|Also called||BMW Mega City Vehicle|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||5-door hatchback|
|Layout||Transverse rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive|
W20K06U0 25 kW 647 cc, two-cylinder generator (optional) with a fuel tank capacity of|
9 L (2.4 US gal) in Europe
7.2 L (1.9 US gal) in the U.S.
|Electric motor||125 kW (168 bhp)|
|Transmission||Single speed with fixed ratio|
i3 60 Ah: 22 (18.8 usable) kWh lithium-ion battery |
i3 94 Ah: 33 (27.2 usable) kWh lithium-ion battery
BEV 60 Ah|
130 km (81 mi) EPA
130 to 160 km (80 to 100 mi) NEDC
BEV 94 Ah
183 km (114 mi) EPA
REx 60 Ah (with range extender)
116 km (72 mi) (EPA)
Total: 240 km (150 mi) (EPA)
REx 94 Ah (with range extender)
156 km (97 mi)
Total: 290 km (180 mi).
|Plug-in charging||7.4 kW on-board charger on IEC Combo AC, optional Combo DC, DCFC standard on 2015+ models in the US market.|
|Wheelbase||2,570 mm (101 in)|
|Length||3,999 mm (157.4 in)|
|Width||1,775 mm (69.9 in)|
|Height||1,578 mm (62.1 in)|
60 Ah: 1,195 kg (2,635 lb)|
60 Ah: 1,315 kg (2,899 lb) (with range extender)
The BMW i3 is a B-class, high-roof hatchback manufactured and marketed by BMW with an electric powertrain using rear wheel drive via a single-speed transmission. Its underfloor Li-ion battery pack is offered in two capacities as well as with an optional range-extending gasoline engine. The i3 was BMW's first mass-produced zero emissions vehicle and was launched as part of BMW's electric vehicle sub-brand, BMW i.
Styled by Richard Kim, the i3 is marketed in a single five-door configuration noted for its two smaller clamshell suicide hinged rear doors. The i3 debuted as a concept at the 2011 International Motor Show Germany, and production began in July 2013 in Leipzig, Germany.
As of December 2016[update], the i3 ranked as the world's third best selling all-electric car in history with more than 65,000 units sold since its inception. The i3 ranked third among all-electric cars sold worldwide from 2014 to 2016. The U.S. is its best-selling market with over 31,000 units sold through 2017.
The BMW i3 has won two World Car of the Year Awards, selected as 2014 World Green Car of the Year and also as 2014 World Car Design of the Year. The i3 was also given an iF Product Design Gold Award, and, in the first UK Car of the Year Awards, it won in two categories: UK Car of the Year 2014 and Best Supermini of 2014.
- 1 History
- 2 Design and technology
- 3 Production
- 4 Marketing and sales
- 5 Reception
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
In February 2011, BMW debuted its sub-brand, BMW i, to market the vehicles produced under Project i. BMW i vehicles were to be sold separately from BMW or Mini. The first two production models are the all-electric BMW i3, formerly called the Mega City Vehicle (MCV), and a plug-in hybrid called BMW i8, which is the production version of the Vision Efficient Dynamics concept unveiled at the 2009 International Motor Show Germany and has an all-electric range of 50 kilometres (31 mi). Production of both plug-in electric cars was scheduled to start in Leipzig in 2013.
The i3 concept car was unveiled at the 2011 International Motor Show Germany. BMW showcased a BMW i3 prototype during the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, and the production version was unveiled in July 2013.
BMW unveiled the i3 Concept Coupé study at the 2012 Los Angeles Auto Show. The carmaker developed the concept car to demonstrate the potential for extending the model range. The three-door hatchback coupe, like the five-door i3 electric hatchback sedan, is propelled by an electric motor developed by the BMW Group, with a maximum output of 125 kW/170 hp and peak torque of 250 N·m (184 lb-ft). Power delivery to the rear wheels is via a single-speed transmission. The li-ion battery pack is placed under the floor and can deliver an all-electric range of 160 km (99 mi), but a gasoline engine referred to as "REx", can be added to extend the car's range to 320 km (200 mi).
Design and technology
The i3 was the first mass production car with most of its internal structure and body made of carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). BMW explained that taking advantage of the fact that the vehicle does not need an internal combustion engine up front, the i3 is a "clean sheet design" with an more sports-like appearance than most electrics at the time of launch. The i3 has door panels made of hemp, which mixed with plastic helps lower the weight of each panel by about 10%. Hemp fibers, left exposed, also form a design element of the car's interior. By November 2010, BMW had demonstrated the passenger compartment's light weight, and the automaker's chief executive said they had already decided on the basic design of the car and that road-testing prototypes began soon after.
The i3 includes four doors and seating for four occupants with rear suicide doors. The i3 uses a newly developed powertrain consisting of a 130-kilowatt (170 hp) electric motor running on lithium-ion batteries and driving the rear axle. BMW aimed to achieve a range of 160 km (100 mi), the same range that was expected for the BMW ActiveE, but in order to reduce weight with a battery capacity of 16 kWh instead of the ActiveE's 30 kWh.
The BMW i3 has two pedals like all cars with automatic transmission. The accelerator pedal acts as both accelerator and engine brake. When the driver releases the pedal, the vehicle's kinetic energy is regenerated by the vehicle drivetrain to recharge the battery. This has the effect of slowing the car down. During the field testing of the Mini E, which has an accelerator that recharges the battery in this way, and consists of brakes that only apply to the rear wheels, BMW has learned that drivers tend to rely on the engine brake: around 75% of all deceleration maneuvers are initiated without the brake pedal in urban traffic areas. BMW also expected the i3 to use the same type of battery and powertrain that is being tested in the BMW ActiveE trials.
