BMW i3

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For the gasoline-powered city car manufactured by Aixam, see Mega City (car).
BMW i3
BMW i3 01.jpg
2014 BMW i3
Overview
Manufacturer BMW
Also called BMW Mega City Vehicle
Production 2013–present
Model years 2014–present
Assembly Leipzig, Germany
Designer Richard Kim[1][2]
Body and chassis
Class City car (A)
Body style 5-door hatchback
Layout Transverse rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive
Powertrain
Engine W20K06U0 25 kW 647 cc, two-cylinder generator (optional) with a fuel tank capacity of
9 L (2.4 US gal) in Europe[3]
7.2 L (1.9 US gal) in the U.S.[4]
Electric motor 125 kW (168 bhp)[5]
Transmission Single speed with fixed ratio[6]
Battery i3 60 Ah: 22 (18.8 usable) kWh lithium-ion battery[7]
i3 94 Ah: 33 kWh lithium-ion battery[8]
Electric range BEV 60 Ah
130 km (81 mi) EPA[9]
130 to 160 km (80 to 100 mi) NEDC[6]
BEV 94 Ah
183 km (114 mi) EPA[8]
REx 60 Ah (with range extender)
116 km (72 mi) (EPA)[10]
Total: 240 km (150 mi) (EPA)[10]
REx 94 Ah(with range extender)
156 km (97 mi)
Total: 290 km (180 mi).[11]
Plug-in charging 7.4 kW on-board charger on IEC Combo AC, optional Combo DC
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,570 mm (101 in)[6]
Length 3,999 mm (157.4 in)[6]
Width 1,775 mm (69.9 in)[6]
Height 1,578 mm (62.1 in)[6]
Curb weight 60 Ah: 1,195 kg (2,635 lb)[6]
60 Ah: 1,315 kg (2,899 lb) (with range extender)[6]

The BMW i3 is a five-door urban electric car developed by the German car manufacturer BMW. The i3 is part of BMW's "Project i" and was launched as a new brand, BMW i.[12][13][14][15][16] The i3 is BMW's first zero emissions mass-produced vehicle due to its electric powertrain, and BMW is the first company to launch a volume production vehicle on the market featuring carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer to improve the vehicle's energy consumption.[17] Until November 2016, the BMW i3 was the most fuel efficient EPA-certified vehicle of all years regardless of fuel type, while the i3 REx continues to rank as the most efficient EPA-certified current year vehicle with a gasoline engine in terms of its combined gasoline/electricity rating.[18][19][20]

The BMW i3's official range is 130 to 160 km (80 to 100 mi) for the 60 Ah battery option under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), and up to 200 km (120 mi) in the most efficient driving mode.[6] Under the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cycle the official range is 130 km (81 mi) with combined fuel economy of 124 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent —MPGe— (1.90 L/100 km; 149 mpg imp). BMW is offering a range extender (“REx”) option powered by a 647 cc two-cylinder gasoline engine with a small fuel tank that engages when the battery level drops to a pre-specified point, acting purely as a generator to produce electricity to extend the range to 240 km (150 mi) for the model with the 60 Ah battery under the EPA test cycle.[10]

In July 2016, BMW released the 2017 model year (MY) BMW i3 94 Ah with an improved 33 kWh battery pack with 50% more capacity than the previous model resulting in an increase of its range to 183 km (114 mi) under the EPA cycle,[8] and 300 km (190 mi) under the NEDC test.[21][22] The Range Extender (REx) variant also features the same higher capacity battery as the all-electric model, with a corresponding all-electric range increase to 156 km (97 mi) under EPA testing cycle, for a total range of 290 km (180 mi).[11]

The i3 concept car was unveiled at the 2011 International Motor Show Germany.[12][23] and the production version was unveiled in July 2013.[24] Mass production of the i3 began in September 2013 and retail deliveries started in Europe in November 2013.[25][26] Deliveries in the U.S. began in May 2014.[27] Pricing in the United States starts at US$42,275 before any government incentives, and the range extender option costs an additional US$3,850. Prices in Germany start from 34,950 € (US$46,400).[24][28] Pricing in the UK starts at GB£30,680 (US$47,195) before the applicable government grant.[29]

The i3 ranked third among all-electric cars sold worldwide for three years running, from 2014 to 2016.[30][31][32][33] Global i3 sales passed the 50,000 unit milestone in July 2016.[34] Three years after its introduction, the i3 is the top selling BMW electrified model, representing 60% of combined BMW i and BMW iPerformance models.[35] As of December 2016, the i3 ranked as the world's third best selling all-electric car in history with more than 65,000 units sold since its inception.[30] The U.S. is its best-selling market with 24,741 units sold.[21][36][37]

Among other awards and recognition, the BMW i3 won two World Car of the Year Awards selected as 2014 World Green Car of the Year and also as 2014 World Car Design of the Year. The i3 was also given an iF Product Design Gold Award, and, in the first UK Car of the Year Awards, it won in two categories: UK Car of the Year 2014 and Best Supermini of 2014.

History[edit]

First sketch of the Mega City Vehicle (MCV).

In February 2011, BMW announced a new sub-brand, BMW i, to market the vehicles produced under Project i. BMW i vehicles are to be sold separately from BMW or Mini. The first two production models are the all-electric Mega City Vehicle (MCV), now called BMW i3, and a plug-in hybrid called BMW i8, which is the production version of the Vision Efficient Dynamics concept unveiled at the 2009 International Motor Show Germany and has an all-electric range of 50 kilometres (31 mi). Production of both plug-in electric cars was scheduled to start in Leipzig in 2013.[16][38]

The i3 concept car was unveiled at the 2011 International Motor Show Germany.[12][23] BMW showcased a BMW i3 prototype during the 2012 Summer Olympics in London,[39] and the production version was unveiled in July 2013.[24]

BMW unveiled the i3 Concept Coupé study at the 2012 Los Angeles Auto Show. The carmaker developed the concept car to demonstrate the potential for extending the model range. The three-door hatchback coupe, like the five-door i3 electric hatchback sedan, is propelled by an electric motor developed by the BMW Group, with a maximum output of 125 kW/170 hp and peak torque of 250 N·m (184 lb-ft). Power delivery to the rear wheels is via a single-speed transmission. The li-ion battery pack is placed under the floor and can deliver an all-electric range of 160 km (99 mi), but a gasoline engine referred to as "REx", can be added to extend the car's range to 320 km (200 mi).[40][41]

As of November 2015, the i3 ranked as the world's third best selling all-electric car in history.[42] Global sales of the BMW i3 achieved the 50,000 unit milestone in July 2016.[34] Three years after its introduction, total global sales totaled more than 60,000 units, making the i3 the world's top selling plug-in electric car in the premium compact segment, and the top selling BMW electrified model, representing 60% of combined BMW i and BMW iPerformance models.[35] As of December 2016, the i3 ranked as the world's third best selling all-electric car in history with about 65,500 units delivered.[30]

Design and technology[edit]

The BMW ActiveE began field testing in early 2012 with several of the same electronic components proposed to be used in the BMW i3.

