BMW 5 Series (E28)

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BMW 5 Series (E28)
1983 BMW 528i (E28) sedan (21539857803).jpg
Overview
Manufacturer BMW
Production 1981–1987
722,328 built[1]
Designer Claus Luthe (1977)
Body and chassis
Class Executive car[2]
Body style 4-door sedan
Related BMW 6 Series (E24)
Powertrain
Engine Petrol :
1.8 L M10 I4
2.0-2.7 L M20 I6
2.5-3.4 L M30 I6
3.5 L M88 I6
3.5 L S38 I6
Diesel:
2.4 L M21 I6
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,625 mm (103.3 in)
Length EU: 4,620 mm (181.9 in),
US: 4,800 mm (189.0 in)
Width 1,700 mm (66.9 in)
Height 1,415 mm (55.7 in)
Curb weight 1,140–1,410 kg (2,513–3,109 lb)[3]
Chronology
Predecessor BMW 5 Series (E12)
Successor BMW 5 Series (E34)
Interior

The BMW E28 is the second generation of BMW 5 Series mid-size sedans, and was produced from 1981 to 1988. It replaced the E12 and was initially produced with petrol 4-cylinder and 6-cylinder engines.

The E28 was the first 5 Series with the centre console angled towards the driver and the option of anti-lock brakes (ABS).[4] In 1983, a diesel engine was available for the first time in a 5 Series.

The E28 was replaced by the E34 in 1988.

The first BMW M5 was produced during the E28 generation. It was powered by the S38B35 and the M88/3 straight-six engines.

Models[edit]

At launch, four models were offered: The 518, 520i, 525i and 528i.[5]

Over the course of the E28 model, the following models were added: the 524d and 524td using diesel engines, the 518i with manifold injection, the 525e/528e as fuel-economy models, and the upper-specification 533i, 535i, M535i and M5 models.

518: Sold only in some European markets, the 518 was the lowest specification model which used a 4-cylinder engine with a carburetor.

518i: The base model in Japan and some European countries, the 518i used a fuel-injected 4-cylinder engine.

520i: A mid-range model with the smallest of the available 6-cylinder engines.

524d: At the 1986 Geneva Motor Show, four years after the introduction of the more powerful 524td model, the naturally-aspirated 524d model was introduced.[6]:188,190 It was only sold in some markets.[6]:191

524td: This turbodiesel model was the first diesel car produced by BMW. It entered production in late 1982, when 100 pre-series cars were built.[7]

525e / 528e: The 525e (called 528e in North America and Japan) uses a 2.7-litre 6-cylinder M20 petrol engine which is tuned to provide torque at low engine speed, rather than the traditional high revving characteristics of BMW straight-6 engines.[8] According to BMW, the 525e is more fuel efficient than the 520i, which has the same rated power of 92 kW.[9] In Austria, a power reduced 525e with 88 kW was sold.

525i: This mid-range model is powered by a 2.5-litre 6-cylinder engine. The 525i was only sold in Europe.

528i: Initially the highest specification available, the 6-cylinder 528i became a mid-range model following the release of the 533i and 535i models. In the US, it was sold with a catalytic converter.

533i: Only sold in Japan and North America,[10][11] the 6-cylinder 533i was the highest specification model during its production years of 1983-1984. It was replaced by the 535i. In the US, it was sold with a catalytic converter.

535i: Released in 1984, the 535i replaced the 533i and uses the same 6-cylinder drivetrain as the M535i. In the United States, it was sold with a catalytic converter.

535iS: Released in 1987, the 535iS had the same body panels as the M5 and uses the same 6-cylinder drivetrain as the 535i. It was only sold in the United States, with production ending in 1988.

M535i: The top of the regular production model range, the M535i uses the drivetrain from the 535i plus M-Technic suspension, and wheels and body panels not found on any other E28. The M535i was assembled on the standard E28 assembly lines in Dingolfing and Rosslyn. The M535i was not offered for sale in North America.

528i (Australia) 
M535i (Australia) 

M5 version[edit]

M5 model

The E28 was the first M5 model produced, and is powered by the S38B35 and the M88/3 straight-six engines.