The prototype presented at the 2011 International Motor Show Germany had a 22 kWh (79 MJ) lithium-ion battery pack that is expected to deliver between 130 to 160 km (80 to 100 mi) and the battery was fully charged in about four hours with the 240-volt charging unit. The i3 was expected to go from 0 to 100 km/h (0 to 60 mph) in less than eight seconds. The BMW i3 has a 130 kW (170 hp) electric motor mounted on the rear axle to drive the rear wheels and the top speed is limited to 150 km/h (93 mph).
BMW designed the i3 eDrive powertrain based on the premise that the battery would need to be recharged only once every two to three days. The charging frequency was derived from field trial results taken from the BMW ActiveE and MINI E vehicles in Asia, Europe and the U.S., whereby the typical commuting use between the pilot users' homes and workplaces was calculated.
In June 2012 an updated version of the BMW i3 concept car was unveiled at the opening of the first BMW i store, located on Park Lane in London, UK. The updated i3 concept consists of a new interior colour and materials concept. The seat covers combine responsibly sourced wool and leather naturally tanned with an olive oil leaf-based agent. The almost symmetrical curving dash is inlaid with treated eucalyptus wood that, according to BMW, is sourced from sustainably managed European forests.
Information is provided to the driver through a 16.5 cm (6.5 in) freestanding instrument cluster and a 22.3 cm (8.8 in) central information display. The bench-derived front seats replace the center tunnel that bisected the cabin and a floor-mounted transmission, brake levers or center console are also absent.
Charging and connectivity
The i3 allows the owner to charge the battery from a conventional socket. The BMW i3 has a number of charging functions. AC fast charging can take less than 3 hours with the use of the BMW i Wallbox Pure or any 3rd party charging equipment (EVSE) supporting 32A, when charging from 0 to 80%. The i3 also has a rapid charging option suitable for public DC charging stations and can take less than 30 minutes to charge from 0% to 80%. In the US, it can also be charged from any public charging station with an SAE J1772 connector. In 2016, BMW and the PG&E utility in California expanded an experiment of delaying charge-up during peak demand and compensating i3 owners for the delay.
The BMW i3 allows the driver to select the car energy consumption through three different drive modes: Comfort, Eco Pro or Eco Pro+ mode. In the standard Comfort mode the i3 delivers a range between 130 to 160 km (80 to 100 mi) in everyday driving conditions, while the i3 REx delivers between 260 to 290 km (160 to 180 mi). The Eco Pro mode increases the driving range by around 12% through a different accelerator pedal mapping which uses less power. In Eco Pro+ mode, all settings are geared to achieving the maximum possible range, increasing the driving range by about 24% compared with Comfort mode. In this mode the maximum speed of the BMW i3 is limited to 90 km/h (56 mph) and electrical devices such as the heating and air conditioning are switched to energy-saving mode.
Range extender option
An optional petrol/gasoline range extender engine is marketed as REx and is powered by the same 647 cc inline two-cylinder engine used in the BMW C650 GT maxi-scooter. The system is intended as an emergency backup to extend range to the next recharging location, and not for long-distance travel. The 647 cc engine as fitted in the i3 REx is derated compared to the engine of the same displacement in the C650 GT; the REx engine develops 34 hp; 34 PS (25 kW) and 41 lb⋅ft; 5.6 kg⋅m (55 N⋅m) at 4,300 RPM, achieving compliance with Euro-6 emissions standards compared to the 59 hp; 60 PS (44 kW) (at 7,500 RPM) and 49 lb⋅ft; 6.7 kg⋅m (66 N⋅m) (at 6,000 RPM) for the engine in the C650 GT, which complies with the less restrictive Euro-4 emissions.
The REx engine operates when battery capacity drops to a pre-specified level, generating electricity to extend the range to about 320 km (200 mi) for the European version.
European models have a 9 L (2.0 imp gal; 2.4 US gal) fuel tank while American models have the same tank though software-limited to a capacity of 1.9 gallons. Under EPA five-cycle testing, the i3 REx has a total range of 240 km (150 mi).
The vehicle's official range is 130 to 160 km (80 to 100 mi) for the 60 Ah battery option under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), and up to 200 km (120 mi) in the most efficient driving mode. Under the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cycle the official range is 130 km (81 mi) with combined fuel economy of 124 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent —MPGe— (1.90 L/100 km; 149 mpg imp). BMW is offering a range extender ("REx") option powered by a 647 cc two-cylinder gasoline engine with a small fuel tank that engages when the battery level drops to a pre-specified point, acting purely as a generator to produce electricity to extend the range to 240 km (150 mi) for the model with the 60 Ah battery under the EPA test cycle.
In July 2016, BMW released the 2017 model year (MY) BMW i3 94 Ah with an improved 33 kWh battery pack with 50% more capacity than the previous model resulting in an increase of its range to 183 km (114 mi) under the EPA cycle, and 300 km (190 mi) under the NEDC test. The Range Extender (REx) variant also has the same higher capacity battery as the all-electric model, with a corresponding all-electric range increase to 156 km (97 mi) under EPA testing cycle, for a total range of 290 km (180 mi).
The range-extender option of the BMW i3 was designed to meet the California Air Resources Board (CARB) regulation for an auxiliary power unit (APU) called REx. According to rules adopted in March 2012 by CARB, the 2014 BMW i3 with a REx unit fitted is the first car ever to qualify as a range-extended battery-electric vehicle or "BEVx". CARB describes this type of electric vehicle as "a relatively high-electric range battery-electric vehicle (BEV) to which an APU is added." The unit, which maintains battery charge at about 30% after the pack has been depleted in normal use, is strictly limited in the additional range it can provide, and delivers a minimum 75 mi (121 km) electric range.