BMW explained that taking advantage of the fact that the vehicle does not need an internal combustion engine up front, the i3 is being designed from the ground up, but avoiding to look podlike, with a dynamic sweep of the roof and the beltine to make it look sportier than most electrics.[43] In order to achieve a lightweight car, the i3 will be the first mass production car to have most of its internal structure and body being made of carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP).[17][39][43] Like other BMW models before it, the i3 features door panels made of hemp, which mixed with plastic helps lower the weight of each panel by about 10%. Hemp fibers, left exposed, also form a design element of the car's interior. Benoit Jacob, BMW i Head of Design, said the use of natural materials like hemp and kenaf makes the i3's interior feel like "a small loft on wheels."[44][45] As of November 2010, BMW had demonstrated only the light weight of the passenger compartment, and the automaker's chief executive said they had already decided on the basic design of the car and that road-testing prototypes began soon after.[46]

The i3 features four doors and seating for four occupants just that it has rear suicide doors, with dimensions being slightly larger than the Mini Cooper, but smaller than the BMW 1 Series. The i3 is powered by a newly developed powertrain consisting of a 130-kilowatt (170 hp) electric motor running on lithium-ion batteries and driving the rear axle.[39] BMW aimed to achieve a range of 160 km (100 mi), the same range that was expected for the BMW ActiveE, but in order to reduce weight with a battery capacity of 16 kWh instead of the ActiveE's 30 kWh.[14]

BMW i3 concept car exhibited at the 2011 International Motor Show Germany

The BMW i3 has two pedals like all cars with automatic transmission. The accelerator pedal acts as both accelerator and engine brake. When the driver releases the pedal, the vehicle's kinetic energy is regenerated by the vehicle drivetrain to recharge the battery. This has the effect of slowing the car down. During the field testing of the Mini E, which features an accelerator that recharges the battery in this way, and consists of brakes that only apply to the rear wheels, BMW has learned that drivers tend to rely on the engine brake: around 75% of all deceleration maneuvers are initiated without the brake pedal in urban traffic areas.[14] BMW also expected the i3 to use the same type of battery and powertrain that is being tested in the BMW ActiveE trials.[15]

The prototype presented at the 2011 International Motor Show Germany had a 22 kWh (79 MJ) lithium-ion battery pack that is expected to deliver between 130 to 160 km (80 to 100 mi) and the battery was fully charged in about four hours with the 240-volt charging unit. The i3 was expected to go from 0 to 100 km/h (0 to 60 mph) in less than eight seconds.[12][23] The BMW i3 features a 130 kW (170 hp) electric motor mounted on the rear axle to drive the rear wheels and the top speed is limited to 150 km/h (93 mph).[47]

BMW i3 charging

BMW designed the i3 eDrive powertrain based on the premise that the battery would need to be recharged only once every two to three days. The charging frequency was derived from field trial results taken from the BMW ActiveE and MINI E vehicles in Asia, Europe and the U.S., whereby the typical commuting use between the pilot users' homes and workplaces was calculated.[48]

In June 2012 an updated version of the BMW i3 concept car was unveiled at the opening of the first BMW i store, located on Park Lane in London, UK. The updated i3 concept consists of a new interior colour and materials concept. The seat covers combine responsibly sourced wool and leather naturally tanned with an olive oil leaf-based agent. The almost symmetrical curving dash is inlaid with treated eucalyptus wood that, according to BMW, is sourced from sustainably managed European forests.[49][50]

Information is provided to the driver through a 16.5 cm (6.5 in) freestanding instrument cluster and a 22.3 cm (8.8 in) central information display. The bench-derived front seats replace the center tunnel that bisected the cabin and a floor-mounted transmission, brake levers or center console are also absent.[49][50]

Charging and connectivity[edit]

Main controls and digital screens of the BMW i3.

The i3 allows the owner to charge the battery from a conventional socket. The BMW i3 has a number of charging functions. AC fast charging can take less than 3 hours with the use of the BMW i Wallbox Pure, when charging from 0 to 80%. The i3 also has a rapid charging option suitable for public DC charging stations and can take less than 30 minutes to charge from 0% to 80%.[51] In the US, it can also be charged from any public charging station with an SAE J1772 connector.[52] In 2016, BMW and the PG&E utility in California expanded an experiment of delaying charge-up during peak demand and compensating i3 owners for the delay.[53]

BMW claims that the i3 is the first fully online all-electric vehicle,[54] but the Tesla Model S has had full 3G Internet connectivity since 2012.[55]

Operating modes[edit]

The BMW i3 allows the driver to select the car energy consumption through three different drive modes: Comfort, Eco Pro or Eco Pro+ mode. In the standard Comfort mode the i3 delivers a range between 130 to 160 km (80 to 100 mi) in everyday driving conditions, while the i3 REx delivers between 260 to 290 km (160 to 180 mi).[4][56] The Eco Pro mode increases the driving range by around 12% through a different accelerator pedal mapping which uses less power. In Eco Pro+ mode, all settings are geared to achieving the maximum possible range, increasing the driving range by about 24% compared with Comfort mode. In this mode the maximum speed of the BMW i3 is limited to 90 km/h (56 mph) and electrical devices such as the heating and air conditioning are switched to energy-saving mode.[4][56][57][58]

Range extender option (REx)[edit]

BMW is offering a petrol/gasoline range extender engine as an option.[39] The range extender is powered by the same 647 cc two-cylinder engine used in the BMW C650 GT maxi-scooter. The range extender engine operates only when the battery level drops to a pre-specified point, acting purely as a generator to produce electricity to extend the range to about 320 km (200 mi) for the European version.[59] The European version has a 9 L (2.0 imp gal; 2.4 US gal) fuel tank while the American version has a smaller 7.2 L (1.6 imp gal; 1.9 US gal) fuel tank.[3] The actual tank size is still 2.4 gallons, but is software limited so the fuel pump shuts off after using 1.9 gallons.[60] Under EPA five-cycle testing, the i3 REx has a total range of 240 km (150 mi).[10]

The electric motor is located between the rear wheels. The empty space at the right of the motor is reserved to accommodate the range-extending gasoline engine.