Engines[edit]

M88/3 engine (210 kW) of an E28 M5
M20 engine

BMW offered all their engines for the E28. These were the petrol engines M10, M20, M30 as well as their sport versions and the diesel engine M21. The M20, M21 and M30 are all fuel-injected straight-six engines. The M20 and M30 petrol engines have a multipoint fuel injection system, while the diesel M21 engines have indirect fuel-injection.

The only engine to use a carburettor is the four-cylinder M10 used in the 518, which is fitted with a Pierburg 2B4 carburettor. The slightly inclined engine is mounted on the front axle bracket and screwed to the gearbox.[12]

Petrol[edit]

Petrol engines
Model Engine Power Torque Fuel supply Years
518 M10B18 66 kW (89 hp)
@ 5500 rpm
140 N·m (103 lb·ft)
@ 4000 rpm
Pierburg 2BE carb 1981-1984
518i 77 kW (103 hp)
@ 5800 rpm
145 N·m (107 lb·ft)
@ 4500 rpm
L Jetronic 1981–1987
520i M20B20 92 kW (123 hp)
@ 5800 rpm
165 N·m (122 lb·ft)
@ 4500 rpm
K-Jetronic 1981–1982
92 kW (123 hp)
@ 5800 rpm
170 N·m (125 lb·ft)
@ 4000 rpm
L-Jetronic 1982-1987
95 kW (127 hp)
@ 6000 rpm
174 N·m (128 lb·ft)
@ 4000 rpm
LE-Jetronic 1985-1988
95 kW (127 hp)
@ 6000 rpm
164 N·m (121 lb·ft)
@ 4300 rpm
Motronic 1986-1988
525i M30B25 110 kW (148 hp)
@ 5500 rpm
215 N·m (159 lb·ft)
@ 4000 rpm
L-Jetronic 1981–1987
  525e /
528e
M20B27 92 kW (123 hp)
@ 4250 rpm
240 N·m (177 lb·ft)
@ 3250 rpm
Motronic 1982–1987
90 kW (121 hp)
@ 4250 rpm
230 N·m (170 lb·ft)
@ 3250 rpm
L Jetronic/Motronic 1982–1987
95 kW (127 hp)
@ 4250 rpm
240 N·m (177 lb·ft)
@ 3250 rpm
Motronic 1984–1988
525e 88 kW (118 hp)
@ 4250 rpm
240 N·m (177 lb·ft)
@ 3250 rpm
Motronic 1985–1987
528i M30B28 135 kW (181 hp)
@ 5800 rpm
240 N·m (177 lb·ft)
@ 4200 rpm
L-Jetronic 1981–1987
  533i[13] M30 135 kW (181 hp)
@ 6000 rpm
265 N·m (195 lb·ft)
@ 4000 rpm
Motronic 1982–1984
535i,
M535i
M30B34 160 kW (215 hp)
@ 5500
310 N·m (229 lb·ft)
@ 4000 rpm
Motronic 1985–1988
136 kW (182 hp)
@ 5400 rpm
290 N·m (214 lb·ft)
@ 4000 rpm
Motronic 1985–1988
M5 M88/3 210 kW (282 hp)
@ 6500 rpm[14]
340 N·m (251 lb·ft)
@ 4500 rpm
Motronic 1985–1988
M5 S38B35 191 kW (256 hp)
@ 6500 rpm[15]
330 N·m (243 lb·ft)
@ 4500 rpm
Motronic 1986–1988

Diesel[edit]

M21D24 naturally aspirated engine
Diesel engines
Model Engine code Power Torque Aspiration Years
524d M21D24 63 kW (84 hp)
@ 4600 rpm
152 N·m (112 lb·ft)
@ 2500 rpm
naturally aspirated 1985–1987
524td 85 kW (114 hp)
@ 4800 rpm
210 N·m (155 lb·ft)
@ 2400 rpm
turbocharged 1983–1988

Suspension[edit]