CARB classified the i3 with the REx option as a "Transitional Zero Emission Vehicle" (TZEV), the same classification as other plug-in hybrids such as the Chevrolet Volt and the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid. This classification made the i3 REx eligible for California's green sticker that identifies the vehicles allowed to be operated by a single occupant in California's high-occupancy vehicle lanes (HOV), or carpool or diamond lanes, but not for the white sticker reserved for pure electric cars, such as the BMW i3 without REx. In addition, CARB certification of the i3 REx as BEVx allows the i3 with range extender to be eligible for a US$2,500 Clean Vehicle Rebate, the same amount eligible pure electric cars are entitled to. Other plug-in hybrids are eligible for only a US$1,500 purchase rebate.
The US configuration of the i3 imposes software restrictions on the car that do not apply to other territories. This prompted an owner's lawsuit in 2016.
Fuel economy and range
Under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) the official range is 130 to 160 km (80 to 100 mi), and up to 200 km (120 mi) in the most efficient driving mode. Under the NEDC cycle, the energy consumption is 0.21 kWh/per mile. The model with the range extender option has an official NEDC total range of 257 to 299 km (160 to 186 mi).
Under its five-cycle testing, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rated the 2014 through 2016 model year all-electric BMW i3 (60 A·h) energy consumption at 27 kWh/100 mi (16.9 kWh/ 100 km) with a combined fuel economy at 124 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent – MPGe – (1.90 L/100 km; 149 mpg imp) with an all-electric range of 130 km (81 mi). With these ratings the all-electric BMW i3 was the most fuel efficient EPA-certified vehicle sold in the United States of all years regardless of fuel type until November 2016, when it was surpassed by the Hyundai Ioniq Electric, rated at 136 MPGe (25 kWh/100 mi). The range-extended model has lower ratings than the all-electric i3 due to the extra weight of the twin-cylinder gasoline engine used in the i3 REx. Nevertheless, the i3 REx in 2014 replaced the Chevrolet Volt as the most efficient EPA-certified current year vehicle with a gasoline engine.
The BMW i3 with the 94 A·h battery has a range of 114 mi (183 km), an increase of 33 mi (53 km) over the 60 A·h variant. The i3 94 A·h combined fuel economy rating is 118 mpg-e, down from 124 mpg-e for the model with the 60 A·h battery. The 2017 BMW i3 REx with the larger 94 A·h battery has an EPA-rated range of 97 mi (156 km), and combined fuel economy rating is 111 mpg-e. The range using the gasoline-powered engine increased to 83 mi (134 km) from 78 mi (126 km) in the previous versions.
The following are the EPA ratings for both all-electric variants and the range-extended model.
|BMW i3 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ratings|
|Fuel / EV range||Combined||City / Highway||Notes|
|2017||114 mi (183 km)||118 mpg-e
(29 kW-hrs/100 mi)
|81 mi (130 km)||124 mpg-e
(27 kW-hrs/100 mi)
(25 kW-hrs/100 mi)/
(30 kW-hrs/100 mi)
97 mi (156 km)
(30 kWh/100 mi)
83 mi (134 km)
|35 mpg‑US (6.7 L/100 km)||-|
72 mi (116 km)
(29 kW-hrs/100 mi)
|97 mpg‑e (35 kW⋅h/100 mi)/|
79 mpg‑e (44 kW⋅h/100 mi)
78 mi (126 km)
|39 mpg‑US (6.0 L/100 km)||41 mpg‑US (5.7 L/100 km)/|
37 mpg‑US (6.4 L/100 km)
The European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP) awarded the i3 a four-star car safety rating, resulting in the following ratings for each criterion:
|Euro NCAP test results|
|BMW i3 (2013)|
The BMW i3's overall ratings are lower than the other six best-selling plug-in electric vehicles, the Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid, Renault Zoe, Nissan Leaf, Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, Chevrolet Volt and Opel Ampera, all of which were rated five stars.
BMW i offers additional mobility packages for trips where the range of an BMW i3 would not be enough to allow customers to cover longer distances, such as providing a conventional BMW vehicle for a specified number of days per year. The program started in October 2014 in the US and individual dealers can choose to participate in this program or not. BMW is also offering a roadside assistance program in areas of high sales. The assistance vehicle will provide a charge so the i3 can travel to the next charging station. In addition, the i3 digital display panel shows the location of nearby recharging stations to alleviate range anxiety.
In May 2016, BMW announced that the 2017 model year (MY) BMW i3 will have a 33 kWh battery, up from 22 kWh in the previous model, allowing to increased range. The battery pack capacity was increased by more than 50% without changes in exterior dimensions. BMW and Samsung SDI optimized the cell-internal packages with more electrolyte and adapted the active material, resulting in higher energy density of the lithium ion cells that increased battery capacity to 94 A·h and overall battery energy to 33 kWh of which 27.2 kWh can be effectively used. The previous battery capacity was 60 Ah and produced 22 kWh (gross) with a net capacity of 19 kWh. The improved battery has an upgraded electronics package that has new software mapping for the battery cooling system and the electric motor. The 94 A·h battery pack fits both the all-electric i3 and the i3 with the range extender.
The Range Extender (REx) variant will also feature the same higher capacity battery as the all-electric model, with a corresponding all-electric range increase. The 2017 REx model will offer additional range in the American market thanks to a fuel tank that is 25% larger than the previous model with capacity for 2.4 US gal (9.1 l; 2.0 imp gal). This is actually the same tank the i3 has always been manufactured with and used outside the U.S., but BMW had locked out the tank’s last half-gallon of capacity in the American market to meet California's ZEV requirements for vehicles with range extender, as the car had more gasoline-powered range than all-electric range, which would affect its status as a zero-emissions vehicle (ZEV) in California. Since the 2017 model years delivers an increased all-electric range that now exceeds its gas-powered range, BMW was able to unlock the full tank without affecting its ZEV status.