The i3 performance in range-extending mode may be more limited than when it is running on battery power, as BMW clarified the range extender is designed not for long-distance travel but purely as an emergency backup to keep the electric system going until the next recharging location.[61] According to BMW, at the beginning of the i3 release, the use of range-extender was much more than the carmaker expected, more than 60%. Over time it has decreased significantly, with some people almost never using it, and by 2016 it is being regularly used in fewer than 5% of i3s.[62]

The United States Environmental Protection Agency's 2014 edition of the "Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends" introduced utility factors for plug-in hybrids to represent the percentage distance driven using electricity by an average driver, in electric-only or blended modes. The BMW i3 REx, classified as a plug-in hybrid by the EPA, has a utility factor in EV mode of 83%, compared with 66% for the Chevrolet Volt, 65% for the Cadillac ELR, 45% for the Ford Energi models, 37% for the BMW i8, 33% for the Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid, and 29% for the Toyota Prius PHV.[63]

California's classification[edit]

The range-extender option of the BMW i3 was designed to meet the California Air Resources Board (CARB) regulation for an auxiliary power unit (APU) called REx. According to rules adopted in March 2012 by CARB, the 2014 BMW i3 with a REx unit fitted is the first car ever to qualify as a range-extended battery-electric vehicle or "BEVx". CARB describes this type of electric vehicle as "a relatively high-electric range battery-electric vehicle (BEV) to which an APU is added." The unit, which maintains battery charge at about 30% after the pack has been depleted in normal use, is strictly limited in the additional range it can provide, and delivers a minimum 75 mi (121 km) electric range.[64][65]

CARB classified the i3 with the REx option as a "Transitional Zero Emission Vehicle" (TZEV), the same classification as other plug-in hybrids such as the Chevrolet Volt and the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid. This classification made the i3 REx eligible for California's green sticker that identifies the vehicles allowed to be operated by a single occupant in California's high-occupancy vehicle lanes (HOV), or carpool or diamond lanes, but not for the white sticker reserved for pure electric cars, such as the BMW i3 without REx.[66][67] In addition, CARB certification of the i3 REx as BEVx allows the i3 with range extender to be eligible for a US$2,500 Clean Vehicle Rebate, the same amount eligible pure electric cars are entitled to. Other plug-in hybrids are eligible for only a US$1,500 purchase rebate.[65][68]

Fuel economy and range[edit]

BMW i3 badge

Under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) the official range is 130 to 160 km (80 to 100 mi), and up to 200 km (120 mi) in the most efficient driving mode.[6] Under the NEDC cycle, the energy consumption is 0.21 kWh/per mile. The model with the range extender option has an official NEDC total range of 257 to 299 km (160 to 186 mi).[69]

Under its five-cycle testing, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rated the 2014 through 2016 model year all-electric BMW i3 (60 A·h) energy consumption at 27 kWh/100 mi (16.9 kWh/ 100 km) with a combined fuel economy at 124  miles per gallon gasoline equivalent – MPGe – (1.90 L/100 km; 149 mpg imp) with an all-electric range of 130 km (81 mi).[9][70] With these ratings the all-electric BMW i3 was the most fuel efficient EPA-certified vehicle sold in the United States of all years regardless of fuel type until November 2016, when it was surpassed by the Hyundai Ioniq Electric, rated at 136 MPGe (25 kWh/100 mi).[18][19][20] The range-extended model has lower ratings than the all-electric i3 due to the extra weight of the twin-cylinder gasoline engine used in the i3 REx.[10] Nevertheless, the i3 REx in 2014 replaced the Chevrolet Volt as the most efficient EPA-certified current year vehicle with a gasoline engine.[18][71]

The BMW i3 with the 94 A·h battery has a range of 114 mi (183 km), an increase of 33 mi (53 km) over the 60 A·h variant. The i3 94 A·h combined fuel economy rating is 118 mpg-e, down from 124 mpg-e for the model with the 60 A·h battery.[8] The 2017 BMW i3 REx with the larger 94 A·h battery has an EPA-rated range of 97 mi (156 km), and combined fuel economy rating is 111 mpg-e. The range using the gasoline-powered engine increased to 83 mi (134 km) from 78 mi (126 km) in the previous versions.[11]

The following are the EPA ratings for both all-electric variants and the range-extended model.

BMW i3 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ratings
Model Year
model
Fuel/EV range Combined City/ Highway Notes
BEV
(94 A·h)
2017 114 mi (183 km) 118 mpg-e
(29 kW-hrs/100 mi)
129 mpg-e/
106 mpg-e
BEV
(60 A·h)
2014
2015
2016
81 mi (130 km) 124 mpg-e
(27 kW-hrs/100 mi)
137 mpg-e
(25 kW-hrs/100 mi)/
111 mpg-e
(30 kW-hrs/100 mi)
[a]
REx
(94 A·h)
2017 Electricity only
97 mi (156 km)
111 mpg-e
(30 kWh/100 mi)
- [b]
Gasoline only
83 mi (134 km)
35 mpg‑US (6.7 L/100 km) -
REx
(60 A·h)
2014
2015
2016
Electricity only
72 mi (116 km)
117 mpg-e
(29 kW-hrs/100 mi)
97 mpg‑e (35 kW·h/100 mi)/
79 mpg‑e (44 kW·h/100 mi)
Gasoline only
78 mi (126 km)
39 mpg‑US (6.0 L/100 km) 41 mpg‑US (5.7 L/100 km)/
37 mpg‑US (6.4 L/100 km)
Source: EPA[9][71][70][72][73][75]
Notes:
  1. ^ Between May 2014 and October 2016 the all-electric BMW i3 was the most fuel efficient EPA-certified vehicle of all years regardless of fuel type.[18][19][20]
  2. ^ The EPA classifies the i3 REx as a series plug-in hybrid or EREV[9][72][73][74] while CARB as a range-extended battery-electric vehicle (BEVx).[65] Since June 2014 the BMW i3 REx is the most fuel efficient EPA-certified vehicle current year vehicle with a gasoline engine (in terms of combined gasoline/electricity rating).[18][19][71]

Safety[edit]

2014 i3 frontal view
2014 i3 rear view

The European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP) awarded the i3 a four-star car safety rating, resulting in the following ratings for each criterion:

Euro NCAP test results
BMW i3 (2013)[76]
Test Points %
Overall: 4 /5 stars
Adult occupant: 31 86%
Child occupant: 40 81%
Pedestrian: 21 57%
Safety assist: 5 55%

The BMW i3's overall ratings are lower than the other six best-selling plug-in electric vehicles, the Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid, Renault Zoe, Nissan Leaf, Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, Chevrolet Volt and Opel Ampera, all of which were rated five stars.[77]

Additional mobility[edit]

BMW i offers additional mobility packages for trips where the range of an BMW i3 would not be enough to allow customers to cover longer distances, such as providing a conventional BMW vehicle for a specified number of days per year.[48] The program started in October 2014 in the US and individual dealers can choose to participate in this program or not.[78] BMW is also offering a roadside assistance program in areas of high sales. The assistance vehicle will provide a charge so the i3 can travel to the next charging station. In addition, the i3 digital display panel shows the location of nearby recharging stations to alleviate range anxiety.[79]

