicle, with a 5.4 L (330 cu in) V12 engine producing 322 bhp (240 kW; 326 PS) engine. A long-wheelbase variant was available for all petrol models.[58][59][60][61][62]

Model year changes[edit]

Pre-facelift 740iL sedan (US)
Interior

1995[edit]

  • E38 Production begins in 1994, for the 1995 model year. Initial models were the 725tds, 730i/730iL, 740i/740iL and 750i/750iL.
  • V8 models use a Nikasil bore coating, which experiences failures in countries with high sulfur petrol (see M60 article).[63][64]
  • DSC III (Dynamic Stability Control) becomes optional on the 740i/740iL and 750i/750iL.
  • 740i/740iL models use differential ratio of 3.15,[65] compared with 2.92 for following years.
  • Standard equipment includes dual-zone climate control, electric front seats with a three-position memory for the driver’s seat, front-seat side tubular airbags, a six-disc CD changer, and satellite navigation.[4]

1996[edit]

  • 728i and 735i models introduced
  • M62 engine replaces M60 for V8 models. The capacity on 740i and 740iL engines increases from 4.0 L to 4.4 L.
  • An Alpina sports suspension, onboard TV and satellite navigation system were offered as options.

1997[edit]

  • Front passenger head airbags. In late 1997, E38 7 Series and E39 5 Series became the world's first cars available with side impact head airbags.[66] These are known as "Inflatable Tubular Structure"[67] or "Head Protection System", and were available as optional equipment.[68] These airbags are designed to offer head protection in side impact collisions and also maintained inflation for up to seven seconds for rollover protection.
  • The 750iL (actually a re-badged 740iL)[69][70] is extensively featured in the high James Bond series film Tomorrow Never Dies.

1998 mid-life facelift[edit]

Facelift BMW 735i
Facelift BMW 735i

The E38 facelift (also known as LCI) models were introduced in the 1999 model year (produced from September 1998). The major changes are:

  • Revised styling for headlights and tail-lights.[71]
  • 740d model introduced, powered by the 3.9L M67 V8 twin-turbocharged diesel engine.[72]
  • 735i and 740i engines upgraded to the "technical update" (TU) version of the M62, featuring variable valve timing on the intake camshaft (single-VANOS).[71]
  • 728i engines upgraded to the "technical update" (TU) version of the M52, featuring variable valve timing on both camshafts (dual-VANOS)
  • Sport Package (ZSP option code) released, including Alpina suspension, multi-spoke alloys, sports seats and shadowline exterior trim.
  • DSCIII electronic stability control becomes standard on all 7 Series models.[citation needed]
  • Head airbags become standard on all 7 Series models.[citation needed]

1999[edit]

  • The 750 now includes Electric Catalytic Converter, or "E-CAT", assemblies. Heating coils inside the catalytic converter assemblies are electrified just after engine start, bringing the catalyst up to operating temperature very quickly to qualify the vehicle for Low emission vehicle (LEV) designation.[73] This system required the use of a two-battery system. This electric catalytic converter had been fitted since 1995 by Alpina to their B12 5,7 E-KAT saloon based on the BMW 750i, as it had been developed jointly by Emitec, Alpina and BMW.[74]
  • From March, features such as Xenon headlamps, rain-sensitive windshield wipers, headlight washers, GPS navigation, and upgraded audio became standard for US models.[citation needed]

2000[edit]

  • Display for satellite navigation upgraded in September to 6.5 inch 16:9 screen.[75][76]
  • Navigation upgraded to MKIII in September, therefore maps for satellite navigation switch to CD format.[77][78]
  • A radar-based adaptive cruise control (called Active Cruise Control) became available as an option.[79][80][81]

2001[edit]

2001 BMW 7-Series (US)
  • Cosmetic changes including body-colored side skirts and bumper facias (previously black), clear turn signal lenses (previously amber).
  • Sport package becomes available on 750iL.
  • Additional standard equipment, including a Motorola StarTAC or TimePort mobile phone, with BMW Assist telemetry system.

Film[edit]

BMW 7 Series car from Tomorrow Never Dies, seen at an exhibition at Museum Industriekultur, Nuremberg.

Contributing to the E38's continued popularity was its appearance in several films such as Tomorrow Never Dies (750iL), Bumer "Бумер" (750iL), Enemy of the State (740iL), Invictus (740iL), Bad Santa (740iL), Fun with Dick and Jane (740iL), Valley of the Wolves (TV series) (L7), Showtime (740i), The Transporter (735i) which was a one off manual 750i badged as a 735i,[82] "Live Free or Die Hard" which was a 2000 740i, The Game (740iL) and The Sum Of All Fears. Even though it was the only featured car in the series to be replaced the following year, the E38 featured in the BMW Film Ambush which was released in fall 2001.

In the 18th James Bond feature film Tomorrow Never Dies, the sixteen E38 cars used during production were modified so they could be driven from the backseat. The car type is actually a BMW 740iL but they were re-badged as the 750iL. One survives today and can be seen at exhibition “TOP SECRET” at Museum Industriekultur, Nuremberg. Besides the 7 Series saloons, BMW also supplied a $14,000 R1200C motorcycle. BMW received the rights to use movie clips from the film in its multimillion-dollar campaign, and during the 1997 holiday season they offered a special promotion that included the R1200C with the purchase of the 750iL.[83]

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