The 2017 model year i3 was released in the United States and Europe in July 2016. According to BMW, orders for the larger battery i3 exceed 7,000 units, with a total of 2,358 i3s delivered worldwide in July 2016, up 33.7% year-on-year. Sales also surged in the U.S. with 1,479 units sold in July 2016, up 58.2% from July 2015, and 143.3% from June 2016. Both variants with the improved battery were scheduled to be available in the UK, Germany and France starting in July 2016. Owners of previous i3 models in selected markets have the option to retrofit their vehicles with the improved battery. BMW plans to use the used 22 kWh batteries in the manufacturing of stationary power storage units. The battery retrofit option is not available in the U.S.
BMW is manufacturing carbon strands that form the basis of the i3's carbon-fiber reinforced plastic bodywork at a new US$100 million plant built in Moses Lake, Washington, using raw material shipped from Japan. This location was selected to take advantage of the abundant hydroelectric power available in this U.S. region because carbon-fiber production requires considerable energy and would otherwise emit much carbon dioxide. The carbon fiber is then shipped to Landshut, Germany, where the carbon-fiber reinforced plastic parts are fabricated, and the vehicle assembly line is located in Leipzig.
In November 2010, the Leipzig plant was inaugurated, with an investment totaling €400 million euros (US$561 million) through 2013. The plant is located at BMW's complex that already produces variants of the 1 Series model. A concept version of the BMW i3 Coupe reflecting the current status of ongoing development was presented at the March 2013 Geneva Motor Show. The production vehicle was officially unveiled simultaneously in New York, London and Beijing on 29 July 2013. Series production for retail customers began on 18 September 2013, and the first vehicle off the production line was handed over to German marathon runner Jan Fitschen. The car was used as the lead vehicle at the 2013 Berlin Marathon on September 29.
As of February 2014[update], BMW was producing an average of 70 cars a day, about half the planned production, with lower production due to a high defect rate in the carbon parts. A subsequent investment of about €100 million in the production of carbon parts was made to solve the supply problems. According to BMW, there were 11,000 orders at the time, including 1,200 from U.S. customers. As a result of the high demand and the slow production rate, delivery waiting time extended to September 2014.
Marketing and sales
Production began in September 2013, and the first i3 deliveries to retail customers in Europe took place at an official market launch ceremony held in Munich on November 15, 2013. The first delivery to a retail customer in the U.S. took place in May 2014. At its market launch, pricing in the United States started at US$42,275 before any government incentives, and the range extender option costs an additional US$3,850. Prices in Germany started from €34,950 (US$46,400). Pricing in the UK started at GB£30,680 (US$47,195) before the applicable government grant.
As of May 2016[update], the BMW i3 was available in 50 countries. After its release BMW, like many other plug-in electric carmakers, faced weak reception of its electric car lineup. BMW planned to sell at least 30,000 units from 2014. Global sales passed the 10,000 unit mark in September 2014, 25,000 units in May 2015, and the 50,000 unit milestone was achieve in July 2016. As of December 2016[update], with more than 65,000 units sold since its inception, the i3 ranked as the world's third best selling all-electric car in history after the Nissan Leaf and the Tesla Model S. The i3 ranked third by sales among all-electric cars sold worldwide for three years in a row, from 2014 to 2016. As of December 2016[update], the i3 ranked as the world's seventh top selling plug-in electric car in history.
A total of 1,477 were registered in 2013 in Europe, 16,052 units were sold worldwide in 2014, and global sales totaled 24,057 units in 2015. About 25,500 units were delivered worldwide in 2016, up 6% from 2015, and 31,482 in 2017. In October 2017 the BMW Group reported that the 100,000th BMW i3 had been built. As of December 2017[update], the United States listed as the i3 top selling country market with 31,017 units delivered since its inception, followed by Norway with 13,483 new units registered, and Germany with 12,245 units.
The Norwegian market has the world's highest i3 penetration per capita due to its population size, In November 2016, the BMW i3 topped new passenger car sales in Norway. As of November 2016[update], Norway listed as the world's second largest market for the BMW i3, accounting for more than 13% of total i3 production since inception. The i3 was the best selling electric car in Germany since it was launched in November 2013 through November 2015, and also at that time, ranked as the third best selling all-electric car in the United States.
The following table presents annual retail sales or registrations of the i3 top selling national markets through December 2017 for both variants of the BMW i3, except when noted.
|BMW i3 sales/registrations in top selling countries[a]|
2013 – 2017
The BMW i3 won the Geneva Auto Show Car Design of the Year award for 2013 in the production category; an iF Product Design Gold Award for "the incorporation of sustainability in all facets of the interieur and exterieur design.”; the 2014 World Green Car of the Year; the 2014 World Car Design of the Year., UK Car of the Year 2014, UK Best Super-mini of 2014 and Green Car Journal's 2015 Green Car of the Year Award.
In Australia, the BMW i3 received the 2014 Wheels Car of the Year by Wheels Magazine. In South Africa the i3 received "Design of the Year" and "Game Changer of the Year" in 2016 by the automotive website cars.co.za.
- Automatic parking
- Electric car use by country
- Government incentives for plug-in electric vehicles
- List of electric cars currently available
- List of modern production plug-in electric vehicles
- List of production battery electric vehicles
- MIT Media Lab's CityCar
- Personal Urban Mobility and Accessibility
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- "2-cylinder inline engines 650cc/800cc". BMW Powertrain. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
- Greg Kable (2013-02-24). "First rides in BMW i8 hybrid sportscar and all-electric i3". Autocar. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- "BMW i3 REx for U.S. has in fact a 2.4 gallons tank". bmwblog.com. 22 January 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
- Staff (2016-05-02). "Mehr Reichweite für den BMW i3" [More range for the BMW i3] (in German). kfz-betrieb. Retrieved 2016-05-04.
- John Voelcker (2013-10-23). "2014 BMW i3 Electric Car: Why California Set Range Requirements, Engine Limits". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2014-01-19.
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- Eric Loveday (2014-04-28). "Breaking: BMW i3 REx Gets Green HOV Sticker, TZEV Rating". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-04-30.