2017 model[edit]

In October 2015, BMW CEO Harald Krüger announced that the i3 will get more range in 2016 (model year 2017).[80] In May 2016, BMW announced that the 2017 model year (MY) BMW i3 will come with a 33 kWh battery, up from 22 kWh in the previous model, allowing to increase the range up to 114 mi (183 km) under everyday conditions, up from the 81 mi (130 km) EPA rated range. BMW expected to achieve an EPA rated electricity consumption of 27 kWh/100 mi (16.9 kWh/ 100 km). The improved battery pack capacity was increased by more than 50% without any changes in exterior dimensions. BMW and Samsung SDI optimized the cell-internal packages with more electrolyte and adapted the active material, resulting in higher energy density of the lithium ion cells that increased battery capacity to 94 A·h and overall battery energy to 33 kWh of which 27.2 kWh can be effectively used. The previous battery capacity was 60 Ah and produced 22 kWh (gross) with a net capacity of 19 kWh.[21] The improved battery has an upgraded electronics package that features new software mapping for the battery cooling system and the electric motor. The 94 A·h battery pack fits both the all-electric i3 and the i3 with the range extender.[81]

Under the New European Driving Cycle the 2017 all-electric i3 is expected to achieve 300 km (190 mi) (or 200 km (120 mi) by BMW test),[82] up from 190 km (120 mi).[22] Under the EPA cycle, the i3 with the 94 A·h achieved the expected 114 mi (183 km) range, but with a higher energy consumption of 29 kWh/100 mi, up from 27 kWh/100 mi for the 2016 model. The i3 94 A·h combined fuel economy rating is 118 mpg-e, down from 124 mpg-e for the variant with the 60 A·h battery.[8] The lower ratings are the result of the heavier 94 A·h battery.[83]

Comparison of EPA-rated range for electric cars rated up until March 2017 and priced under US$50,000 in the U.S. Only model year 2016 and 2017 cars, and the upcoming Model 3 are included.[84][85]

The Range Extender (REx) variant will also feature the same higher capacity battery as the all-electric model, with a corresponding all-electric range increase. The 2017 REx model will offer additional range in the American market thanks to a fuel tank that is 25% larger than the previous model with capacity for 2.4 US gal (9.1 l; 2.0 imp gal).[21] This is actually the same tank the i3 has always been manufactured with and used outside the U.S., but BMW had locked out the tank’s last half-gallon of capacity in the American market to meet California's ZEV requirements for vehicles with range extender, as the car had more gasoline-powered range than all-electric range, which would affect its status as a zero-emissions vehicle (ZEV) in California. Since the 2017 model years delivers an increased all-electric range that now exceeds its gas-powered range, BMW was able to unlock the full tank without affecting its ZEV status.[86]

The 2017 model year i3 was released in the United States and Europe in July 2016. According to BMW, orders for the larger battery i3 exceed 7,000 units, with a total of 2,358 i3s delivered worldwide in July 2016, up 33.7% year-on-year.[87] Sales also surged in the U.S. with 1,479 units sold in July 2016, up 58.2% from July 2015, and 143.3% from June 2016.[88] Both variants with the improved battery were scheduled to be available in the UK, Germany and France starting in July 2016.[22][89][90] Owners of previous i3 models in selected markets have the option to retrofit their vehicles with the improved battery. BMW plans to use the used 22 kWh batteries in the manufacturing of stationary power storage units.[22][90] The battery retrofit option is not available in the U.S.[91]

Production[edit]

The BMW i3 range extender version (REx) has the gasoline fuel door located at the right front side of the car.

BMW is manufacturing carbon strands that form the basis of the i3's carbon-fiber reinforced plastic bodywork at a new US$100 million plant built in Moses Lake, Washington, using raw material shipped from Japan. This location was selected to take advantage of the abundant hydroelectric power available in this U.S. region because carbon-fiber production requires considerable energy and would otherwise emit much carbon dioxide. Electricity in this region also costs about one-seventh of what it costs in Germany, providing a financially beneficial reason for the Moses Lake location. The carbon fiber is then shipped to Landshut, Germany, where the carbon-fiber reinforced plastic parts are fabricated, and the vehicle assembly line is located in Leipzig.[14][92]

In November 2010, the Leipzig plant was inaugurated, with an investment in the production that amounts to 400 million € euros (US$561 million) through 2013. The plant is located at BMW's complex that already produces variants of the 1 Series model.[46] A concept version of the BMW i3 Coupe reflecting the current status of ongoing development was presented at the March 2013 Geneva Motor Show.[93] The production vehicle was officially unveiled simultaneously in New York, London and Beijing on 29 July 2013.[24] Series production for retail customers began on 18 September 2013, and the first vehicle off the production line was handed over to German marathon runner Jan Fitschen. The car was used as the lead vehicle at the 2013 Berlin Marathon on September 29.[25][94]

As of February 2014, BMW was producing an average of 70 cars a day, about half the planned production. The lower production output was attributed to a high defect rate in the carbon parts. The company planned to invest about 100 million € in the production of carbon parts to solve the supply problems. According to BMW, there were 11,000 orders at the time, including 1,200 from U.S. customers. As a result of the high demand and the slow production rate, delivery waiting time extended to September 2014.[95][96]

Markets and sales[edit]

The first i3 deliveries to retail customers in Europe took place at an official market launch ceremony held in Munich on 15 November 2013.[97] The first delivery to a retail customer in the U.S. took place in May 2014.[27] Global sales passed the 10,000 unit mark in September 2014,[98] and the 25,000 unit milestone in May 2015.[99] According to BMW, as of November 2015, 80% of i3 buyers are new to the brand.[42] As of May 2016, the BMW i3 was available in 50 countries.[21] After the i3 was launched in 2013, BMW, like many other EV carmakers, faced weak reception of its electric car lineup.[100][101] BMW planned to sell at least 30,000 units from 2014.[102] Global i3 sales passed the 50,000 unit milestone in July 2016.[34]

Norway has the largest BMW i3 market penetration per capita in the world.[103]

A total of 1,477 were registered in 2013 in Europe,[104] 16,052 units were sold worldwide in 2014,[105] and global sales totaled 24,057 units in 2015.[106] About 25,500 units were delivered worldwide in 2016, up 6% from 2015.[30] The i3 ranked third among all-electric cars sold worldwide in 2014, after the Nissan Leaf and the Tesla Model S.[31][32] The BMW i3 was again the world's third best selling all-electric car both in 2015 and 2016.[30][33] As of November 2016, the i3 ranked as the global top selling electric vehicle in the premium compact segment.[35] As of December 2016, the i3 ranked as the world's third best selling all-electric car in history, and the seventh top selling plug-in electric car ever.[30]