The E28 uses independent front and rear suspension.[12] The front axle is a dual joint axle, the wheels are suspended by MacPherson struts with double-acting shock absorbers and coil springs. They are supported by transverse and trailing links. A torsion spring acts as a stabiliser. The rear axle is mounted on a delta beam that is connected to the body with three screws in rubber bearings, that have longitudinal play. Like the front wheels, the rear wheels are suspended by MacPherson struts, however, they are supported by diagonal links instead. The 528i and M535i have an additional torsion spring as a stabiliser for their rear axle as well.[12]

BMW offered both steel and light metal alloy wheels for the E28. The standard rim size is 6 J × 14 H2. Rims with an increased or reduced rim width of a half inch (12.7 mm) also fit. All rims have 22 mm positive rim offset.[12]

A hydraulic dual circuit brake system with a brake servo is used. The front wheels have disc brakes, that are – except for the 518i – internally ventilated. All models with 2.4 l displacement or less have rear drum brakes, while all models with 2.5 l or more displacement have non internally ventilated rear disc brakes. To prevent the wheels from locking, BMW equipped the E28 with an anti-lock braking system, although it was an option in some markets.[12]

Both left- and right-hand drive BMW E28s were made. All models, except the 518i have a speed dependent ball-and-nut power steering made by ZF, the 518i has a Gemmer steering system with a double enveloping worm gear, also made by ZF.[12]

Body[edit]

The E28 has a self supporting body that is welded to the body platform. The passenger cell is a safety passenger cell with deformation elements both in the front and rear of the vehicle. Unlike the BMW E12, the E28 has a rear-hinged bonnet. The boot has a volume of 460 dm3, the fuel tank has 70 l. The glazing is made of single-pane safety glass, the windscreen has laminated glass.[12]

Drivetrain[edit]

BMW offered the E28 with both manual and automatic gearboxes. The torque is transmitted from the engine with a single-disc dry clutch with a torsional damper in the models with a manual gearbox, the automatic models have a torque converter with built in lockup-clutch.[12]

Manual transmissions

The 4-speed manual transmissions are:[16]

  • Getrag 242 (for M10 and M20 engine models)
  • Getrag 262 (M30 engines)

The 5-speed manual transmissions are:

  • Getrag 240 (M10 and M21 engines)
  • Getrag 245 (M10 engines)
  • Getrag 260 (M20, M21 and M30 engines)
  • Getrag 265 (M30 engines and 525e/528e)
  • Getrag 280 (M88/3 and S38 engines)
  • ZF S5-16 (M20 engines)
Automatic transmissions

The 3-speed automatic transmissions are:

  • ZF 3 HP 22 (M20 and M30 engines, US market only)

The 4-speed automatic transmissions are:

  • ZF 4 HP 22 (M10, M20, M21)
  • ZF 4 HP 22 EH (M20, M30)

North American market models[edit]

BMW 535is (North America)
North American M5 fitted with European market headlights

The North American line-up consisted of the 528e (1982-1988, known as the 525e in Europe), 533i (1983-1984), 535i (1985-1988), 524td (1985-1986), M5 (1986-1987) and 535is (1987-1988).

The launch model was the 528e in 1982, followed by the 533i.[citation needed] The optional automatic transmission was initially a 3-speed (a 4-speed automatic was available in Europe at the time), with a 4-speed automatic transmission becoming optional in 1983. The 524td was only imported with an automatic transmission, and the M5 was only imported with a manual transmission. From 1985, all North American models had ABS Brakes as standard. Electric front seats became a standard feature in 1986.[citation needed] North American specification cars were comprehensively equipped, with standard features including power windows, central locking, air conditioning, power sunroof, cruise control, alloy wheels and fog lights.[citation needed]

Instead of importing the M535i, BMW of North America created the 535is.[citation needed] This model is based on a 535i, plus front and rear spoilers, sport suspension and sport seats.