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- Clean Vehicle Rebate Project (CVRP) (May 2014). "Eligible Vehicles". California Center for Sustainable Energy. Retrieved 2014-05-02.
- "BMW i3 REx Lawsuit: How'd This Happen & Who's at Fault". insideevs.com. Retrieved 2018-02-15.
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- United States Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2016-05-03). "Compare Side-by-Side: 2015/2016 BMW i3 BEV & 2015/2016 BMW i3 REx". fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2016-05-04.
- U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2014-07-25). "Most Efficient EPA Certified Vehicles". fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-13. Current Model Year excludes all-electric vehicles.
- U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2016-11-16). "Top Fuel Sippers (EPA Ratings, 2017 Model Year)". fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-21. The 2014–16 BMW i3 BEV (60 Amp-hour battery) was the most efficient EPA-certified vehicles considering all fuels and of all years until November 2016, when it was surpassed by the 2017 Hyundai Ioniq Electric.
- Edelstein, Stephen (2016-11-21). "Hyundai Ioniq Electric beats Prius Prime, BMW i3 on energy efficiency". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2016-11-21.
- U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2016-11-16). "Fueleconomy.gov's Top Fuel Sippers (EPA Ratings, 2017 Model Year)". fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-21. Excludes all-electric vehicles. Click on the tab "EPA Rated – All Years. The 2013–2014 Chevrolet Volt has a combined fuel economy of 62 MPG-e.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-08-12). "Model Year 2015 Fuel Economy Guide – Electric vehicles & Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles" (PDF). fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-08-17. pp. 31–34
- United States Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2014-07-23). "Model Year 2014 Fuel Economy Guide – Electric vehicles" (PDF). fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2014-07-25. pp. 33 and 35
- John Voelcker (2014-05-01). "2014 BMW i3 Electric Car Rated At 81 Miles, 124 MPGe: BREAKING". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2014-05-01. See details in EPA window sticker.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2016-09-29). "Compare Side-by-Side: 2015 BMW i3 REX, 2016 BMW i3 REX, 2017 BMW i3 REX (94 Amp-hour battery), and 2017 BMW i3 BEV (94 Amp-hour battery)". fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2016-09-30.
- "Euro NCAP results for BMW i3" (PDF). euroncap.com. 2013.
- Eric Loveday (2013-11-27). "BMW i3 Scores Only 4 Stars in Euro NCAP Crash Tests (w/videos)". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- Moloughney, Tom. "BMW i Flexible Mobility Program Launches in the US". The Electric BMW i3. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
- Jack Ewing (2013-07-15). "With i3 Electric Car, BMW Tries to Ease Range Anxiety". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-08-11.
- Greg Kable (2015-11-23). "New battery to boost BMW i3 range". Autocar. Retrieved 2015-11-27.
- Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy and U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (2017-03-24). "Find a car - Years: 2016–2017 - Vehicle Type: Electric". fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2017-03-26.
- Krok, Andrew (2017-07-29). "By the numbers: Tesla Model 3 vs. Chevrolet Bolt EV". CNET. Retrieved 2017-07-29.
- Siler, Steve (May 2016). "2017 BMW i3: Now with More Electric Range". Car and Driver. Retrieved 2016-05-04.
- "BMW Group sales grow steadily for best-ever July" (Press release). Munich: BMW Group. 2016-08-10. Retrieved 2016-08-12.
- Cobb, Jeff (2016-08-03). "July 2016 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2016-08-12.
- Lilly, Chris (2016-05-02). "New BMW i3 gets 195 mile range". Next Green Car UK. Retrieved 2016-05-04.
- Schwoerer, Philippe (2016-05-03). "De 300 à 400 km avec la nouvelle BMW i3" [From 300 to 400 km with the new BMW i3]. Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM) (in French). Retrieved 2016-05-05.
- Loveday, Eric (2016-05-05). "BMW 33 kWh Battery Retrofit For Older i3s Won't Be Offered In U.S." InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2016-05-05.
- Warwick, Graham (2015-04-17). "Automotive Industry Embraces Composites; Can Aerospace Benefit?". Aviation Week & Space Technology. Retrieved 2015-04-21.
- Sloan, Jeff (2014-05-31). "BMW Leipzig: The epicenter of i3 production". www.compositesworld.com. Archived from the original on 2017-04-28. Retrieved 2017-05-18.
- "How a BMW i is created". www.bmwgroup-plants.com. Retrieved 2017-05-18.
- Video: BMW i3 Factory Production Tour. european auto source. 2014-03-14. Retrieved 2017-05-18.
- MototingPro (2013-03-04). "BMW i3 concept coupe: European premiere". Automotive Industry Digest. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- Sebastian Blanco (2013-09-18). "BMW i3 starts production in Germany using local wind power, US carbon fiber". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2013-09-19.
- Eric Loveday (2013-09-18). "German Marathon Runner Gets First Production BMW i3". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2013-09-19.
- Michael Freitag (2014-02-19). "Elektromobil – Produktionsprobleme beim BMW i3" [Electric car – Production problems with the BMW i3] (in German). Manager Magazine. Retrieved 2014-03-18.
- Jason Siu (2014-01-31). "2014 BMW i3 Orders already hit 11,000 Globally". Auto Guide. Retrieved 2014-03-18.
- BMW Group (2013-11-06). "The new BMW i3 – Press pack". BMW Group Press Club UK. Retrieved 2013-11-07.
- BMW Press Release (2013-11-15). "BMW i3 market launch". BMW Group USA. Retrieved 2013-11-16.
- Eric Loveday (2014-05-02). "BMW Announces Delivery Of First US i3". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-05-02.
- "US MSRP for BMW i3 EV will be $41,350, before incentives". Green Car Congress. 2013-07-22. Retrieved 2013-07-29.
- Jay Cole (2013-07-22). "BMW Sets Lease Price On i3 At $565 In The UK (£369) – Priced from £25,680". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2013-07-29.