Since its introduction, global cumulative sales totaled more than 60,000 units by early November 2016, three years after its market launch, making the i3 the top selling BMW electrified model, representing 60% of combined BMW i and BMW iPerformance models.[35] As of December 2016, the United States is the i3 top selling market with 24,741 units sold since its inception.[21][36][37] The other top markets are Norway with 8,034 new units registered,[107][108][109][110] Germany with 7,493 units registered through October 2016,[111][112][113][114] both through November 2016, and the UK with almost 6,000 units sold through October 2016.[115]

The Norwegian market has the world's largest i3 penetration per capita due to its population size,[103] and during the first ten months of 2015 the BMW i3 was the best-selling model across the entire BMW range available in Norway.[42] In November 2016, the BMW i3 topped new passenger car sales in Norway.[116] The i3 was the best selling electric car in Germany since it was launched in November 2013 through November 2015, and also it ranks as the third best selling all-electric car in the United States.[42]

Asia-Pacific[edit]

BMW plans to offer the BMW i3 in South Korea and Japan. Sales in Korean market were scheduled to begin in April 2014.[117] Deliveries in Singapore are slated for late 2014.[118]

BMW i3 in New Zealand
Australia

Deliveries in Australia are scheduled to begin in November 2014. Pricing starts at A$63,990 (US$60,050) for the all-electric version and A$69,900 (US$65,600) for the model with the range extender option.[119] Sales have been consistent but low due to the lack of incentives or Government grants. BMW Australia to their credit have been actively lobbying the Australian government to provide incentives like those offered in Northern America to allow more customers to purchase however no incentive has been offered before so is unlikely to occur in the near future.

China

Retail sales began on 21 September 2014. Pricing starts at CN¥449,000 (~US$73,000). Initial sales were limited to seven dealerships in Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen and Shenyang.[120] As of March 2015, the i3 is also available in Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Hangzhou.[121] BMW expected combined sales of around 1,000 units for its i3 and i8 models through December 2014.[120] In Shanghai, where new car registrations are limited to 50,000 vehicles a year and sold by public auction, owners of the BMW i3 are eligible for one of 3,000 free license plates available for imported electric cars. Due to the inadequate charging infrastructure in China, BMW plans to install 50 charging stations in Shanghai in partnership with State Grid Shanghai Electric Vehicle Co.[122] As of November 2015, the BMW i3 is the only imported electric vehicle in China which can be purchased tax-free and avoids the local licence plate lottery.[42]

Japan
Interior

A special version of the BMW i3 was developed for Japan to accommodate the low height of the car parking spaces in the country.[42] As of April 2015, there were 46 dealers selling the i3 in Japan, and since April 1, online sales began in the country through Amazon.com. After placing the car in their virtual shopping carts, customers have to wait for a call from BMW, and produce documents showing they have a parking space and access to a charging station.[123]

Europe[edit]

Since July 2013 a total of 1,477 units were registered in Europe through December 2013,[104] including about 400 press fleet vehicles and dealer demonstrators.[124] During its first year in the market, a total of 5,804 all-electric i3s and 3,940 REx variants were sold in Europe, totalling 9,744 i3s sold in 2015. The model with the REx variant ranked as the third best selling plug-in hybrid in the region, while the pure electric variant ranked fourth among the top selling all-electric cars.[125][126] During 2015 i3 sales totaled 12,047 units, with the i3 REx outselling the pure electric variant, 6,566 to 5,481, and achieving a growth of 67% from 2014.[126] As of December 2015, cumulative sales in the region totaled 23,268 units since its inception in late 2013.[104][125][126]

Denmark

A total of 138 i3s were registered in Denmark in 2014.[127] BMW introduced a fleet of 400 all-electric i3s to the DriveNow carsharing service in Copenhagen, which is interconned with the city's public transportation service.[128]

France
BMW i3 charging at an Autolib' carsharing station in Paris.

Pricing in France starts at 34,990 € before the applicable government incentive, and the range extender option costs an additional 4,710 €.[129] The BMW i3 is one of the plug-in electric cars that is compatible with Autolib' charging network in Paris. The i3 is also compatible with the carsharing networks of Bluely in Lyon and Bluecub in Bordeaux. Private owners can access this network through a montlhy or annual subscription.[130] Registrations totaled 68 units in 2013.[131] During 2014 a total of 193 all-electric i3s were sold in the country,[131] and 414 units with the REx option (68.29%).[132] Cumulative registrations reached 1,497 units by the end of December 2015.[131][132][133]

Germany

Prices in Germany start from 34,950 €[28] and deliveries to retail customers began in Munich on 15 November 2013.[97] A total of 559 were registered during 2013.[111] The BMW i3 ranked as the top selling plug-in electric car in the country during the first quarter of 2014, representing 34.5% of the segment sales.[134] The i3 ended 2014 as the segment's top selling car with 2,233 units registered in the country through December 2014.[135] Most of the i3s sold in Germany are equipped with the range-extender engine.[136] As of November 2016, cumulative registrations totaled 7,493 units,[111][112][113][114] of which, 2,430 were registered during the first eleven months of 2016.[114]

Italy

Released in October 2013 a total of 34 units were sold in Italy in 2013.[137] Cumulative sales totaled 162 units through July 2014, of which, 45 are REx models sold during the first seven months of 2014.[137][138]

Netherlands
BMW i3 charging in Amsterdam

Prices in the Netherlands start at 35,500 € and the range extender option costs an additional 4,490 €. Deliveries were scheduled to begin in November 2013.[139] A total of 252 units were registered in the country in 2013, and 545 in 2014.[140][141] Cumulative sales totaled 1,371 i3s through December 2015.[140][141][142]

Norway

Deliveries of the BMW i3 in Norway began on 16 November 2013 at a price of 237,100 kroner, with a choice of three "trims" presented to consumers.[143] According to BMW, there were more than 2,000 orders in the country, but only 50 units were allocated for the Norwegian market in 2013; BMW planned to deliver another 1,500 in 2014, thus extending deliveries far into 2015.[144] Sales through December 2013 totaled 51 units.[107] Accounting for new car sales during 2014, the i3 listed among the 20th best selling new passenger car in Norway almost every month, and ended the year with 2,040 units sold, and a market share of 1.5% of new car sales in 2014.[108][145]

Cumulative registrations reached 8,034 units through November 2016, of which, 3,540 were sold during the first eleven months of 2016.[107][108][109][110] The BMW i3 was the top selling new car model in the country in November 2016, capturing a market share of 7.7% of new car sales.[110][116] As of November 2016, Norway is the world's second largest market for the BMW i3, accounting for more than 13% of total i3 production since inception.[146]