Production of North American market M5 models began in late 1986 (two years after M5 production began for European markets), and it was only produced for twelve months as 1988 model year car.[17] North American M5 models use the S38 engine instead of the M88/3. All North American M5 cars were painted Jet Black and most interiors were tan ("Natur") coloured leather.[18]

Production[edit]

E28 production started in July 1981 and ended in December 1987.[19]

The E28 was still sold in North America as a 1988 Model Year car while Europe received the E34 in early 1988. A limited edition model was also sold in South Africa from mid-1987 to the end of 1988.[20]

Road performance[edit]

518[21] 518i 520i 525e 525e Kat. 525i 528i 535i 535i Kat. M535i M535i Kat. 524td
Vmax
(km/h)
164 175 190 (184) 190 (184) 188 (183) 201 (195) 215 (208) 225 (219) 212 (207) 230 (223) 217 (211) 180 (175)[V 1]
Acceleration 0–100 km/h
(s)
14.0 12.6 11.4 (13.3) 10.7 (12.2) 11.3 (13.1) 9.8 (11.9) 8.4 (10.8) 7.2 (8.9) 7.9 (9.8) 7.2 (8.9) 7.9 (9.8) 12.9 (13.6)
Fuel consumption (DIN 70030 at 120 km/h)
(l/100 km)
9.5 8.0 8.7 (8.3) 7.4 (7.5) n.a. 9.2 (9.2) 9.0 (9.0) n.a. n.a. 9.0 (8.8) n.a. 7.0 (7.0)
[12]
  • Specifications in brackets: Automatic transmission models
Notes
  1. ^ Automatic models in Austria with reduced final gear ratio: only 170 km/h

References[edit]

  1. ^ Oswald, Werner (2001). Deutsche Autos 1945–1990, Band 4, 1. Auflage. Stuttgart: Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN 3-613-02131-5. 
  2. ^ "1982 BMW 528e specifications". www.automobile-catalog.com. 
  3. ^ "BMW E28 5 Series 518i Specs". www.ultimatespecs.com. Retrieved 13 May 2017. 
  4. ^ "The BMW 5 Series History. The 2nd Generation (E28)". www.youtube.com/BMW. Retrieved 27 January 2017. 
  5. ^ BMW: 518 520i 525i 528i. February 1982.
  6. ^ a b Büschi, Hans-Ulrich, ed. (March 5, 1987). Automobil Revue 1987 (in German and French). 82. Berne, Switzerland: Hallwag AG. ISBN 3-444-00458-3. 
  7. ^ Heitz, Rudolf, ed. (1983). Auto Katalog 1984 (in German). 27. Stuttgart: Vereinigte Motor-Verlage GmbH & Co. KG. p. 242. 
  8. ^ "Curbside Classic: 1984 BMW 528e – The Low Rev Modest Driving Machine". www.curbsideclassic.com. Retrieved 15 May 2017. 
  9. ^ BMW: 525e 525e Katalysator. 1985
  10. ^ "BMW E28 5 Series 533i (US) Specs". www.ultimatespecs.com. Retrieved 2 July 2017. 
  11. ^ "1984 BMW 533i E28 specifications". www.carfolio.com. Retrieved 2 July 2017. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i BMW AG, ed. (1985-08) (in German), [bmw-grouparchiv.de Betriebsanleitung, Serviceheft 518, 520i, 525e, 525i, 528i, 535i, M535i, 524td], bmw-grouparchiv.de. Retrieved 2017-02-20 
  13. ^ BMW: BMW 528e, 533i
  14. ^ BMW M88/3 Automobilmotor
  15. ^ BMW: S38B35 Automobilmotor
  16. ^ "5' E28 model selection". www.realoem.com. 
  17. ^ "1988 BMW M5 values". www.hagerty.com. Retrieved 24 October 2017. 
  18. ^ "FAQ E28 M5". www.bmwmregistry.com. Retrieved 24 October 2017. 
  19. ^ Taylor, James (February 2016). BMW M5: The Complete Story. Ramsbury, Marlborough Wiltshire: The Crowood Press UK. ISBN 1785000462. Retrieved 20 March 2017. 
  20. ^ "M5 E28". www.africanmusclecars.com. Retrieved 16 December 2013. 
  21. ^ 518, 520i, 525i, 528i. Pages 6 and 50