- Boston, William (19 April 2016). "BMW Loses Core Development Team of Its i3 and i8 Electric Vehicle Line". The Wall Street Journal via Yahoo. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- Kane, Mark. "BMW Sold 5,128 BMW i3/i8 In The First Quarter Of 2016". InsideEVs. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- Hamprecht, Harald (26 Feb 2011). "BMW plans to sell at least 30,000 units a year of its i3". Autonews. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- Jeff Cobb (2014-10-03). "BMW Increasing i3 and i8 Availability In US". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2014-10-03.
- Jeff Cobb (2015-06-11). "How Nissan and Renault are Dominating the Electric Car Game". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2015-06-11.
- Cobb, Jeff (2016-08-01). "Renault Zoe and BMW i3 Join The 50,000 Sales Club". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-08-01.
- Luca Ciferri (2014-06-06). "BMW sales boss bullish on 'born electric' range". Automotive News Europe. Retrieved 2014-06-11.
- Mat Gasnier (2014-07-19). "World Full Year 2013: Discover the Top 1000 best-selling models!". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2014-07-27. A total of 1,477 i3s were registered in 2013. Includes press fleet vehicles and dealer demonstrators.
- "BMW Group sells more than 2 million vehicles in 2014" (Press release). Munich: BMW Group PressClub Global. 2015-01-09. Retrieved 2015-01-10. A total of 16,052 i3s and 1,741 i8s were sold in 2014.
- "BMW Group achieves fifth consecutive record sales year" (Press release). Detroit/Munich: BMW Group. 2016-01-11. Retrieved 2016-01-17. A total of 29,513 BMW i brand units were delivered to customers worldwide in 2015, up 65.9% from 2014, consisting of 24,057 BMW i3s and 5,456 BMW i8s.
- "Record sales for BMW Group worldwide during 2017 while it boosts the Premium car market in Mexico, Latin America and the Caribbean" (Press release). Mexico City: BMW Group. 2018-01-25. Retrieved 2016-01-17. A total of 31,482 BMW i3s were delivered globally in 2017.
- Kane, Mike (2017-10-28). "Major Milestone: BMW i3 #100,000 Rolls Off Assembly Line". insideevs.com. Retrieved 2017-11-01.
- Ståle Frydenlund (2014-01-02). "7.882 nye elbiler registrert i 2013" [7882 new electric cars registered in 2013] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Archived from the original on 2014-01-02. Retrieved 2014-01-02.
- Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (January 2015). "CO2-utslippet i desember 2014" [CO2 emissions in December 2014] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2015-02-14. See graph: Gjennomsnittlig CO2-utslipp for registrerte ney personbiler per modell 2014, til og med desember. A total of 2,040 BMW i3s were registered in Norway in 2014.
- Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (January 2016). "Bilsalget i 2015" [Car sales in 2015] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2016-10-23. A total of 2,403 new i3s, including the REx variant, were registered in Norway in 2015.
- Opplysningsrådet for Veitrafikken AS (OFV). "Bilsalget i 2017" [Car sales in 2017] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2018-02-04. Registrations of new i3 cars in Norway, including the REx variant, totaled 3,953 units in 2016 and 5,036 in 2017.
- Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (January 2014). "Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen im Dezember 2013 nach Segmenten und Modellreihen" [New registrations of passenger cars in December 2013 by segment and model series] (PDF) (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2014-05-10. A total of 559 units were registered in Germany in 2013.
- Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (January 2015). "Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen nach Segmenten und Modellreihen im Dezember 2014" [New registrations of passenger cars in December 2014 by segment and model] (PDF) (in German). KBA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-02-05. Retrieved 2015-01-27. A total of 1,871 units were registered in Germany in 2014.
- Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt (KBA) (January 2016). "Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen nach Segmenten und Modellreihen im Dezember 2015" [New registrations of passenger cars by segments and models in December 2015] (PDF) (in German). KBA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-01-25. Retrieved 2016-01-17. A total of 2,271 i3s were registered in Germany in 2015.
- Pontes, Jose (2017-01-16). "Germany December 2016 (Updated)". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2018-01-14.
- Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt (KBA) (January 2018). "Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen nach Marken und Modellreihen im Dezember 2017 (FZ 10) (XLS, 153 KB, Datei ist nicht barrierefrei)" [New registrations of passenger cars by segments and models in December 2016] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2018-02-04. Click on the link Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen nach Marken und Modellreihen im Dezember 2017 (FZ 10) (XLS, 153 KB, Datei ist nicht barrierefrei) to download the file with registrations figures.
- Hegvold, Ola (2016-12-02). "BMW med elbil-sjokk i november" [BMW with electric vehicle shock in November]. Adressa (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2016-12-03.
- Skogstadlast, Knut (2016-12-02). "Dette er Norges mest solgte bil akkurat nå" [This is the most purchased car right now]. ABC Nnyheter (ABC news (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2016-12-03.
- "The BMW i3 turns two. Time for an interim review. In Germany the BMW i3 has been the best-selling electric car since it was launched. In the worldwide ranking it stands third" (Press release). Munich: BMW Group. 2015-11-12. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
- Jay Cole (2015-01-05). "December 2014 Plug-In Electric Vehicle Sales Report Card". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2015-01-10.
- RAC Foundation (January 2018). "Plug-in grant eligible vehicles licensed (at the end of Q3 2017)". UK: RAC Foundation. Retrieved 2018-02-06. This figure corresponds to eligible vehicles for the plug-in car and van grant schemes as licensed in the UK at the end of Q2 2017 (not cumulative sales).
- RAC Foundation (2015-09-18). "Ultra-green cars – latest on-the-road figures". RAC Foundation. Retrieved 2015-10-04. A total of 1,534 BMW i3 were registered in the UK since 2013 through December 2014.