Spain

Launched in November 2013, a total of 27 units were sold in 2013.[147] As of December 2014, cumulative sales totaled 231 units.[147][148]

Sweden

A total of 11 units were sold in 2013. Of these, 10 units sold with the range extender option, which in Sweden is classified as plug-in hybrid. The all-electric version is accounted separately.[149] As of December 2014, cumulative sales totaled 221 units, of which, 64.3% are REx models (142 units).[150]

Switzerland

A total of 106 units were registered in 2013 and 390 in 2014.[151] During the first half of 2014 the i3 was the third best selling plug-in electric car in the country, with a 20% market share of the plug-in segment sales.[152] During the first nine months of 2015, all variants of the i3 totaled 588 units registered, ranking second after the Tesla Model S (1,146). The REx variant represented 65.8% of the model registrations during that period.[153] Cumulative registrations totaled 1,499 units through May 2016.[151][154]

United Kingdom

The BMW i3 was officially launched in the UK on 6 November 2013. The i3 is available in the UK with four different interiors: Standard, Loft, Lodge and Suite.[26] Pricing in the UK starts at GB£30,680 before the applicable government grant. Leasing for a 36-month contract starts at GB£369 per month including VAT, plus an initial payment of GB£2,995 including VAT.[29][155] Pricing of the BMW i3 with the range extender option starts at GB£33,830 before government incentives and leasing for the model with Suite interior is GB£480 per month including VAT.[26]

According to BMW, the UK is one of the main i3 markets.[103] As of September 2014, a total of 1,029 units had been sold in the UK, of which, 575 (56%) were range extended versions.[156] A total of 4,457 units were registered at the end of June 2016, of which, 3,131 (70%) were models with the REx option.[157] As of October 2016, almost 6,000 i3s have been sold in the UK since 2013.[115]

North America[edit]

Canada

Sales began in Canada in May 2014, starting at a price of CA$44,950 before any available government incentives. The optional range extender cost an additional CA$4,000.[158][159] As of December 2015, registrations totaled 573 units consisting of 218 all-electric units (38%) and 355 with the REx option (62%).[160]

United States

Several BMW i3s with California's HOV lane access stickers. The i3 with range-extender has the green sticker while the pure electric i3 displays the white sticker.

The first delivery to a retail customer in the U.S. took place in Boston on 2 May 2014.[27] During the first three months, U.S. bounded production was restricted to a special "Launch Edition" i3, with the full option package and the Tera World interior. The only choices customers had at launch were the exterior paint color, the 20″ Sport wheels, and the range extender. Production of normal custom ordered models was scheduled to begin in June. As thanks for their participation in the trial lease program, ActiveE drivers enjoyed priority ordering and the first batch of i3s was allocated to these customers. ActiveE customers were also allowed to order the i3 with any option they select and received the heated seats and DC quick charge options free of charge. Also, BMW created some unique features for the i3 cars of ActiveE drivers, such as embroidered front trunk liner and BMW i floor mats, and interior, exterior and door sill badging. BMW called these cars the “Electronaut Edition i3″.[161]

The American market launch was limited to Los Angeles, San Francisco, Sacramento, San Diego, Austin and New York City, plus suburban areas of New Jersey and Connecticut.[162][163] Pricing in the U.S. starts at US$42,275 before any applicable government incentives, and the range extender option costs an additional US$3,850.[24][28] Both the all-electric and REx versions are eligible for a federal tax credit of up to US$7,500.[164] In California both the all-electric and REx versions are also eligible for a Clean Vehicle Rebate of US$2,500.[165] However the REx (BEx) version is eligible for California's green sticker reserved for plug-in hybrids that allows access to California's high-occupancy vehicle lanes (HOV), while the BEV version is eligible for the white sticker reserved for pure electric cars.[66][67]

BMW i3 in San Francisco

The i3 is available in three trim levels, Mega World, the standard model in the US, Giga World and the top-of-the-line Tera World. The base Mega World comes standard with 19-inch forged aluminum wheels, BMW Navigation, BMW ConnectedDrive with eCall, the BMW i Remote, an alarm, 7.4 kW on-board charger and LED headlights, DRLs and tail lights. The interior is donned in bright, lightweight Sensatec and sustainable cloth, which is made from recycled materials. It also features a leather trimmed steering wheel and grained dash trim. The next level Giga World has all the features of the Mega with the addition of Giga-specific 19-inch wheels and an interior wrapped in leather and wool cloth. A universal garage door opener is included for easy access to the i3's BMW i Charging Station. It also has Comfort Access, and satellite radio. The Tera World adds unique 19-inch wheels, luxury full leather, olive leaf-tanned interior with textile accents and contrasting stitching, and anthracite floors mats.[57] Available for every trim is the technology and driving assist and the parking assist packages. The driving assist package includes the wide-screen Navigation Professional with advanced real-time traffic and the new touch pad, BMW Assist with Enhanced Bluetooth and USB with BMW Apps, Online Information services, Deceleration Assistant, ACC Stop & Go, Speed Limit info, BMW ConnectedDrive services, Forward Collision Warning, Pedestrian Protection and City Collision Mitigation. The parking assist package includes a rear-view camera, Park Assistant, which helps take advantage of tight parallel parking opportunities, and Front Auto Park Distance Control.[57]

BMW i3 sales represented almost 2% of BMW passenger car sales in the American market during its first month in the market, and climbed to 5.4% in September 2014.[166] During 2014 about 3,000 were sold in California, representing about half of total U.S. sales that year.[167] In addition to California, other major regional markets are Texas and southern Florida.[168] Although BMW does not report the break down of U.S. sales by BEV and REx trim, based on production figures, it is estimated that as of June 2014, the REx/BEV ratio for the American market was to 3:2.[169]

A total of 24,741 BMW i3s have been sold in the U.S. through December 2016, of which, 11,024 were sold in 2015 and 7,625 in 2016.[36][37] Of these, the REx variant sales totaled 19,130 units, representing 77.3% of total i3 sales, resulting in a REx/BEV ratio for the American market of 3:1.[170]

Retail sales of the BMW i3 94 A·h began in Costa Rica in September 2016.

Mexico

Deliveries to retails customers began in Mexico City in late September 2014.[171][172]

Costa Rica

The BMW i3 was released in the Costa Rican market in September 2016.[173] Pricing of the i3 94 A·h starts at US$67,500, since a bill to eliminate import duties and other taxes is still pending approval in Congress.[174] Despite the lack of incentives, sales totaled 22 units in 2016, representing 20% of all plug-in electric cars sold in the country that year.[175]

South America[edit]

Brazil
Initially only the range-extender (REx) version is available in the Brazilian market.

