|BMW N54 engine|
|Displacement||3.0 L (183 cu in)|
|Valvetrain||DOHC, with VVT|
The BMW N54 is a twin-turbocharged straight-six petrol engine that was produced from 2006 to 2016. It is BMW's first mass-produced turbocharged petrol engine and BMW's first turbocharged petrol engine since the limited-production BMW M106 was discontinued in 1986. The N54 debuted at the 2006 Geneva Motor Show and was launched in the 335i model of the E90/E91/E92/E93 3 Series range.
The N54 was produced alongside the naturally aspirated BMW N53 engine; both engines have direct injection, double-VANOS (variable valve timing), an open-deck engine block and an electric water pump. Since the N54 is based on the older BMW M54 engine, it has an aluminium engine block (instead of the magnesium alloy used by the N53), a displacement of 2,979 cc (181.8 cu in) and does not have valvetronic (variable valve lift).
Turbocharging is a key difference between the N54 and BMW's previous straight-six engines. The N54 has two small low-pressure turbochargers to minimise turbo lag. BMW's marketed the twin-turbo as "TwinPower Turbo", although the term has since been used for engines which have a single twin-scroll turbocharger.  The boost pressure is 8 psi (0.55 bar) and an air-to-air intercooler is used. Compared with the naturally aspirated BMW N52 that it replaced as BMW's highest performance six-cylinder engine, the N54 produces an additional 34 kW (45 bhp) and 108 N⋅m (80 lb⋅ft).
The N54's direct injection system (called "High Precision Injection" by BMW) uses piezo injectors. Its N55 successor uses solenoid-type injectors, because the piezo injectors are more expensive and not reaching their full potential to obtain the "lean burn" benefit.
|N54B30||2,979 cc (181.8 cu in)||225 kW (302 bhp)
at 5,800 rpm
|400 N⋅m (295 lb⋅ft)
at 1,400-5,000 rpm
|240 kW (322 bhp)
at 5,800 rpm
|450 N⋅m (332 lb⋅ft)
at 1,500-4,500 rpm
|250 kW (335 bhp)
at 5,900 rpm
|Alpina||265 kW (355 bhp)
at 5,500-6,000 rpm
|500 N⋅m (369 lb⋅ft)
at 3,800-5,000 rpm
|294 kW (394 bhp)
at 6,000 rpm
|540 N⋅m (398 lb⋅ft)
at 4,500 rpm
|300 kW (402 bhp)
at 6,000 rpm
225 kW version
The initial version of the N54 is officially rated at 225 kW (302 bhp) and 400 N·m. However, these figures are considered to be under-rated, and independent testing has resulted in estimates of 232 kW (311 bhp) and 422 N⋅m (311 lb⋅ft).
- 2006–2010 E90/E91/E92/E93 335i
- 2007–2010 E60/E61 535i
- 2007–2010 E82/E88 135i
- 2008–2010 E71 X6 xDrive35i
- 2009–2016 E89 Z4 sDrive35i
240 kW version
250 kW version
The most powerful version of the N54 is found in the E82 1 Series M Coupe and the E89 Z4 sDrive 35is.
265 kW version
This is Alpina's initial version of the N54, producing 265 kW (355 bhp).
- 2007–2010 Alpina B3 (E90)
294 kW version
- 2010–2013 Alpina B3 S
300 kW version
- 2012–2013 Alpina B3 GT3
Car & Driver noted the N54 had minimal turbo lag and "in feel and sound the twin-turbo could pass for naturally aspirated". The N54-engined F01 740i was also praised for its linear power delivery.
Comparing the N54-engined E60 535i with the 550i (using a 4.8–litre naturally aspirated V8), one reviewer noted that the V8 model had more torque but was "only marginally quicker than the 535i" and that the additional weight of the V8 engine was noticeable on twisty mountain roads.
High-Pressure Fuel Pump failures
In the United States, some N54 engines experienced failures of the High Pressure Fuel Pump (HPFP), resulting a class action lawsuit, a voluntary recall and an extended warranty for the HPFP.
Failure of the HPFP can cause the engine to suddenly stop functioning, which has caused several near-misses on highways. BMW was aware of HPFP problems, describing them in internal Technical Service Bulletins as "driveability problems".
In April 2009, a class action suit was filed against BMW in connection with HPFP failures. BMW settled the suit in June 2010. On 26 October 2010, following an ABC News story about HPFP failures, BMW announced a recall of vehicles with the pump in question from manufacturing years 2007-2010. The recall was applied to 130,000 cars, resulting in the replacement of the HPFP in approximately 40,000 of these cars.
In the United States, the warranty period for the HPFP was increased to 10 years and 120,000 mi (190,000 km).
On some cars, the HPFP was replaced multiple times without resolving the issue, potentially leading to the car being refunded under the Lemon Laws in some states.
Extended warranty in the United States
The High Pressure Fuel Pump issue caused BMW North America to extend the warranty for this pump to 10 years or 120,000 mi (190,000 km).
These warranty extensions only apply to the United States.
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- Consumerist: BMW Recalls 150,000 Cars Over Fuel Pump Failures
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- "N54 Engine warranty extended to 8 Years/82,000 Miles (Wastegates Only)". www.bmwblog.com. 2012-08-16. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
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