- Staff (2016-01-15). "Record-breaking year for plug-in cars". Fleet News. Retrieved 2016-01-17. A total of 1,393 BMW i3s were registered in the UK in 2014, and 2,213 in 2015.
- Automobile Propre. "Chiffres de vente & immatriculations de voitures électriques en France" [Sales figures & electric car registrations in France] (in French). Automobile Propre. Retrieved 2015-02-01. See "Ventes de voitures électriques" for 2013 registrations. REx variant registrations are not included.
- AVERE-France (2015-01-05). "Le marché du véhicule électrique maintient sa progression en 2014" [The electric vehicle market continues to grow in 2014] (in French). AVERE France. Retrieved 2016-02-28. See graph with top 5 models in 2014: A total of 607 i3s were registered in France during 2014 including REx models.
- Schwoerer, Philippe (2016-01-07). "Immatriculations des voitures électriques : + 62,1% en 2015" [Registrations of electric cars: + 62.1% in 2015] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2016-02-28. A total of 822 i3s were registered in France in 2015 including REx models.
- France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2017-01-09). "Plus de 27 000 véhicules électriques immatriculés en 2016, après un mois de décembre record" [More than 27,000 electric vehicles registered in 2016, after a record December] (in French). AVERE. Retrieved 2018-02-06.
- France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2018-01-09). "Près de 31 000 véhicules électriques immatriculés en France en 2017 !" [Nearly 31,000 electric vehicles registered in France in 2017!] (in French). AVERE. Retrieved 2018-02-06.
- Vereinigung Schweizer Automobil-Importeure. "Autoverkäufe nach Modellen – Modellstatistik" [Passenger cars by model – Statistics by model] (in German). Auto Schweiz Suisse. Retrieved 2016-01-23. Under "Modellstatistiken 2010–2015" click "2015 Statistik" to download the file "ModellePW2015" with sales by model for 2015; "2014 Statistik" to download the file "ModellePW2014" with sales by model for 2014; and "2013 Statistik" to download the file "ModellePW2013" with sales by model for 2013.
- Vereinigung Schweizer Automobil-Importeure. "Autoverkäufe nach Modellen – Modellstatistik" [Passenger cars by model – Statistics by model] (in German). Auto Schweiz Suisse. Retrieved 2018-02-06. Under "Modellstatistiken 2012–2017" download the xls file "Modellstatistik Januar - Dezember 2017" for 2017 sales, "ModellePW2016" for 2016 sales, "ModellePW2015" with sales by model for 2015, "2014 Statistik" to download the file "ModellePW2014" with sales by model for 2014, and "2013 Statistik" to download the file "ModellePW2013" with sales by model for 2013.
- RAI (2014-01-24). "Verkoopstatistieken – Meer marktinformatie" [Sales Statistics – More Market Information] (in Dutch). RAI Vereniging. Archived from the original on 2014-06-25. Retrieved 2014-06-08. Download pdf file for detailed sales in 2013 ("Download nieuwverkoop personenautos 201312").
- RAI (2015-01-27). "Verkoopstatistieken" [Sales Statistics] (in Dutch). RAI Vereniging. Archived from the original on 2014-06-25. Retrieved 2015-01-31. Download the pdf file for detailed sales by model during 2014: "nieuwverkoop personenautos 201412".
- RAI (January 2016). "Nieuwverkoop Personenautos Per Merk/Model" [New passenger cars sales by brand/model 2015/12 2015 toal] (in Dutch). RAI Vereniging. Retrieved 2016-02-28. A total of 574 i3s were sold in the Netherlands in 2015".
- RAI Vereniging (2018-01-22). "Maandelijkse verkoopcijfers" [Monthly sales figures] (in Dutch). RAI. Retrieved 2018-02-06. Download the XLS file "Personenauto's maandrapportage nieuwverkopen 2017" - A total of 881 i3 cars were sold in the Netherlands in 2017."
- "Bundesländer-Statistik – Dezember 2015" [Federal Statistics – December 2015] (in German). Myampera.wordpress.com. January 2016. Retrieved 2016-02-29. Click on the tables by model by year.
- Jose Pontes (2017-01-24). "Austria December 2016". EV Sales. Retrieved 2018-02-13.
- Jose Pontes (2018-01-17). "Austria December 2017". EV Sales. Retrieved 2018-02-13.
- Jose Pontes (2014-01-18). "Belgium December 2013". EV Sales. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- Pontes, Jose (2015-01-24). "Belgium December 2014". EV Sales. Retrieved 2015-02-01.
- Pontes, Jose (2016-01-26). "Belgium December 2015". EV Sales. Retrieved 2016-02-28.
- Jose Pontes (2017-01-24). "Belgium December 2016". EV Sales. Retrieved 2018-02-13.
- Jose Pontes (2018-01-04). "Belgium December 2017". EV Sales. Retrieved 2018-02-13.
- Bil Sweden (2015-01-02). "Nyregistreringar december 2014 (prel)" [New registrations in December 2014 (preliminar)] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 2015-01-04. Download file "Nyregistreringar december 2014 (prel)" see tables: "Nyregistrerade supermiljöbilar december 2014" with summary of plug-in passenger car registrations by model for 2013 (revised) and 2014.
- Bil Sweden (2016-01-04). "Nyregistreringar december 2015 def" [New Registrations December 2015 (final)] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 2016-02-29. Download the pdf file "Nyregistreringar december 2015 def" See table: Nyregistrerade miljöpersonbilar december 2015
- Bil Sweden (2018-01-08). "Definitiva nyregistreringar under 2017" [Definitive new registrations in 2017] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 2018-01-31. Download the pdf file "PressRel1712_DEF.pdf" See table "Nyregistrerade supermiljöbilar december 2017" - A total of 500 units of both variants were sold in 2016 and 545 in 2017.