In September 2014 the BMW i3 became the first plug-in electric car available for retail sales in Brazil. Due to the country's high import taxes and lack of government incentives for electric drive vehicles, the i3 pricing starts at R$225,900 (~ US$98,500) for the all-electric model and at R$235.950 (~ US$102,600) for the REx model.[176][177] The i3 is available only in eight cities: São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, Brasilia, Belo Horizonte, Salvador, Recife, and Joinville.[177] BMW announced that a stock of 130 units has been reserved for the Brazilian market.[178] Owners of the i3 registered in São Paulo are exempted from the city's driving restriction scheme (Portuguese: rodízio veicular).[177] About 30 units have been sold in São Paulo by the end of September 2014.[179]

Colombia

Presales started in October 2014 and the first shippings were expected to be made in early December 2014.[180] Pricing starts at COP$154.9 million (~US$49,000). All-electric cars priced in Colombia under US$52,000 are exempted from import duties between 2013 and 2016, and limited to 750 units imported per year. Since its introduction, i3 sales totaled 25 units through June 2015.[181]

Other countries

Deliveries in other Latin America countries are scheduled to begin by late 2014, including Chile.[182]

Global sales[edit]

The following table presents annual retail sales or registrations of the top selling national markets through December 2015 for both variants of the BMW i3, except when noted.

BMW i3 sales/registrations by country
2013 – 2015
Country Cumulative
2013–2015
2015 2014 2013
 United States[183][36] 17,116 11,024 6,092  
 Germany[111][112][113] 5,063 2,271 2,233 559
 Norway[107][108][109] 4,494 2,403 2,040 51
 United Kingdom[184][185] 3,747 2,213 1,393 141
 France[131][132][133] 1,497 822 607 68(1)
  Switzerland[151] 1,384 888 390 106
 Netherlands[140][141][142] 1,371 574 545 252
 Denmark[127] 874 645 138 1
 Belgium[186][187][188] 771 386 353 32
 Sweden[150][189] 600 379 210 11
 Canada[190] 566 367 199  
 Austria[191] 538 228 296 14
 Italy[137][192][193] 525 262 229 34
 Spain[147][148][194] 482 251 204 27
 Japan[195] 400(2) NA 400(2)  
 Europe[104][125][126] 23,268 12,047 9,744 1,477
Global sales[104][105][106] 41,586 24,057 16,052 1,477
Notes: (1) Figure does not include REx version sales in France.
(2) Sales in Japan only between April and August 2014.

Reception[edit]

The BMW i3 was selected by the Green Car Journal as one of the five finalists for the 2012 Green Car Vision Award.[196][197] In July 2013, the Wired and The Christian Science Monitor media sources published favorable reviews for the model.[198]

The BMW i3 won the Car Design of the Year award for 2013 in the production category at the 2014 Geneva Auto Show. The i3 was selected by a panel of senior design directors. The other runners up in the production category were the Jaguar F-Type Coupe and Porsche 918 Spyder.[199] The i3 also received an iF Product Design Gold Award for "the incorporation of sustainability in all facets of the interieur and exterieur design.”[200]

The BMW i3 was selected as finalist in three categories for the 2014 World Car of the Year Awards.[201][202] At the 2014 New York International Auto Show was announced as the winner of the 2014 World Green Car of the Year and also 2014 World Car Design of the Year.[203]

In the first UK Car of the Year Awards, the BMW i3 won in two categories, UK Car of the Year 2014 and Best Super-mini of 2014. The winners in each category were voted for by a panel of 27 motoring journalists in the UK.[204] The i3 was also a finalist of the 2014 European Car of the Year awards. It ended up voted in second place.[205] The i3 was ranked first in Kelley Blue Book Top 10 Best Green Cars for 2014.[206] At the 2014 Los Angeles Auto Show the BMW i3 was announced as the winner of Green Car Journal's 2015 Green Car of the Year Award.[207]