- Asociación Nacional de Importadores de Automóviles, Camiones, Autobuses y Motocicletas (ANIACAM) (2014-01-03). "Datos de Mercado: Diciembre 2013 – Matriculaciones de automóviles" [Market data: December 2013 – Automobiles registrations] (in Spanish). ANIACAM. Retrieved 2014-01-03.Download the file DossierAutomóviles_diciembre13.xls (929KB)* with current month and cumulative sales for 2013.
- Asociación Nacional de Importadores de Automóviles, Camiones, Autobuses y Motocicletas (ANIACAM) (January 2015). "Datos de Mercado: Diciembre 2014 – Matriculaciones" [Market data: December 2014 – Registrations] (in Spanish). ANIACAM. Retrieved 2015-01-04. Download the file "DossierAutomóviles_diciembre14.xls (929KB)*" with current month and cumulative sales for full year 2014.
- Asociación Nacional de Importadores de Automóviles, Camiones, Autobuses y Motocicletas (ANIACAM) (January 2016). "Datos de Mercado: Diciembre 2015 – Matriculaciones" [Market data: December 2015 – Registrations] (in Spanish). ANIACAM. Retrieved 2016-02-29. Download the file "DossierAutomóviles_diciembre15.xls (929KB)*" with current month and cumulative sales for year 2015.
- Asociación Nacional de Importadores de Automóviles, Camiones, Autobuses y Motocicletas (ANIACAM) (January 2017). "Datos de Mercado: Diciembre 2016 – Matriculaciones" [Market data: December 2016 – Registrations] (in Spanish). ANIACAM. Retrieved 2018-02-13. Download the file "DossierAutomóviles_diciembre16.xls (929KB)*" with current month and cumulative sales for year 2016.
- Asociación Nacional de Importadores de Automóviles, Camiones, Autobuses y Motocicletas (ANIACAM) (January 2018). "Datos de Mercado: Diciembre 2017 – Matriculaciones" [Market data: December 2017 – Registrations] (in Spanish). ANIACAM. Retrieved 2018-02-13. Download the file "DossierAutomóviles_diciembre17.xls (929KB)*" with current month and cumulative sales for year 2017.
- Klippenstein, Matthew (January 2018). "Canadian Plug-in Electric Vehicle Sales". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2018-02-04.
- Luca Moroni (2014-01-03). "I dati di vendita di auto elettriche e ibride a dicembre 2013 in Italia" [Sales figures of electric and hybrid cars in Italy through December 2013] (in Italian). Green Start. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
- Pontes, Jose (2015-01-12). "Italy December 2014". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2015-02-01.
- Luca Moroni (2016-01-06). "Dicembre 2015, i dati di vendita di auto elettriche e ibride in Italia" [December 2015, sales figures of electric and hybrid cars in Italy] (in Italian). Green Start. Retrieved 2016-02-29.
- Pontes, Jose (2017-01-07). "Italy December 2016". EV Sales. Retrieved 2018-02-13.
- Pontes, Jose (2017-01-27). "Italy December 2017". EV Sales. Retrieved 2018-02-13.
- De Danske Bilimportører (January 2016). "Statistik" [Statistics (Passenger cars by model)] (in Danish). Bilimp. Archived from the original on 2013-05-08. Retrieved 2016-02-28. Select 2015/2014/2013 – "Hele året" for the corresponding year and click on "Pr. model" for details of sales by brand and model.
- De Danske Bilimportører (2018-01-08). "ÅRETS BILSALG 2017" [Car sales 2017] (in Danish). Bilimp. Retrieved 2018-02-13. Download the file "12-2017.xls" and click on the tab "Pressemeddelelse"
- "Nissan LEAF is the best-selling electric car in Europe for fourth year in a row" (Press release). Rolle, Switzerland: Nissan Europe. 2015-01-19. Retrieved 2016-03-28. A total of 5,804 all-electric BMW i3s were sold in Europe in 2014. The i3 BEV ranked as the fourth top selling all-electric car in Europe in 2014.
- Gibbs, Nick (2016-03-15). "Hybrid sales expected to triple in Europe as tougher CO2 rules loom". Automotive News Europe. Retrieved 2016-03-28. Sales in Europe as reported by JATO Dynamics: A total of 3,940 BMW i3 REx variants were sold in Europe in 2014, ranking as the third best selling plug-in hybrid in the continent. During 2015 sales totaled 5,481 all-electric BMW i3s and 6,566 i3 REx models (total 12,047).
- Jose, Pontes (2017-01-30). "Europe December 2016 (Updated)". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2018-02-04. A total of 15,060 units of both variants of the BMW i3 were sold in Europe in 2016.
- Jose, Pontes (2018-01-28). "Europe December 2017". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2018-02-04. A total of 20,855 units of both variants of the BMW i3 were sold in Europe in 2017.
- Electric Cars TV (2014-03-15). "Video: BMW i3 Wins Gold iF Award For Design". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-03-18.
- Jim Henry (2014-04-17). "New York Auto Show: BMWi3 Is The 2014 World Green Car Of The Year". Forbes. Retrieved 2014-04-17.
- Alisa Priddle (2014-11-20). "BMW i3 named 2015 Green Car of the Year". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved 2014-11-21.
- "BMW i3 – Wheels Car of the Year 2014". Retrieved 2015-06-15.
- "BMW i3 - Design of the Year". Cars.co.za. 2016-01-25. Retrieved 2017-11-01.
- "BMW i3 - Game Changer of the Year". Cars.co.za. 2016-01-22. Retrieved 2017-11-01.
- "The BMW i3 94Ah wins 2017 World Urban Car Award". www.press.bmwgroup.com. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to BMW i3.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to BMW i3 Concept.|
- BMW i3 official website
- BMW i3 UK website
- BMW i3 road test
- BMW i3 (Mega City)- first spy shots
- BMW i3 REx vs. Chevrolet Volt: two different approaches to plug-in hybrids, Torque News, June 2014
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