In Australia, the BMW i3 was awarded the 2014 Wheels Car of the Year by Wheels Magazine[208] considered Australia's most prestigious automotive award.The BMW i3 is the first all-electric car to win the award.[209] This was the first time BMW Australia won Wheels Car of the Year since the awards were established over 50 years ago in 1963.[210]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  119. ^ Mike Stevens (2014-04-10). "BMW i3 Priced From $63,900 For Australia, Launching In November". The Motor Report. Retrieved 2014-05-10. 
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  122. ^ Richard Lane (2014-09-23). "BMW's costly electric cars reach China". Ecomento.com. Retrieved 2014-09-23. 
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  124. ^ Neil Winton (2013-12-19). "New i3 Electric Car Trickles To Market As BMW Worries About Quality". Forbes. Retrieved 2013-12-21. 
  125. ^ a b c "Nissan LEAF is the best-selling electric car in Europe for fourth year in a row" (Press release). Rolle, Switzerland: Nissan Europe. 2015-01-19. Retrieved 2016-03-28.  A total of 5,804 all-electric BMW i3s were sold in Europe in 2014. The i3 BEV ranked as the fourth top selling all-electric car in Europe in 2014.
  126. ^ a b c d Gibbs, Nick (2016-03-15). "Hybrid sales expected to triple in Europe as tougher CO2 rules loom". Automotive News Europe. Retrieved 2016-03-28.  Sales in Europe as reported by JATO Dynamics: A total of 3,940 BMW i3 REx variants were sold in Europe in 2014, ranking as the third best selling plug-in hybrid in the continent. During 2015 sales totaled 5,481 all-electric BMW i3s and 6,566 i3 REx models (total 12,047).
  127. ^ a b De Danske Bilimportører (January 2016). "Statistik" [Statistics (Passenger cars by model)] (in Danish). Bilimp. Retrieved 2016-02-28.  Select 2015/2014/2013 – "Hele året" for the corresponding year and click on "Pr. model" for details of sales by brand and model.
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  129. ^ Michaël Torregrossa (2013-07-30). "Voiture électrique – La BMW i3 officiellement révélée" [Electric car – the BMW i3 officially revealed] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2013-07-31. 
  130. ^ "BMW i électriques : homologuées sur les bornes de charge des réseaux Autolib' à Paris, Bluely à Lyon et Bluecub à Bordeaux" [BMW i electric: approved on the charging of Autolib networks in Paris, Bluely in Lyon and Bluecub in Bordeaux] (Press release) (in French). France: BMW Group. 2014-07-18. Retrieved 2014-08-09. 
  131. ^ a b c d Automobile Propre. "Chiffres de vente & immatriculations de voitures électriques en France" [Sales figures & electric car registrations in France] (in French). Automobile Propre. Retrieved 2015-02-01.  See "Ventes de voitures électriques" for 2013 registrations. REx variant registrations are not included.
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  137. ^ a b c Luca Moroni (2014-01-03). "I dati di vendita di auto elettriche e ibride a dicembre 2013 in Italia" [Sales figures of electric and hybrid cars in Italy through December 2013] (in Italian). Green Start. Retrieved 2013-01-03. 
  138. ^ Luca Moroni (2014-08-07). "I dati di vendita di auto elettriche e ibride a luglio 2014 in Italia" [Sales figures of electric and hybrid cars in Italy through July 2014] (in Italian). Green Start. Retrieved 2013-08-19. 
  139. ^ Eric Loveday (2013-07-22). "Official: BMW i3 Range Extender Option Adds 4,490 Euros ($5,919 US) to Price Tag in Netherlands". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2013-07-29. 
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  145. ^ Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (January 2015). "Bilsalget i 2014" [Car sales in 2014] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2015-01-14.  Click on "Modellfordelt" to display the top 20 selling new cars in Norway, and change the menu "Tall per" to see the BMW i3 rank for each month.
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  148. ^ a b Asociación Nacional de Importadores de Automóviles, Camiones, Autobuses y Motocicletas (ANIACAM) (January 2015). "Datos de Mercado: Diciembre 2014 – Matriculaciones" [Market data: December 2014 – Registrations] (in Spanish). ANIACAM. Retrieved 2015-01-04.  Download the file "DossierAutomóviles_diciembre14.xls (929KB)*" with current month and cumulative sales for full year 2014.
  149. ^ Bil Sweden (2014-01-02). "Nyregistreringar december 2013 prel" [New registrations in December 2013 prel] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 2014-01-03.  Download file "Nyregistreringar december 2013 prel.pdf" see table "NYREGISTRERADE SUPERMILJÖBILAR DECEMBER 2013" with summary of PEV sales by model for 2013 and 2012.
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  153. ^ staff. "Statistik Alternativantriebe" [Statistics Alternative Drive] (PDF) (in German). Alpiq. Retrieved 2016-06-22. 
  154. ^ Vereinigung Schweizer Automobil-Importeure. "Autoverkäufe nach Modellen – Modellstatistik" [Passenger cars by model – Statistics by model] (in German). Auto Schweiz Suisse. Retrieved 2016-06-22.  Under "Modellstatistik Januar – Mai 2016" download the xls file "ModellePW2016.xlsx A total of 115 BMW i3s were registered between January and May 2016.
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  156. ^ Ben Lane (2015-02-10). "Nissan LEAF most popular EV in UK". UK: Next Green Car. Retrieved 2015-02-11. 
  157. ^ RAC Foundation (September 2016). "Plug-in grant eligible vehicles licensed (at the end of Q2 2016)". UK: RAC Foundation. Retrieved 2016-09-10.  A total of 4,457 BMW i3s were registered in the UK at the end of June 2016, of which 3,131 were range extended models.
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  162. ^ "As BMW i3, i8 electric cars charge to market, more tech details emerge". Consumer Reports. 2011-10-05. Retrieved 2011-10-23. 
  163. ^ Robert Grattan (2013-08-09). "BMW of Austin to open downtown showroom, launch electric car". Austin Business Journal. Retrieved 2013-08-13. 
  164. ^ Bengt Halvorson (2014-08-20). "Federal Tax Credits For Plug-In Hybrids, Electric Cars: What You Need To Know". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2014-08-20. 
  165. ^ "CVRP Eligible Vehicles". Center for Sustainable Energy California. Retrieved 2014-08-20. 
  166. ^ Mark Kane (2014-10-09). "Almost 6% Of BMW Car Sales In U.S. Are i3, i8". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-10-10. 
  167. ^ Nikki Gordon-Bloomfield (2015-03-24). "BMW: Incentives Key to Helping BMW i3, Other EV Sales Soar". Transport Evolved. Retrieved 2015-03-28. 
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  169. ^ George Betak (2014-07-08). "BMW i3 BEV/REx Production Breakdown For US – BMW i8 Too". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-07-27. 
  170. ^ Cole, Jay (2017-02-18). "19,130 BMW i3 REx Recalled In US Due To Fire Risk…Thanks To Its Gas Extender". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2017-02-19. 
  171. ^ "BMW Group México entrega el primer BMW i3 en el país" [BMW Group Mexico delivers the first BMW i3 in the country] (Press release) (in Spanish). Mexico D.F.: BMW Group. 2014-09-29. Retrieved 2014-10-18. 
  172. ^ "Propietario recibe el primer BMW i3 2015 en México" [Owner receives the first 2015 BMW i3 in Mexico]. Auto Cosmos (in Spanish). 2014-10-03. Retrieved 2014-10-18. 
  173. ^ Herrera, Walter (2016-06-02). "BMW presenta su primer vehículo eléctrico en el país" [BMW presents its first electric vehicle in the country]. La República (in Spanish). Retrieved 2016-09-24. 
  174. ^ Calderón, Armando (2016-08-25). "Red Motors presentó su auto electrico BMW i3" [Red Motors presented its all-electric BMW i3]. Mundo Motorizado (in Spanish). Retrieved 2016-09-24. 
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  176. ^ Luciana de Oliveira (2014-09-10). "BMW lança seu 1º carro elétrico no Brasil a partir de R$ 225,9 mil" [BMW launches its first electric car in Brazil starting at R$225.9 thounsand]. Auto Esporte (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2014-09-20. 
  177. ^ a b c Leonardo Felix (2014-09-10). "Elétrico, BMW i3 chega com preço de 9 populares e isenção do rodízio em SP" [BMW i3 electric arrives with price of nine popular cars and exempted from São Paulo's driving restriction]. Universo Online (UOL) (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2014-09-20. 
  178. ^ Staff (2014-08-19). "BMW inicia pré-venda do elétrico i3 no Brasil" [BMW begins pre-sales of electric i3 in Brazil]. Carplace Virgula UOL (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2014-09-04. 
  179. ^ Graeme Roberts (2014-10-01). "A BMW i3 will cost you $100,000 in Brazil". Just-Auto. AutoblogGreen. Retrieved 2014-10-01. 
  180. ^ "Importador local de BMW inició la preventa de su primer vehículo eléctrico" [BMW local importer started presales of their first electric vehicle.] (Press release) (in Spanish). Bogotá D.C.: Diario La República. 2014-10-23. Retrieved 2014-10-23. 
  181. ^ Daniel Otero Bravo (2015-06-19). "Carros Eléctricos en Colombia: En Carga Lenta" [Electric Cars in Colombia: in Slow Charging]. El Tiempo (in Spanish). Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
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  183. ^ Jay Cole (2015-01-05). "December 2014 Plug-In Electric Vehicle Sales Report Card". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2015-01-10. 
  184. ^ RAC Foundation (2015-09-18). "Ultra-green cars – latest on-the-road figures". RAC Foundation. Retrieved 2015-10-04.  A total of 1,534 BMW i3 were registered in the UK since 2013 through December 2014.
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External links[edit]

Video